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人工智能与自主思考 | Max Tegmark – 译学馆
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人工智能与自主思考 | Max Tegmark

Everything Is Made of Quarks—Why Are Only Some Things Conscious? | Max Tegmark

在所有我知道的词语中
Of all the words I know,
没有一个能比“意识”这个词
there’s no word that makes many of my colleagues more emotional
让我的很多同事情绪激动或易于愤怒
and prone to foam at the mouth than the one I’m just about to say: consciousness.
许多科学家视它为哲学问题 认为它不值一提
A lot of scientists dismiss this as complete BS and totally irrelevant
其他很多人则认为这是个核心问题
and a lot of others think this is the central thing—
你得担心机器拥有意识之类的事
you have to worry about machines getting conscious and so on.
我的看法是什么
What do I think?
我觉得意识既无关紧要又非常重要
I think consciousness is both irrelevant and incredibly important.
我来解释一下原因
Let me explain why.
首先 如果你被一颗热追踪导弹追捕
First of all, if you are chased by a heat-seeking missile,
它有没有意识
it’s completely irrelevant to you whether this heat-seeking missile is conscious,
有没有主观经验
whether it’s having a subjective experience,
是否把任何东西都视作同类 都跟你完全没关系
whether it feels like anything to be that heat-seeking missile,
因为你要关心的 是热追踪导弹会做什么
because all you care about is what the heat-seeking missile does,
而不是它的感觉
not how it feels.
认为未来的人工智能没有意识 你就能免遭伤害
That shows that it’s a complete red herring to think
这样想就大错特错了
that you’re safe from future AI if it’s not conscious.
你要确保的是 它的行为和你的目标一致
It’s its behavior you want to make sure is aligned with your goals.
另一方面 我认为意识在某种情况下非常重要
On the other hand there is a way in which consciousness is incredibly important, I feel,
同时它也极具魅力
and there’s also a way in which it’s absolutely fascinating.
大约400年前 伽利略可能说过
If we rewind 400 years or so, Galileo, he could have told you
如果向上抛一个苹果和一个榛子
that if you throw an apple and a hazelnut
它们会完全按照抛物线的轨迹下落
they’re going to move exactly in this shape of a parabola
而且他还能给出相关的数学公式
and he can give you all the math for it,
但为何苹果是红色的而榛子是棕色的
but he would have no clue why the apple was red and the hazelnut was brown
或为何苹果是软的而榛子是硬的 他则毫无头绪
or why the apple was soft and the hazelnut was hard.
对他来说 这些超出了科学的范畴
That seemed to him beyond science,
400年前的科学
and science back 400 years ago
只能有限地解释这种与运动有关的可感知的事物
could only really say sensible things about this very limited domain of phenomenon to do with motion.
随后麦克斯韦方程问世
Then came Maxwell’s equations
它向我们解释了光和颜色
which told us all about light and colors
(可感知的事物)才进入科学领域
and that became within the realm of science.
然后出现量子力学 解释了苹果比榛子软的原因
Then we got to quantum mechanics, which told us why the apple is softer than the hazelnut
以及其它所有事物的本质
and all the other properties of matter,
科学已逐渐能解释越来越多的自然现象
and science has gradually conquered more and more of the natural phenomenon.
现在 如果你问科学能做什么
And if you ask now what science can do,
实际上 它能快速描述那些科学家都无法言说的极其微小的物质
it’s actually a lot faster to describe what little it is that scientist cannot talk about sensibly.
我认为意识是科学界的极限
And I think the final frontier actually is consciousness.
人们用这个词表示很多不同的东西
People mean a lot of different things by that word,
我简单的称之为主观经验
I simply mean subjective experience,
对颜色 声音 情绪等的体验
the experience of colors, sounds, emotions and so on,
就是它成就了我
that it feels like something to be me,
它完全不同于我的行为 而行为是
which is quite separate from my behavior,
即使我变成不能体验任何东西的僵尸
which I could have even if I were a zombie
也还是可能存在的
and didn’t experience anything at all, potentially.
所以 你为什么要关心那个呢
So why should you care about that?
我关心它 首先是因为从根本上说
I care about it first of all because fundamentally
那是我们了解世界的基本的东西:个人经历
that’s the basic thing we know about the world:my experiences,
我喜欢从科学上去理解它存在的原因
and I would love to understand scientifically why that is,
而不只是把它留给哲学家
and not just leave it to philosophers.
第二点 在目的和意义方面 它也非常重要
And second, it’s incredibly important also in terms of purpose and meaning.
“意义”与物理定律无关
In the laws of physics there is nothing about meaning,
也没有它的方程式
there’s no equation for it,
我觉得我们不应该在宇宙中寻找自己存在的意义
and I feel that we shouldn’t look for our universe to give meaning to us
因为是我们人类赋予了宇宙意义
because it’s us who give meaning to our universe,
因为我们是有意识和体验的生物
because we are conscious and experiencing things.
我们的宇宙过去没有意识
Our universe didn’t used to be conscious,
它仅仅是一团四处运动的物质
it used to be just a bunch of stuff moving around
人类的大脑逐渐进化出非常复杂的模式
and gradually these incredibly complicated patterns got arranged into our brains
我们清醒过来 宇宙也意识到自身的存在
and we woke up and now our universe is aware of itself.
我们的银河系美得不可方物
We have galaxies out there that are incredibly beautiful.
它们怎么这么美
Why are they beautiful?
因为我们有意识地感知它们
Because we are consciously aware of them.
我们用望远镜观察它们
We see them in our telescopes.
如果未来我们因技术搞砸了 所有生命都灭绝了
If in the future we screw up with technology and all life goes extinct,
在我看来 我们的宇宙又会毫无意义
then our universe will go back to being meaningless
仅仅是一个巨大的无用空间
and just a giant waste of space, as far as I’m concerned.
一个同事告诉我 他们认为意识是哲学问题
And when a colleague tells me they think consciousness is BS,
我向他们提出挑战 强奸和折磨有什么问题
I challenge them to tell me what is wrong with rape and torture,
我要求他们用意识或经验之外的词向我解释
and I ask them to explain that to me without using the word consciousness or the word experience.
如果他们答不出来
Because if they can’t talk about that,
那只是因为他们所说的太糟了
it’s just the whole poor thing they are saying is so bad,
仅仅是一团电子和夸克以这种独特的方式运动
is just a bunch of electrons and quarks moving around in some particular way
而不是以那种独特的方式运动
rather than some other particular way,
那样有什么糟糕的
and what’s so bad about that?
我认为 获取逻辑 伦理的科学基础 道德 意志
I feel the only way we can actually have any logical, scientific foundation of ethics, morality, purpose and meaning
以及意义的唯一方式正是体验和意识
is precisely in terms of experience, in terms of consciousness.
这也让它(意识)变得非常重要
And this makes it really important,
因为我们了解意识 能为未来做好准备
as we prepare for our future, to understand what this is.
我个人认为 实际上这是某种
And I for one think that this is actually something
我们最终能科学地理解的东西
that we can also ultimately understand scientifically.
我不认为活虫子和死虫子之间的区别
I don’t think that the difference between a living bug and a dead bug
是活虫子有某种不为人知的生命之源
is that the living bug has some sort of secret life source in it;
我把虫子看作机械 死虫子就是损坏的机械
I think of the bugs as mechanisms and the dead bug is just a broken mechanism.
同样 我认为让大脑产生意识的 除了食物之外
Similarly I think what makes my brain conscious, but the food I ate,
它们在大脑里重新排列 但它们是无意识的
which got rearranged into my brain, wasn’t conscious,
不是因为构成食物和意识的物质不同
isn’t because they’re made of different kind of stuff;
它们都是夸克 只是重新排列了 对吗
it’s the same quarks, rearranged, right?
是它们排列的模式不同
It’s the pattern into which they’re arranged.
我认为这是个科学问题
And I think it’s a scientific question:
这种信息处理模式有什么特性
what properties does this pattern of information processing have
让那里(大脑)形成一种主观经验呢
to have for there to be a subjective experience there?
你可以想象建造一个大脑扫描仪
You could imagine building a brain scanner
实际上在我工作的麻工学院已有台相当先进的
—actually we have a pretty good ones at MIT where I work—
它里面有些软件可以测试你对意识持什么理论
and having some software in it which tests out whatever theory you have for consciousness
并能预测你在体验什么
and makes predictions for what you experience.
如果我坐在这台机器里 电脑屏幕说
And if I’m sitting in this machine and the computer screen tells me,
我现在能看见你大脑里的信息处理过程
okay, right now I see information processing in your brain
表明你在有意识地思考一个苹果
indicating that you are consciously aware of the thought of an apple.
我就像 对 就是那样 正确
I’m like, yeah that’s right, correct.
然后它说 我看见你大脑里的脉跳
And then it says, I see information about your heartbeat in your brain
你也在想着这个
and you’re aware of this.
我会像 不 我没有意识到那个
And I’m like, no I was not conscious of that.
现在 我已经阻止了应用于软件的那种理论
Now I’ve ruled out the theory that was implemented in the software.
它是经得起检验的 是一种科学的理论
So it’s falsifiable, that means it was a scientific theory.
如果我们某天能发现一种类似的理论
If we can one day find a theory like this,
市场上也有一些可供选择的理论
and there are some candidates on the market
如朱利奥•托诺尼的整合信息理论
like Giulio Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory,for example,
一旦有理论能以那种方式通过测试
if we ever find any theory that keeps passing tests like that
我们就会开始认真考虑它
and we start taking it seriously
我们能根据它建立一个意识检测器
and we can use it to build a consciousness detector,
首先那会非常有用
that’s first of all going to be really useful.
急诊室里的内科医生会喜欢的
Physicians in the emergency room would love it.
如果有昏迷的病人被收进来
If they get an unresponsive patient coming in,
他们就可以把病人放进意识扫描器
put them in the consciousness scanner
判断他们是否患有闭锁综合症
and figure out whether they have locked-in syndrome
虽不能交流但还有意识
and just can’t communicate but they’re conscious
还是成了无意识的植物人
or whether there’s nobody home.
这也将让我们理解
And this will also let us understand
未来我们建立的人工智能系统是否应该有意识
whether future AI systems we build are conscious
以及切断它们的电源时 我们是否应感到内疚
and whether we should feel guilty or not about switching them off.
有人喜欢未来的家庭助手是没有意识的机器人
Some people might prefer that their future home-helper robot is an unconscious zombie
那样让它们做无聊琐事或断电时 就不用感到内疚
so they don’t have to feel guilty about giving it boring chores or powering it down.
有些人可能更喜欢有意识的机器人
Some people might prefer that it’s conscious
那样它能获得积极的体验
so that it can be a positive experience in there
这样他们可以假装它有意识而不会被吓到
and so that they don’t feel creeped out by this machine, just faking it, you know, and pretending to be conscious
即使它是个无意识的机器
even though it’s a zombie.
最重要的是 在遥远的未来
And most importantly, in the longer-term future,
如果生命从地球传播到其它星系
if far from now we have life that spreads out from Earth to other galaxies
整个宇宙都生机勃勃 充满令人惊叹之事
and the whole cosmos is alive and doing amazing things,
假设这种生命成为人类的后代
if this life becomes the descendants of humanity,
如果这些都变成没有意识的僵尸 不是很糟吗
wouldn’t it suck if it turns out that this is all just zombies with no consciousness
我们死去之前经历的所有美好时光
and the whole thing that we felt so good about
难道只是一场没有观众的表演吗
before we passed away was just a play for empty benches?
我认为应认真对待人们在意识方面的科盲问题
I feel that we should really, really tackle this final frontier of scientific ignorance, the problem of consciousness,
解决掉这个问题 我们就能描绘一个美好的未来
and get this stuff figured out, so we can shape a future which is truly awesome
不仅从外部看起来炫酷无比
—not just come from the outside that cool stuff seems to be happening,
实际上更能让人以此为家 体验一切
but that there’s actually someone home to experience all this.

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视频概述

自从伽利略提出日心说以来,人类对宇宙的认识越来越多,但是科学的边界在哪里呢?来自麻工的Max Tegmark认为,科学的最终边界不在于宇宙,而在于我们内部:意识。一起来看看他是如何解释的。

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