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一战前奏1/3:盟友与敌人 – 译学馆
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一战前奏1/3:盟友与敌人

Europe Prior to World War I: Alliances and Enemies I PRELUDE TO WW1 - Part 1/3

我的名字叫因帝 奈雕
My name is Indy Neidell
欢迎来到我们的频道”伟大的战争”
And welcome to our channel THE GREAT WAR
这个节目每周跟随着1914年6月28日到1918年11月11日的世界第一次大战
This show follows world war 1, from July 28th 1914 to November 11, 1918, week by week exactly
整100年后 但为了战争的前几周更有意义
100 years later, but in order for the initial weeks of war to make more sense we’re doing
我们制作了这些战争前奏视频 提供给你一点小背景知识
these prelude to war episodes to give you a little background…
都在我们的频道“伟大的战争”中
All here on our channel THE GREAT WAR!
你知道100年前的上个月发生了什么 在1914年6月28日
Do you know what happened 100 years ago last month? On June 28th 1914
斐迪南大公被暗杀 这是燃起了
Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, this was the little match that ignited the
一战篝火的小火柴
bonfire of the First World War
暗杀后整整一个月才宣战 在2014年6月28日
It took a full month after the assassination for war to be declared and on July 28, 2014
这是一战 或者说伟大的战争 开始后整整100周年
it was exactly 100 years since the beginning of World War I, or the Great War, as it was
这甚至被称作是结束所有战争的战争
called, or even the war to end all wars.
而和其他大多数一战的节目不同 我们将要
and unlike pretty much every other World War One show ever, we’re going to
暂时忽略弗朗兹·费迪南 讨论一些其他的事情
ignore Franz Ferdinand for the moment, and talk about some other stuff.
一战的后果是巨大的 而且几乎影响了
The consequences of the Great War were massive, and affected pretty much every person in every
全球所有国家的所有人 四大帝国不复存在
country on earth. Four great empires ceased to exist,
一群新国家得见天日 以及非凡的社会运动数量的
a bunch of new nations saw the light of day, and the explosive growth of an extraordinary
爆炸性增长 例如国际主义和法西斯主义 永远地改变了世界的
number of social movements, such as internationalism or facism, changed the world’s
政治格局
political landscape forever.
就技术层面而言 一战让世界突飞猛进
Just in terms of technology, the Great War moved the world ahead by leaps and bounds.
汽车和飞机在战争之前就存在 但是在1918年我们有坦克和柴油
Cars and planes had existed prior to the war, but by 1918 we had tanks and diesel fuel,
轰炸机和战斗机 以及可以转职进第一条航线的大飞机
bombers and fighters, and large planes ready to be converted into the first airliners.
悲剧是巨大的 尽管完全的准确记录是不可能的
And the tragedies were enormous. Although completely accurate records are impossible,
战争造成超过4000万人伤亡——死亡或受伤
the war caused close to 40 million casualties- killed or wounded including
包括1000万名死亡的士兵 在这个人口仅有现在1/4的世界中
nearly 10 million dead soldiers in a world whose population was only a quarter of what it is now.
但是为什么有了一战 它是怎么开始的 怎么样经历它
But why the Great War? Why start it? Why go through with it?
当然对20世纪早期的欧洲战争 已有足够的讨论
There had certainly been enough talk about a European war during the early parts of the
有时浪漫化了 例如 军队领导者从未真的看过战争
20th century, sometimes romantically, such as when military leaders who had never actually seen combat
认为回家就是光荣
thought about coming home covered glory
最经常讨论的是必要性 而这由一波波的革命观点 罢工
but most often talked about as a necessity, and this was driven by waves of revolutionary
和劳资纠纷暴力操控
sentiment, strikes and violent labor unrest,
最重要的是狂热的民族主义 来引导欧洲的进程
and above all feverish nationalism, which together came to steer the course of Europe
在20世纪早期 现在我们每周将仔细探究
in the early 20th century. Now we will go into that in detail
那个时期 想象一个德国的欧洲 不是今天的 而是100年以前
week by week. Think about a German Europe. Not today, but 100 years ago. It’s a theme
这肯定是个当时反复讨论的话题 畅销书《中欧》最引人注目
that was certainly tossed around back then, most spectacularly in the bestseller “Mitteleuropa”.
现在我意思不是纳粹是某种德国的欧洲 但的确德国
Now I don’t mean the Nazi kind of German Europe, but a true German influenced and culturally and
在文化和政治上操控了欧洲
politically dominated Europe.
看 普鲁士和之后统一的德国成为欧洲的领导力量
See, Prussia and then a unified Germany had emerged as the leading power of Europe after
在1871年俾斯麦的领导下击败了法国 而事情至此一发不可收拾
beating France under Bismarck in 1871, and things had just rolled on since then.
在1914年柏林是欧洲的文化首都 是你可以研究任何“严肃的事”的地方
By 1914, Berlin was the cultural capital of Europe- where you went to study anything “serious”.
像赫兹 伦琴 马赫和狄塞尔这些名字都来自这个时期 而英国内阁大臣
Words like Hertz, Roentgen, Mach, and Diesel all come from this period. And British cabinet
俄国布尔什维克党 他们都在德国学习
ministers, Russian Bolsheviks- they’d all studied in Germany, which had even replaced
取代了英国作为欧洲的工业大头 许多人 不仅是德国人 梦想着
England as the industrial giant of Europe. Many people, not just German, dreamed of a
一个德国的欧洲或者至少是跨国德国联邦 现在这个联邦
German Europe or at least a multi-national German commonwealth. Now this commonwealth
可以在英国和美国手中保护自己 可以从法国或者斯堪迪那维亚带来原材料
could protect itself from England and the US, that could bring in raw materials from France or
能自主生产煤炭和钢铁 甚至有希望在北非
Scandinavia, would have its own coal and steel production, and hopefully even colonies in north Africa
或者中东有石油的地方殖民
or the Middle East where there was oil.
这是个让人印象深刻的梦 而且并不牵强 尤其是当你想到
It was an impressive dream, and it wasn’t far-fetched, especially when you think about
当时欧洲外部发生了什么 非洲和印度基本处于
what was going on outside of Europe at the time. Africa and India were basically being
欧洲统治下 中国即将分崩离析 奥斯曼帝国准备垮台
run from Europe, China was ready to collapse, the Ottoman Empire looked ready to collapse,
德国想成功需要做的事是 与他南边
what Germany really needed to do to succeed was work with its German speaking neighbor
说德语的邻居合作
to the south.
德国自1879年与奥地利结盟 尽管奥匈帝国
Germany had been allied with Austria since 1879. There was, though, a big problem with
是个大问题 因为它摇摇欲坠 这有一些原因
the Austro-Hungarian Empire because it was really shaky. There are several reasons for this, but one big
但我在这里打算提的一个重要原因是
one I’m gonna mention here-
奥地利有个严重的管理问题
Austria had a serious mismanagement problem.
实际上 看看周围的世界 奥地利是个时代的错误
Actually, when you look at the world around it, Austria was an anachronism. The rest of
欧洲其余部分正在经历一个民族主义的大时代 但在奥地利这里有15种不同的国歌
Europe was going through a big age of nationalism, but in Austria there were 15 different versions
皇帝弗朗兹·约瑟夫已经在皇位上从1848年坐到现在
of the national anthem. Franz Josef, the emperor, had been on the throne since 1848 and was
已经84岁了 他已经在现代欧洲过时了
84 years old, and he too was very out of place in modern Europe.
而且他做了有问题的决定
And he made very questionable decisions.
例如在1908年 他决定吞并波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维亚
In 1908, for example, he made the decision to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina,
曾经奥斯曼帝国名义上的一部分 这基本上把大家都惹毛了
which were nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, which basically pissed everyone off
尤其是奥斯曼帝国 各大帝国都有抗议
Especially the Ottoman Empire, there were protests from all of the great empires but especially
但以波斯尼亚的邻居塞尔维亚为首 我不清楚
noisy protests from Bosnia’s neighbor Serbia, and I don’t know if it’s quite possible
能不能表达出斯拉夫国家和巴尔干的人民
for me to express just how much anti-Austrian sentiment there was among the Slavic nations
反奥地利的情绪有多重
and peoples of the Balkans.
回顾过去 你可能会觉得维也纳会说“好吧 你们这些人可以有个
Looking back, you might have thought that Vienna would have said, “okay, you guys can have
某种维也纳统治下的泛斯拉夫国家”这可能让事态有所冷却
a sort of pan-Slavic nation under Vienna”, which might have cooled things off a bit,
但他们没有这么做 他们反而什么都没做
but they didn’t do that. What they did instead was nothing at all.
你看维也纳靠贿赂试图常年管控他的少数民族
You see, for years, Vienna had been trying to control its minority nations by basically
到了他没有钱留给像军队之类事的程度上
paying them off, to the extent that they had no money left for things like the army- Austria
奥地利比英国的军费支出还少 尽管奥地利军队
spent less money on the army than England did, even though the Austrian army was ten
是其10倍
times the size.
所以他们出不起钱持续收买他们 前功尽弃
So they couldn’t afford to keep trying to buy them off, which didn’t work anyhow.
所以维也纳基本上没做什么事只希望没有大灾难发生
So Vienna basically did nothing and hoped there would be no catastrophic events.
那并不怎么起作用
That didn’t work out so good.
这听起来很复杂吗 好吧 就是这样 40年内没有一次真实的欧洲战争
Does this sound really complicated? Well, it is. There hadn’t been a real European war
战争因一个复杂而不断变化的同盟系统挡在门外
in over 40 years, war being kept at bay by a complicated and constantly shifting system
你该自己查一下 因为这真的很有趣
of alliances. You should look it up yourself because it’s really interesting, but here’s
但这是基础知识:
the basics:
德国和奥匈帝国是三国同盟的三分之二对吧 意大利是那时的第三个
Germany and Austria-Hungary were 2/3 of the Triple Alliance, right? Italy being the third
但没有人指望他们在战争中帮忙
part at the time, but nobody really counted on them to help out in case of a war. Germany
德国和法国史有仇怨 但普鲁士轻易赢得
and France had historically been at odds with each other, but even more so after Prussia
普法之战后更甚 法国和英国是同盟
walked all over France in the Franco-Prussian War. France and England were allies, but it
但事实表明20世纪早期法国的应急预案是侵略英国
turned out that in the early 20th century there were French contingency plans afoot
而反之亦然 所以看清楚 当俾斯麦统治德国时
to invade England, and vice versa, so go figure. When Bismarck had run Germany, he had cultivated
他发展了与俄国的友谊 但那是很久以前了 许多德国精英现在公开看不起俄国
Russian friendship, but that was long gone. Much of the Germans elite now openly looked down on Russia,
在德国的工业和军事力量真正运行起来时与法国同盟
who allied herself with France when German industrial and military power really got going,
英国法国和俄国之间的三国协约在1907年正式签订 德国
and the triple entente between England, France, and Russia became official in 1907. The German Empire
于奥斯曼帝国交好 而俄国人真正的噩梦是
was friendly with the Ottoman Empire and a true Russian nightmare would be the Germans
控制了达达尼尔海峡的德国 其运送了俄国高达90%的小麦出口
in charge of the Dardanelles. Through which Russia send up to 90 percent of their wheat exports
俄国支持塞尔维亚和所有斯拉夫人民
Russia supported Serbia and all of the slavic peoples which
这意味着它们同时与奥匈帝国和奥斯曼帝国不对头
meant that they were banging heads with both Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and
每个人 每个人都在担心巴尔干的另一次爆炸
everybody; EVERYBODY was wooried about another Balkan explosion. Whew.
几乎就要开始了 但还没有 在我结束前我想提到
That’s almost it, but not quite. Before I go, I’d like to mention the unique case
德国和英国的独特情况 现在德国和英国彼此敬重对方
of Germany and Britain. Now, the Germans and the English admired each other culturally,
在文化工业和军事方面 德国尤其敬重英国的广阔的海外帝国
industrially, and militarily. Germany especially admired England’s vast overseas empire and
和她的海军 世界有史以来最强 而许多德国人
her navy, the greatest the world had ever seen, and many Germans were convinced that
相信英国海军是她的胜利 她的权势和她帝国的关键
the British navy was the key to her success, her power, and her empire. Now I’m going to
现在我要引用历史学家Norman Stone的话
quote historian Norman Stone
“德国需要的最后一件事是与英国的矛盾 而20世纪最大的错误
“the last thing Germany needed was a problem with Great Britain, and the greatest mistake
是德国建造了一支为了攻击她的海军”
of the 20th century was made when Germany built a navy designed to attack her”.
很重的话 但想想这个:德国皇帝 不时通过法令统治德国
Pretty heavy words. But think about it; the Kaiser, who occasionally ruled Germany by decree,
完全忽略了这条事实 德国人不想与任何人战斗
totally ignoring the fact that the German people did not want war with anybody and admired
而且敬重倾慕英国 建造了一支海军 一支只为了一个目的建造的海军——
and respected the British, built a navy. A navy built for only one purpose- to challenge
为了挑战英国 温斯顿·丘吉尔 那时英国的第一个海军大臣 建议
Britain. Winston Churchill, at the time Britain’s First Lord of the Admiralty, suggested a mutual
在海军建设上的共同停顿 推理认为对大英帝国来说一支强大的海军是必要的
pause in naval building, reasoning that for the British Empire a powerful navy was a necessity,
但对德国来说是奢侈品 但威廉皇帝不这么认为 然后建立了德国海军
But for the Germans a luxury. But Kaiser Wilhelm wouldn’t have it, and built up the German navy.
这支海军占据了德国国防预算的1/3 这意味着德国不能
That navy took a third of the German defense budget, which meant that Germany couldn’t
负担起对法国和俄国的双线作战 如果这种事情发生 这也意味着
afford a two front war against France and Russia if such a thing were to happen. It also meant that there were
对英国竖着鼻子的港口停靠着一群巨大的战舰
a bunch of giant battleships sitting in harbors thumbing their noses at England. Now there
现在战争期间英国和德国之间连续不断的海战 尤其是潜艇战
was substantial naval warfare, especially submarine warfare, between England and Germany
但是这些战舰什么事都没做 它们只是在那里占据全部空间
during the war, but these battleships didn’t do anything- they sat there just taking up
直到它们的船员最后叛变 它们的装甲比英舰更多
space the entire war until their crews finally mutinied. They had much more armor than British
它们的确让人印象深刻 但它们只是在那里
ships, and they were really impressive, but they just sat there mocking
嘲笑英格兰 而其后果是扩建德国海军2:1
England, whose response was to out-build the Germany navy two to one and make further defensive
并对法国和俄国设置进一步的防守安排
arrangements with France and Russia.
那很有趣对吗
That was interesting right?
我要在这里结束了 但下一次回来看看
I’m gonna wrap it up here, but come back next time to see what was going on then in
在塞尔维亚 意大利 和其他拥有悠久历史的晴朗地方发生了什么
Serbia, Italy, and other sunny places with long cultural histories. Don’t forget to
别忘了订阅以观看最新一集 还有这个节目
subscribe to get each new episode and also, this show is available in German and Polish
在德国和波兰可供观看 如果你和你的朋友母语不是英语又想观看
if you or your friends want to watch it but English isn’t your first language.
那些频道的链接在下面 我走前需要提醒的一件重要的事
Links to those channels are below. One important thing before I go
你现在可能有些想知道的问题 例如:
You may have some Questions at this point you may be wondering for example: What about the
这些国家的经济形势 或者爱尔兰内战可能的威胁
economic situation in these countries or what about the possible threat of civil war in Ireland
甚至是你能给我们讲讲康拉德·冯·赫岑多夫吗你需要记住一件事
or even Can you tell us about Conrad von Hotzendorf Well there is one thing you need to keep in mind
这个节目每周一次 持续4年半 包括特殊节目 约有300集
this show will run weekly for four and a half years and including special features will be around three hundred episodes
所以你们所有的问题都有希望被回答和解释 但这么浩大的工程需要时间
so all of your questions, hopefully, will be answered and explained but it takes time with such a huge project.
我们欢迎你们的评论和你的问题 让它们来吧
We do welcome your comments and your questions so bring em on

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