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什么是“道德相对主义” – 译学馆
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什么是“道德相对主义”

Ethics Defined: Moral Relativism

道德相对主义
Moral Relativism
道德相对主义是一种
Moral relativism is the idea
没有普遍的或绝对的道德原则的观点
that there is no universal or absolute set of moral principles.
这是道德的一个版本
It’s a version of morality that
提倡“每个人都有自己的道德”
advocates “ to each her own, ”
那些跟随它的人经常说
and those who follow it often say,
“我能评判谁?”
“Who am I to judge?”
道德相对主义有几种不同的理解方法
Moral relativism can be understood in severalways.
叙述性道德相对主义 即文化的相对主义
Descriptive moral relativism, also known ascultural relativism,
认为一般真实的道德标准是从文化角度被定义的
says that moral standards are culturally defined,which is generally true.
事实上 可能有一些价值观几乎是普遍的
Indeed, there may be a few values that seem nearly universal,
比如诚信和尊重
such as honesty and respect,
但是当人们在评价世界的道德标准时 有很多跨越文化的差异出现
but many differences appear across cultures when people evaluate moral standards around the world.
元伦理学的道德相对主义认为 一种文化比另一种文化更加
Meta-ethical moral relativism states that there are no objective grounds
具有道德价值毫无客观依据
for preferring the moral values of one culture over another.
不同社会根据其独特的信仰 习俗和实践做出道德选择
Societies make their moral choices based on their unique beliefs, customs, and practices.
并且事实上
And,in fact,
人们往往相信正确的道德价值观
people tend to believe that the “ right ” moral values
存在于他们自己文化的价值观中
are the values that exist in their own culture.
标准的道德相对主义是
Normative moral relativism is the idea
鉴于没有普遍的道德原则
that all societies should accept each other’s differing moral values,
所有社会都应该接受彼此不同的道德价值观
given that there are no universal moral principles.
然而大多数哲学家不同意这个观点
Most philosophers disagree however.
比如 仅因为在一些文化中行贿是允许的
For example, just because bribery is okay in some cultures
并不意味着其它的文化不能正当地谴责它
doesn’t mean that other cultures cannot rightfully condemn it.
道德相对主义与道德绝对论的
Moral relativism is on the opposite end
连续统一体是对立的
of the continuum from moral absolutism,
后者认为 对于任何道德问题总是有一个正确的答案
which says that there is always one right answer to any ethical question.
的确 这些坚持道德相对主义的科学家会说
Indeed,those who adhere to moral relativism would say,
入乡随俗
“ When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”

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视频来源

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