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科学联盟消灭疾病 – 译学馆
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科学联盟消灭疾病

Eradicating Malaria: The End Game Relies on Scientific Alliances | Philip Eckhoff bigthink

大想法
Big Think
彻底消灭疾病是非常困难的
Disease eradication is a very difficult challenge.
人们曾试图消灭多种不同的疾病
It’s been tried for a number of different diseases,
但目前为止我们只彻底消灭了天花
but it’s only worked so far for smallpox,
天花是第一个被彻底消灭的人类疾病
which was the first human disease
它发生在二十世纪七十年代末
eradicated at the end of the 1970s.
牛瘟是一种发生在牛身上的疾病
and for rinderpest which is a cattle disease,
或者说曾经是一种发生在牛身上的疾病
or was a cattle disease before.
现在已经被彻底消灭了
It was eradicated everywhere in the world.
在上世纪五十年代和六十年代 人类也曾试图
Global eradication has been tried before for malaria
在全球范围内消灭疟疾
in the 1950s and 1960s.
然而由于一些原因 没有成功
And it didn’t succeed for a number of reasons..
眼下 每年还有近50万人死于疟疾
Right now, almost half a million people die every year of malaria.
这是个相当高的数值 也是相当大的负担
And which is an extraordinarily high number and a terrible burden,
尽管过去这个数值一度超过100万
although this number used to be well over a million.
所以有很多项目都在尝试减轻这项负担
So there has been progress in terms of reducing this burden.
如果你在一个负担非常高
What one needs to do is different,
即每个人一年内都会被感染数次的地方开展项目
if you’re starting at a very high burden,
那么 你就不能按照常规的方式来做事
where everyone is getting infected several times a year.
所以当你到了某个特定的地区
And what one has to do
需要就所处理的事情开展项目时
when one’s down to the last couple of cases in a given country.
方案 策略 工具都需要调整改变
The tactics change. The strategy changes. The tools change.
要减少负担 一开始
When starting out in terms of reducing the burden,
最重要的事是
the most important thing is
减少疾病的传播 让尽可能多的人得到治疗
reducing transmission and providing access to treatment.
所以确保人们有管用的药很重要
So making sure that people have drugs that work is very important.
其次是发放蚊帐之类的东西
The second thing will be to give out things like bed nets
以降低疾病感染的概率
to reduce the rate at which people actually get new infections.
然后一下子
Then all of a sudden,
你会发现 在你开展项目的特定区域
you can start to look at a country and see that
疟疾基本上被消灭了
there’s very little malaria in certain parts of it.
大部分的疟疾感染都集中在一些还未被攻克的区域
And most of the malaria is concentrated in a few remaining pockets.
对于已攻克的区域 建立适当的监管系统
Then building the right surveillance
和信息传播系统 以及后勤保障
and information systems and logistics
来巩固加强已取得的成果
to be able to target enhanced efforts
这是下一个需要处理的重要事项
at those sections of the country becomes the next important thing.
还有一点很重要
It gets to the point where not everyone
即使是在疾病传播最猖獗的地区 也不是每个人都会被感染
even in the highest remaining transmission areas is infected.
我们要弄清楚哪些人仍然在感染传播疾病
We have to figure out who is still driving transmission,
哪些人没有得到正确的救助
who is not receiving access to the right tools,
然后确保那些仍在感染传播疾病的人
and making sure that you extend access to
还有那些容易被感染的人
everyone who’s driving transmission,
都可以得到正确的救助
and everyone who is still vulnerable to the disease.
到这里 事情就比较好处理了
And then in the end, it becomes very interesting.
项目所在区域就只剩一些零星散落的感染病例
There will be only a small scattering of cases here and there.
快速地找到这些病例并做出应对措施
and finding them and responding to them quickly,
并做好病例管理总结
with good case management ends up
这是最后需要注意的最重要的事项之一
becoming one of the most important tools in the end game.
所以要清楚哪个特定的地区一直受传染疾病的困扰
So understanding where a given country is along this continuum,
据此调整所需工具事项
scaling up the tools,
最重要的是 信息系统和
and most importantly the information systems and ability
从始至终完成治疗项目的能力
to deliver treatment all along that continuum.
卫生系统的基本方面
Fundamental aspects of health systems
从头到尾都是很重要的
end up becoming really important from start to finish.
在像消灭疟疾这样的问题上
On a problem like malaria eradication,
我们谈的一般都是消灭疾病
disease eradication in general,
即彻底消灭传染疾病
getting rid of infectious diseases,
这是一个很基础的跨学科难题
it is very fundamentally an interdisciplinary problem.
需要医疗工作者
There will be people from the medical side of things.
需要卫生系统和卫生操作的工作人员
There will be people from health systems and operations.
需要了解免疫学的人 了解药物研发的人
People who know immunology, drug development,
了解疫苗开发的人 了解蚊子研究的人 昆虫学家
vaccine development, mosquito science, entomologists.
同时 也很需要
At the same time, there’s also a really good role
擅长数学的人
for people who are good at mathematics,
精通软件的人
people who are good at software,
擅长数据系统的人
people who are good at data systems.
有趣的是 当你碰到问题
And the interesting thing is when you have a question,
而且那个难题是你要解决的难题的核心部分
that’s really core to your part of the problem,
然后你向上面那些领域的人求助
and you bounce it off someone from one of these other disciplines.
他们常常能根据你的特定问题
often they will come up with a better way
提出更好的解决方案
of actually framing and looking at your specific question.
有时候 他们甚至能找到一个更好的问题
Sometimes they might even find a better question
解决你正在应对的
that actually gets rid of the main challenge
主要挑战
you were trying to deal with.
有一句很有名的话是这样说的
There’s a famous saying that
看起来不可解的问题 需要用不同的思路来解
if a problem seems intractable increase the scope of the problem.
这有力地佐证了
And that actually becomes
团结合作的力量
really evident in the power of collaboration.
你看我们是怎样解决
If you’re looking at how can we in this one domain of
像研发药物 消灭疟疾这样的问题就知道了
say drug development, get rid of malaria.
那也许是不可解的问题
That might be an intractable question.
然后我们引进各种人才
But then you bring in the people
比如了解媒介生物学的人
who are good at vector biology,
精通疫苗研究的人
the people who are good at vaccines,
擅长数据处理
the people who are good at data,
信息系统和计算机的人
information systems and computing,
还有了解卫生系统和后勤管理的人
and the people who are really good at health systems and logistics.
这下子 怎样让这些人团结协作成了一个更大的问题
And all of a sudden, you have a bigger problem.
但是这个问题可以大家一起协同解决
But one where you can actually work together and solve this.
这需要大量的学习
It requires a lot of learning,
包括如何沟通各方的语言
in terms of how to speak each other’s language,
如何听取各方的意见
and how to listen to each other,
如何花时间
and how to actually take the time
将各个领域连接起来
to build these bridges to other fields,
并且真正地看到团结协作的
and to really see the advantage
优势和其带来的影响
and the impact of doing this well.
这并不容易 坐在屋子里
It’s not easy. It’s much easier to just sit in a room,
和同领域的人交流容易得多
and talk to other people from your discipline,
你们说的都是相同的学术研究
where you all already speak the same academic research,
或操作语言
or operational language.
但是建立这些连接和交叉
But it is very much worth
是非常值得的
building these bridges and cross-linking.
BIGTHINK.COM
BIGTHINK.COM

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视频概述

处理难题,需要各个学科的协同合作。团结就是力量。

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

祐子祐

审核员

审核团SC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAYNDdm29so

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