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道德困境:你应该相信谁?

Ethical dilemma: Who should you believe? - Alex Worsnip

You’re sitting on the couch watching TV,
当你听到敲门声时
when you hear a knock on the door.
你和你的配偶正坐在沙发上看电视
The police have just arrived
造访的是警察 他们的目的是
to arrest your spouse— for murder.
逮捕你的配偶——以谋杀的罪名
This accusation comes as a total shock.
这一指控让你无比震惊
In your experience,
因为在你们的相处过程中
your partner has always been gentle and loving,
你的配偶一直是温柔且钟情的
and you can’t imagine them committing a grisly murder.
你无法想象对方参与了一场可怕的谋杀
But the evidence is serious:
但是证据确凿:
their fingerprints were found on the murder weapon.
在凶器上发现了他的指纹
Your spouse insists they’re innocent.
可你的配偶却坚称自己是无辜的
“I know it looks bad,” they say, “but you have to believe me!
他说:“我知道这很糟 但你务必相信我!”
If you don’t, who will?”
“若连你都不信 谁还能相信我呢?”
Should you believe your spouse,
那么 你应该相信你的配偶吗
even though the evidence against them looks damning?
尽管那些证据看起来足以定罪
Take a second to think what
仔细思考一下
you would believe in this situation.
这种情况下 你会相信什么
This dilemma is part of what philosophers call the ethics of belief:
这种困境是哲学家所称的信念伦理学的一部分
a field of study that explores how we ought to form beliefs,
这是一个探索我们的信念是如何形成的
and whether we have ethical duties to believe certain things.
且我们是否有道德义务去相信某些事的研究领域
The question here isn’t about what you should do,
这个问题并不在于你应该做些什么
such as whether or not you should find your spouse guilty in a court of law.
比如 你是否应该在法庭上做你配偶的有罪陈述
After all, you wouldn’t be on the jury in their trial!
毕竟 你不会成为他的陪审团成员
Rather, it’s about what you should believe to be true.
但问题在于 什么是你应该相信的
So, what factors should you consider?
所以 你应该考虑哪些因素呢?
Perhaps the most obvious is your evidence.
也许最明显的就是你掌握的证据
After all, to believe something is to take it to be true.
毕竟 相信什么就是认为什么是真相
And evidence is, by definition,
而根据定义 证据就是
all information that helps us determine what’s true.
所有能够帮助我们判定什么是真相的依据
From this, some philosophers draw the conclusion that evidence
基于此 一些哲学家做出了一个总结
is the only thing that ought to determine what you believe.
证据应是你判定什么是真相的唯一依据
This view is called evidentialism,
该观点被称为证据主义
and a strict evidentialist would say
并且一个严格的证据主义者会说
it doesn’t matter that the accused is your spouse.
无论被告是不是你的配偶
You should evaluate the evidence from a neutral, objective point of view.
你都应从一个中立客观的角度去评判证据
Taking the perspective of an unbiased third party,
站在一个公正的第三方视角
your judgment of your spouse’s character is a relevant consideration.
你对配偶个性的判断的确是相关考虑因素
But finding their fingerprints at the crime scene
但是在犯罪现场发现他的指纹
is surely stronger evidence.
必然是一个更加强有力的证据
So, from an evidentialist point of view,
因此 按照证据主义的观点
you should either believe your spouse is guilty,
你要么相信你的配偶是有罪的
or at best remain undecided.
或者最多仍然犹豫不决
Some philosophers present evidentialism only as
一些哲学家认为 证据主义仅仅代表
a view of what’s most rational to believe.
人们站在最理性的角度应该相信的事情
But others, like 19th century evidentialist W.K. Clifford,
但还有些人 如十九世纪的证据学家W.K Clifford认为
think that following the evidence is also morally required.
相信确凿证据也是道德层面上所要求的
One argument for this view is that
对于这一观点的一种看法是
having well-informed, accurate beliefs
结合正确且多方面的考虑因素
is often vitally important to determining the ethical way to act.
通常对决定道德层面的行为方式至关重要
Another argument is that
另一种观点则是
there’s something unethical about being dishonest,
不诚实就是一种不道德的行为
and refusing to follow the evidence is a way of being dishonest with oneself.
拒绝相信证据就是一种自我欺骗的行为
However, perhaps there are other ethical factors in play.
但这其中也许还有其他道德因素的考虑
Although the evidence against your spouse is strong,
尽管对于你配偶的不利证据非常有力
there’s still a chance that they’re actually innocent.
他们仍然有可能是无辜的
Think for a moment about how it would feel to be innocent,
想象一下这种感受 当你无辜的时候
and have no one believe you— not even your own partner!
没有人相信你是无辜的 甚至是你的伴侣
By not trusting your spouse,
如果不信任你的配偶
you run the risk of seriously hurting them in their crucial hour of need.
你就有在他们最需要你的时候伤害他们的风险
Moreover, consider what this lack of trust
并且 思考这种信任感的缺失
would do to your marriage.
会对你们的婚姻造成什么
It would be incredibly difficult to continue a loving relationship
与一个你确信或高度怀疑是杀人犯的人
with someone that you believed— or even strongly suspected—
维持一段恋爱关系
was a murderer.
是无比困难的
You might try to pretend to believe that your spouse is innocent,
你可能试图假装相信你的配偶是无辜的
but could you really go on living that lie?
但你真的可以带着这个谎言生活下去吗?
According to a theory of the ethics of belief called pragmatism,
然而 基于一个被称为实用主义的信念伦理学理论
these kinds of practical considerations can sometimes make it right
这些实际的考虑有时能使我们相信一些事
to believe something even without strong evidence.
即便它没有强有力的证据
Some pragmatists would even say that
一些实用主义者甚至会说
you morally owe it to your spouse to believe them.
从道德层面来讲 你就应该相信你的配偶
But is it even possible to believe your spouse is innocent
但是 是否有可能去相信你的配偶是无辜的
just because you think it’ll be good for your relationship?
仅仅因为这样做对你们的关系有好处?
Or because you think you owe it to the accused?
又或者因为你认为这是你欠被告的?
You might desperately want to believe they’re innocent,
你可能会极其想要相信你的配偶是无辜的
but can you control your beliefs in the same way you control your actions?
但你能像控制想法一样控制行为吗?
It seems like you can’t just believe whatever you like
当真相就摆在你面前时
when the truth is staring you in the face.
你似乎无法坚定你想要相信的
But on the other hand, recall your spouse’s plea.
但是另一方面 回想你配偶的恳求
When we say things like this,
当我们说这些话时
we seem to be assuming that it is possible to control our beliefs in some way.
我们似乎在假设用某种方式控制信念是可能的
So what do you think?
所以你怎么认为呢?
Can you control what beliefs you have?
你可以控制你的想法吗?
And if so, what will you believe about your spouse?
如果可以 你认为你的配偶有罪与否呢?

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道德与理性,你是如何选择呢?一起来看看吧!

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