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欧罗巴

Europa

好 首先 我们以每个人将你们的手放到头的两边开始这个荒诞节目
Okay, first, we’re going to start this absurd by everybody taking your
然后紧紧捂住 如果我告诉
hands and putting them on the side of your head and holding tight what if I told

you
我们的太阳系里有个地方 被海洋覆盖
that there’s a place in our solar system that’s covered in oceans
拥有满是氧气的大气层 马上呈现
and has a atmosphere full of oxygen and it’s now here.
【主题音乐】
[theme music]
我很抱歉颠覆了你的认知 那才是我提前警告你的原因
I’m sorry if your mind is broken happen that’s why I was warning you
但是不要放下你的手 在你的手扶着大脑时
but don’t take your hands down yet letme while you’re holding your brain
让我带你一起
together
前往我在谈论的地方 木卫二
take you to the place that i’m talkingabout. Europa
木星的第六卫星(主持人口误) 木卫二事实上是那些
the sixth moon of Jupiter. Europa hasturned out to be one of those places

like
汤不热上的斯波坎市或华盛顿市那首先看起来很酷 但
Spokane or Washington on tumble, that seemspretty cool first,but
你在上面花越多的时间 你就能感受到越壮观的艺术 记住
more time you spend there, the awesomeart gets case in point
伽利略在1610年首先发现了木卫二
Galileo first discovered Europa in 1610it was the first
它是发现的第一个在外星卫星的卫星 那曾经是个大新闻
moon outside a our moon to be discoveredthe some big news then was
哦天哪 其他行星有东西绕着他们
oh my gosh, other planets has things orbiting them.
那在当时是个大事 当地球被视作
It does a big deal back then what with theearth supposedly being center of the
宇宙中心
universe.
所以木卫二在接下来的400年间并未得到过多关注
So Europa didn’t get a ton of attention forthe next -say four hundred years or so
直到天文学家得到了点更多的信息
until astronomer started to get a littlebit more data after staring at Europa
从在地面天文台观测木卫二
from earth based observatories for a
最终有个航天器在那里观测他 开始是航海家号 后来是
finally it gets a spacecraft out there tolook at it.First Voyager and then
伽利略号
the Galileo spacecraft
而且你知道哈勃也做了贡献 我们可以了解四件
And you know Huddle pitched in as well we’ve beenable to discover four of mind-breaking
木卫二的让你颠覆认知的事实
awesome things about Europa
第一件:木卫二的表面和婴儿屁股一样光滑
Thing Number one:Europa surface whichas smooth as a baby’s bottom.
好吧 如果婴儿屁股上有几米宽的裂缝
Well, if a baby’s bottom has crackseveral miles wide on it but if you
但如果婴儿屁股上有几米宽的裂缝的话
would really close baby’s bottom wouldhave
它真的很接近 而事实证明
crack several miles wide and it is itturns out that it’s surface
它的表面是太阳系内最光滑的 第二件:木卫二的表面
is the smoothest in the solar system.Thing Number two:Europa surface was
具有高反射性 很像 表面
also highly reflective,a lot like thesurface of-
我说的是一个冰冻的湖 甚至吸入了很多同波长的
I’m say a frozen lake and even absorb alot of the same wavelength infrared
冰冻了我们的红外线
light the iced us
像冰糕 看到了吗 哈 你还在进行吗 第三件:
like water ice. See? Huh?Is your ongoing?Thing Number three:
在20世纪90年代 哈勃望远镜检测到木卫二有一个非常
At 1990s, Hubbell detected that Europa has a very
稀薄的大气层 主要由氧气分子构成
thin tenuous atmosphere, made up mainlyof molecular oxygen.
而第四件:伽利略号探测到
And Thing Number four: the Galileo probe
木卫二也有很微弱的磁性
found out that Europa also has a faintmagnetic signature.
它从木星的磁场获得的 但是 但是
that it picks up from Jupiter’s magneticfield, but, but
只有木卫二被什么产生电流的东西包围了
that signature can only be created ifEuropa were covered with something that
才能获得那个磁性
conduct electricity.
很像热水的方式 哦不 我们在讨论一个地方
Much likes hot water does, and no,we’re talking a place
被结冰的水和稀薄的氧气大气层包围
that come with frozen water has atenuous oxygen atmosphere and even
尽管它距太阳4亿9500万公里远 它并没有那么冷
though is 495 million miles from theSun, it’s actually not that cold.
事实上木卫二困在这场持久的重力拔河中了
Turns out Europa is caught in thisconstant gravitational tug of war

between
木星和它的卫星木卫三 而这场重力拔河
the planet Jupiter and its system’s moonGanymede and that gravitational tug of
在木卫二上创造了摩擦力
war creates friction on Europa
意思是他的地下海洋很可能反而很暖和
meaning that its subsurface oceans areprobably quite warm unlikely.I mean
我的意思是比他需要的更多 它得到了氧气
it’s what more it need. It got oxygen,
他得到了水 尽管大多数情况下是冻着的
it got water though it’s mostlyfroze I mean it’s practically Milwaukee
所以他像有生命一样得到了这些东西
so it’s got all this stuff so much as alive, right, I’ve been probably has forgot
我可能忘掉了一个不入流的球队
a minoring baseball team.
这是最大的问题 当然 我们真的不知道
It’s the boss of questions, of course, is thatwe don’t know for actually.
我很确定宇宙上哪里都没有足球
I’m pretty sure that there’s no baseballanywhere else in the universe except on
除了在地球上 因为它是这么奇怪的运动
earth because it’s just a weird sport.
我们知道的是 现在地球上有生命可以
What we do now is that there’s life hereon earth that can survive in really
在极端的环境中存活 而如果
extreme environments and if we’d
我们将它们带到木卫二 它们可能也能活着 所以这是木卫二
took them to Europa, they might actuallydo okay. So this is why Europa is
在列表的顶端 同火星
at the top the list along with Mars,
和土卫六和底特律市中心一道作为最可能寻找到生命的地方
and Titan and downtown Detroit asreally promising places to look for life
当然因为这可能是有史以来最大的科学发现
and of course because this could be thegreatest scientific discovery all time,
NASA和欧洲太空总署
NASA and the European Space Agency
计划前去试着找到
have plans to go and try and find
木卫二上面的生命 他们讨论了大西洋号
that life that may be on Europa. They’vetalked about Atlantic spacecraft on the
在木卫二的
surface of
表面 他们也讨论了带 像 核能设备
Europa. They’ve also talk about bringinglike a nuclear powered device that would
经过之处会融化冰 然后潜泳 但是你知道
melt its way through the ice, and then goswimming. But with you know——
预算短缺 除非你个人有一笔上亿的资产
budget crunches—— unless you personallyhave a couple billion dollars lying
你想要捐出去
around you want to donate to the cause its
他在未来的任何时间才可以开始 好 我已经颠覆了你的认知 现在你可以把手放下来
da can happen anytime soon. Okay I’m donebroken your mind. You put your hands down now
你的认知以后是安全的啦 而如果你想看更多视频
eh, your mind should be safe for the restof the day and if you want more this,
订阅这个 Scishow 如果你想了解更多关于木卫二
please subscribe this Scishow if youwanna know more about Europa there
在简介中有链接
links in the description.
而如果你想给我们建议 问问题
And if you want to give us tips, askquestions
或者告诉我们想讨论关于Scishow的未来
or tell us what to talk about in thefuture on Scishow, you can
你可以通过我们的脸书或推特联系我们 和 当然
get to us on Facebook and Twitter and, ofcourse
在下面的YouTube评论区
in the YouTube comments below.

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