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你用的一切,都是以他为参考设计的

Everything is designed for this man, even drugs

This is reference man.
这是一个参考人
He’s a white, 30-year-old, male who weighs about 155 pounds.
年龄30岁 体重155镑的白人男性
And he decides how we live.
他决定了我们的生活标准
For decades, industries have considered this the standard human.
几十年来 各行各业把他当做标准参考人
And designed the world around him.
并且为他量身设计了这个世界
Everything from air conditioning in offices,
从办公室里的空调
to cars,
到车
even military equipment.
甚至军事装备
But there are other ways we use reference man, that aren’t so obvious.
但在一些不显眼的地方 我们也在以他为参考
Like in medicine, where it doesn’t just lead to discomfort.
比如在制药业 其后果不仅是身体不适
Here, the disparity can be incredibly dangerous for women.
对女性来说 这种差异可能引发极度危险的状况
A few years ago, something strange was happening.
几年前发生了一系列奇怪的事
Headline after headline recounted a similar story.
铺天盖地的头条新闻 都报道了同一类事件
Dozens of women were crashing their cars, under the influence of sleeping pills.
许多女性在安眠药作用下 发生了车祸
In many of these cases, they had taken a dose of Zolpidem, the night before.
在这些事故中 许多人都在前一晚服用过唑吡坦
It’s what you probably know as the common sleep aid, Ambien.
也就是大家可能都熟悉的常见安眠药 安必恩
The problem wasn’t entirely the drug itself — it was the dosage.
问题并不完全在于药物本身 而是剂量
Women and men were both prescribed ten milligrams of the drug for eight hours of sleep.
不分男女 按处方服用10毫克 可维持8小时睡眠
But it turns out, women metabolize the active ingredient in Ambien twice as slowly as men.
但事实证明 女性代谢安必恩中活性物质的速度 是男性的一半
That means by the time men woke up the next day, the effects of the pill had usually worn off.
这意味着男性第二天醒来时 药效通常已经消失了
While for many women, the drug was still in their system.
但对许多女性来说 药物仍在体内起作用
After the crashes, the Food and Drug Administration issued a safety warning in 2013
事故之后 2013年 FDA发出了安全警告
and changed the recommended dosage for women, cutting it in half.
将女性的推荐用量减半
The reason the right dosage for women had been overlooked
女性的合适用药剂量之所以被忽视
is that the clinical trials on Ambien focused on male test subjects.
是因为安必恩的临床试验主要在男性受试者中开展
If they’re using this hypothetical “average man”
如果他们使用这个假定的男性参考人
and they are basing dosage on it, that’s kind of scary.
并以此来决定剂量 这是非常可怕的
Not just because it doesn’t apply to women, but because it also doesn’t apply to a lot of men either.
因为不仅不适用于女性 对许多男性也不适用
There are several factors that can affect how a person metabolizes drugs,
有几种因素会影响人们代谢药物
from size, to body fat, to hormonal fluctuations.
从体型 到体脂 再到荷尔蒙波动
And these factors can vary drastically based on sex.
而这些因素在性别上差异巨大
But many clinical trials don’t account for this.
很多临床试验并没考虑这一点
They often don’t include enough women as test subjects.
常常未纳入足够多的女性受试者
And even when they do, data from women is often mixed in with data from men,
即使人数充足 得出的数据也往往和男性数据混在一起
which can hide sex-specific reactions to medicine.
这可能会隐藏不同性别对药物的特定反应
I don’t care that it’s more effective for men.
我不关心 某个药物对男性更有效
I just want to know, is it going to be effective for me as a woman.
我只想知道 它对我一个女人来说是否有效
So you don’t know that unless you look separately at those groups.
除非你把男女两组数据分开看 否则你没法知道
Take, Acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol.
以泰诺的有效成分 扑热息痛为例
It’s flushed from a woman’s body slower than in men,
它从女性身体排出的速度比男性要慢
so the prescribed dosage can put women at more risk for potential overdose and liver failure.
所以处方剂量会给女性带来更高的用药过量和肝脏衰竭的风险
And one heart medication that’s supposed to prevent heart attacks
还有预防心脏病发作的药物索他洛尔
may actually trigger one in women.
在女性中 按处方剂量可能反而导致发作
So we know that this is still a problem, but
我们知道这个问题的存在 但是
it’s so hard to know how often that happens
很难知道问题发生的频率
because there’s no research.
因为没有相关研究
If the companies did a better job of looking at men and women separately
如果药企能在这方面做更多工作
and studying them separately,
对男性和女性分别观察和研究
I think we’d have a lot more dosages that are different for women and men.
我认为会有更多男女用药剂量的不同
In 1993, the National Institutes of Health created regulations,
1993年 国立卫生研究院制定了相关法规
saying women must be included in human studies and have their data analyzed separately.
规定在人体试验中必须纳入女性 并单独分析其数据
But the problem is,
但问题是
It’s the FDA, the Food and Drug Administration,
FDA 也就是食品药物监督管理局
that’s making the decisions about what medications are being sold
他们决定哪些药物可以上市销售
to you and to your loved ones
卖给你和你爱的人
and they are not required to include women, people of color, people over 65.
FDA没有规定试验中必须要有女性 有色人种 65岁以上的人群
You know if you’re only studying white men, you don’t have to study as many people.
如果只研究白人男性 就不需要研究很多人
And the more people you study the more it costs to do the research.
纳入研究的人越多 研究费用就越高
But, the more meaningful the information is
但是 获得的信息也更有意义
so that we can all make informed decisions about what’s good for us.
这样我们就能做出明智的决定

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视频概述

所有东西,甚至药物,都是以他——参考人——来设计的,这会导致什么问题呢

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

MaggieKong

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVdn-2KE2bs

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