My name is Indy Neidell
And welcome to our channel THE GREAT WAR
This show follows world war 1, from July 28th 1914 to November 11, 1918, week by week exactly
100 years later, but in order for the initial weeks of war to make more sense we’re doing
these prelude to war episodes to give you a little background…
All here on our channel THE GREAT WAR!
Do you know what happened 100 years ago last month? On June 28th 1914
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, this was the little match that ignited the
bonfire of the First World War
It took a full month after the assassination for war to be declared and on July 28, 2014
这是一战 或者说伟大的战争 开始后整整100周年
it was exactly 100 years since the beginning of World War I, or the Great War, as it was
called, or even the war to end all wars.
and unlike pretty much every other World War One show ever, we’re going to
ignore Franz Ferdinand for the moment, and talk about some other stuff.
The consequences of the Great War were massive, and affected pretty much every person in every
country on earth. Four great empires ceased to exist,
a bunch of new nations saw the light of day, and the explosive growth of an extraordinary
爆炸性增长 例如国际主义和法西斯主义 永远地改变了世界的
number of social movements, such as internationalism or facism, changed the world’s
political landscape forever.
Just in terms of technology, the Great War moved the world ahead by leaps and bounds.
Cars and planes had existed prior to the war, but by 1918 we had tanks and diesel fuel,
bombers and fighters, and large planes ready to be converted into the first airliners.
And the tragedies were enormous. Although completely accurate records are impossible,
the war caused close to 40 million casualties- killed or wounded including
nearly 10 million dead soldiers in a world whose population was only a quarter of what it is now.
但是为什么有了一战 它是怎么开始的 怎么样经历它
But why the Great War? Why start it? Why go through with it?
There had certainly been enough talk about a European war during the early parts of the
有时浪漫化了 例如 军队领导者从未真的看过战争
20th century, sometimes romantically, such as when military leaders who had never actually seen combat
thought about coming home covered glory
最经常讨论的是必要性 而这由一波波的革命观点 罢工
but most often talked about as a necessity, and this was driven by waves of revolutionary
sentiment, strikes and violent labor unrest,
and above all feverish nationalism, which together came to steer the course of Europe
in the early 20th century. Now we will go into that in detail
那个时期 想象一个德国的欧洲 不是今天的 而是100年以前
week by week. Think about a German Europe. Not today, but 100 years ago. It’s a theme
that was certainly tossed around back then, most spectacularly in the bestseller “Mitteleuropa”.
Now I don’t mean the Nazi kind of German Europe, but a true German influenced and culturally and
politically dominated Europe.
See, Prussia and then a unified Germany had emerged as the leading power of Europe after
beating France under Bismarck in 1871, and things had just rolled on since then.
By 1914, Berlin was the cultural capital of Europe- where you went to study anything “serious”.
像赫兹 伦琴 马赫和狄塞尔这些名字都来自这个时期 而英国内阁大臣
Words like Hertz, Roentgen, Mach, and Diesel all come from this period. And British cabinet
ministers, Russian Bolsheviks- they’d all studied in Germany, which had even replaced
取代了英国作为欧洲的工业大头 许多人 不仅是德国人 梦想着
England as the industrial giant of Europe. Many people, not just German, dreamed of a
German Europe or at least a multi-national German commonwealth. Now this commonwealth
could protect itself from England and the US, that could bring in raw materials from France or
Scandinavia, would have its own coal and steel production, and hopefully even colonies in north Africa
or the Middle East where there was oil.
这是个让人印象深刻的梦 而且并不牵强 尤其是当你想到
It was an impressive dream, and it wasn’t far-fetched, especially when you think about
what was going on outside of Europe at the time. Africa and India were basically being
欧洲统治下 中国即将分崩离析 奥斯曼帝国准备垮台
run from Europe, China was ready to collapse, the Ottoman Empire looked ready to collapse,
what Germany really needed to do to succeed was work with its German speaking neighbor
to the south.
Germany had been allied with Austria since 1879. There was, though, a big problem with
是个大问题 因为它摇摇欲坠 这有一些原因
the Austro-Hungarian Empire because it was really shaky. There are several reasons for this, but one big
one I’m gonna mention here-
Austria had a serious mismanagement problem.
实际上 看看周围的世界 奥地利是个时代的错误
Actually, when you look at the world around it, Austria was an anachronism. The rest of
Europe was going through a big age of nationalism, but in Austria there were 15 different versions
of the national anthem. Franz Josef, the emperor, had been on the throne since 1848 and was
84 years old, and he too was very out of place in modern Europe.
And he made very questionable decisions.
In 1908, for example, he made the decision to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina,
which were nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, which basically pissed everyone off
Especially the Ottoman Empire, there were protests from all of the great empires but especially
noisy protests from Bosnia’s neighbor Serbia, and I don’t know if it’s quite possible
for me to express just how much anti-Austrian sentiment there was among the Slavic nations
and peoples of the Balkans.
回顾过去 你可能会觉得维也纳会说“好吧 你们这些人可以有个
Looking back, you might have thought that Vienna would have said, “okay, you guys can have
a sort of pan-Slavic nation under Vienna”, which might have cooled things off a bit,
but they didn’t do that. What they did instead was nothing at all.
You see, for years, Vienna had been trying to control its minority nations by basically
paying them off, to the extent that they had no money left for things like the army- Austria
spent less money on the army than England did, even though the Austrian army was ten
times the size.
So they couldn’t afford to keep trying to buy them off, which didn’t work anyhow.
So Vienna basically did nothing and hoped there would be no catastrophic events.
That didn’t work out so good.
这听起来很复杂吗 好吧 就是这样 40年内没有一次真实的欧洲战争
Does this sound really complicated? Well, it is. There hadn’t been a real European war
in over 40 years, war being kept at bay by a complicated and constantly shifting system
of alliances. You should look it up yourself because it’s really interesting, but here’s
Germany and Austria-Hungary were 2/3 of the Triple Alliance, right? Italy being the third
part at the time, but nobody really counted on them to help out in case of a war. Germany
and France had historically been at odds with each other, but even more so after Prussia
walked all over France in the Franco-Prussian War. France and England were allies, but it
turned out that in the early 20th century there were French contingency plans afoot
而反之亦然 所以看清楚 当俾斯麦统治德国时
to invade England, and vice versa, so go figure. When Bismarck had run Germany, he had cultivated
他发展了与俄国的友谊 但那是很久以前了 许多德国精英现在公开看不起俄国
Russian friendship, but that was long gone. Much of the Germans elite now openly looked down on Russia,
who allied herself with France when German industrial and military power really got going,
and the triple entente between England, France, and Russia became official in 1907. The German Empire
was friendly with the Ottoman Empire and a true Russian nightmare would be the Germans
in charge of the Dardanelles. Through which Russia send up to 90 percent of their wheat exports
Russia supported Serbia and all of the slavic peoples which
meant that they were banging heads with both Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and
everybody; EVERYBODY was wooried about another Balkan explosion. Whew.
几乎就要开始了 但还没有 在我结束前我想提到
That’s almost it, but not quite. Before I go, I’d like to mention the unique case
of Germany and Britain. Now, the Germans and the English admired each other culturally,
industrially, and militarily. Germany especially admired England’s vast overseas empire and
和她的海军 世界有史以来最强 而许多德国人
her navy, the greatest the world had ever seen, and many Germans were convinced that
the British navy was the key to her success, her power, and her empire. Now I’m going to
quote historian Norman Stone
“the last thing Germany needed was a problem with Great Britain, and the greatest mistake
of the 20th century was made when Germany built a navy designed to attack her”.
很重的话 但想想这个：德国皇帝 不时通过法令统治德国
Pretty heavy words. But think about it; the Kaiser, who occasionally ruled Germany by decree,
totally ignoring the fact that the German people did not want war with anybody and admired
而且敬重倾慕英国 建造了一支海军 一支只为了一个目的建造的海军——
and respected the British, built a navy. A navy built for only one purpose- to challenge
为了挑战英国 温斯顿·丘吉尔 那时英国的第一个海军大臣 建议
Britain. Winston Churchill, at the time Britain’s First Lord of the Admiralty, suggested a mutual
pause in naval building, reasoning that for the British Empire a powerful navy was a necessity,
但对德国来说是奢侈品 但威廉皇帝不这么认为 然后建立了德国海军
But for the Germans a luxury. But Kaiser Wilhelm wouldn’t have it, and built up the German navy.
That navy took a third of the German defense budget, which meant that Germany couldn’t
负担起对法国和俄国的双线作战 如果这种事情发生 这也意味着
afford a two front war against France and Russia if such a thing were to happen. It also meant that there were
a bunch of giant battleships sitting in harbors thumbing their noses at England. Now there
was substantial naval warfare, especially submarine warfare, between England and Germany
during the war, but these battleships didn’t do anything- they sat there just taking up
space the entire war until their crews finally mutinied. They had much more armor than British
ships, and they were really impressive, but they just sat there mocking
England, whose response was to out-build the Germany navy two to one and make further defensive
arrangements with France and Russia.
That was interesting right?
I’m gonna wrap it up here, but come back next time to see what was going on then in
在塞尔维亚 意大利 和其他拥有悠久历史的晴朗地方发生了什么
Serbia, Italy, and other sunny places with long cultural histories. Don’t forget to
subscribe to get each new episode and also, this show is available in German and Polish
if you or your friends want to watch it but English isn’t your first language.
Links to those channels are below. One important thing before I go
You may have some Questions at this point you may be wondering for example: What about the
economic situation in these countries or what about the possible threat of civil war in Ireland
or even Can you tell us about Conrad von Hotzendorf Well there is one thing you need to keep in mind
这个节目每周一次 持续4年半 包括特殊节目 约有300集
this show will run weekly for four and a half years and including special features will be around three hundred episodes
so all of your questions, hopefully, will be answered and explained but it takes time with such a huge project.
We do welcome your comments and your questions so bring em on