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山脉中的能量:可再生能源的解决方案

Energy From Mountains | Renewable Energy Solutions

你正在观看的是冷流科技
You are watching ColdFusion TV.
冷流科技
[Music playing]
大家好 欢迎再次收看ColdFusion视频栏目
Hi, welcome to another ColdFusion video.
在当今世界
In the world today,
对太阳能和风能等可再生能源的需求转变日益增长
there’s a growing shift towards renewable energy such as solar and wind.
由于这种转变
Because of this shift,
就需要一种方法来储存接收的能量
there needs to be a way to store the energy received
在之后没有太阳或者没有风时再释放出来
to be released later when the Sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing.
在此前节目中
On this channel,
我们已经介绍了特斯拉的大型储能计划
we’ve already covered Tesla’s grand energy storage plans
该计划被用于他们的电站级电池组动力系统中
for their utility battery power pack systems.
目前已经通过使用太阳能及电池储能系统
So far to successfully power Kauai, an Island on Hawaii
成功为夏威夷的考艾岛供电
using solar energy and battery storage systems.
特斯拉也在南澳大利亚安装了类似系统
Tesla are also installing systems in South Australia
以解决那里的能源问题
to sort out their power troubles
此外 更多的特斯拉Powerpack系统也将在新南威尔士州安装
and more Tesla Powerpacks are set to be installed in New South Wales as well.
而这些解决措施都基于锂离子的技术
These solutions are all based on lithium-ion technology.
在上一期节目中
In just the previous episode,
我们已经看到锂电池的底层技术如何改进
we’ve seen how the underlying technologies of lithium-ion batteries are improving.
充电速度随电池续航时间的延长
The charging speed is drastically increasing,
而急剧增加
along with the long term cycle battery life.
对能量密度而言同样如此
The same is true for energy density.
另外 在大型电站的规模上
In addition, on a utility scale,
电池技术确实具有安装速度快
battery technology does have the distinct advantage of a rapid install time
并能快速应对能源波动需求的显著优势
and a rapid response time to energy fluctuation needs.
但尽管如此
But despite all of this,
当涉及电站级能源储存实际应用时
when it comes to the application of utility energy storage,
还是存在些问题
there are still some questions.
即电池的长期成本
Namely the long-term cost
和实际的长期使用寿命
and the real long term battery cycle life
尤其是就目前这代电池而言
in terms of current generation batteries.
AA-CAES 先进绝热压缩空气储能系统
AA-CAES Advanced Adiabatic Compresses Air Energy Storage
正如你很快就会看到的
As you’ll soon see,
还有另外一种储能方式
there’s another energy storage method
也是对手头问题的一种有趣的解决方案
that’s a pretty interesting take on the problem at hand.
它涉及到能源的储存与释放
It involves the storage and release of energy,
并利用山脉作为天然的压力容器
using mountains as natural pressure vessels.
这一方法由ALACAES公司实现
This method achieved by the company ALACAES
承诺提供相对低廉的成本与更高的效率
promises relatively lower cost and higher efficiency.
在本期视频 我们将对此一探究竟
In this video, we’ll take a look.
我要补充一点的是
As a side point,
这不是受赞助的视频 我也没有从中获利
this isn’t a sponsored video and I wasn’t paid for any of this.
我只是想去探索我认为有趣的创新
I just like to search out innovations that I think is interesting.
那么我们开始吧
So let’s get into it.
将能量储存在山脉中
Storing energy in mountains
简言之 类似ALACAES计划实施的能量储存方案
In a nutshell, energy storage solutions like ALACAES is planning to do
试图消除电力生产中出现的波动
are an attempt to smooth out the fluctuations in electricity production
这主要是基于可再生能源的性质
due to the nature of renewable energy.
我有幸会见了吉伍·赞嘎纳
I had the privilege of meeting Giw Zanganeh,
我在瑞士的时候 他正负责这个项目
the man in charge of this project while I was in Switzerland.
我邀请他来谈谈这项技术
I’ve invited him to talk about his technology
以及它如何适应目前的能量需求
and how it fits into the current backdrop of energy needs.
不幸的是 在这次采访中 我这边的声音出了问题
Unfortunately for this interview, the sound of my side wasn’t working.
不过这次访谈还是有许多有价值的信息
But there’s still a lot of valuable information here.
我的名字叫吉伍·赞嘎纳
My name is Giw Zanganeh.
我是ALACAES的总经理
And I’m the managing director of ALACAES.
这是一家位于瑞士的公司
So which is a company based in switzerland
目前正在开发新的能源储存技术
in to develop a new kind of storage technology.
电能储存技术是一种
So electricity storage technology that is
旨在储存大量能量的技术
aimed at storing large amounts of energy.
基本上 在电网的能源结构中
So you basically when you have a lot of renewable energy in the mix
存在着大量可再生能源
and your electricity grid.
而由于这些能源的间歇性
Due to the intermittency of these sources,
也即意味着不可预知性
which means unpredictability.
你没法知道阳光发生变化的具体时间
So you don’t know when the Sun is exactly gonna change how much.
风量会有多少
How much the wind is gonna blow.
当能源结构中的许多能量都有类似来源时
When you have a lot of these kind of sources in the energy mix,
你会希望找到办法去补偿这种波动
eh…you want to have a way to compensate these fluctuations.
而我们目前正在研发的储存技术
And the storage technology we’re working on
就能够以低廉的成本
is this method that can with the low cost
和相对较高的效率达到这种目标
and the relatively high efficiency.
我们希望这些组件能降低使用可再生能源的风险
We wanna these eh…keep components for at risk that is run on renewable energy.
它是如何运作的
How does it work?
所以它是如何运作的?
So how does it work
基本上 该系统利用电网中的多余能量
Basically, the system uses excess energy from the grid
将加压空气泵入山体的空洞中
to pump pressurized air into a cavity within the mountain.
之后使用被称作热能储存的专门技术
The air is then cooled down,
使空气降温
using specialized technology called thermal energy storage.
并被储存在压力空腔中
And then stored within the pressure cavity.
当需要产生电能时
when it’s time to generate electricity,
这些空气又会被重新加热
This air is then heated up again
并排出 以驱动能产生电能的涡轮机
and pushed out to run a turbine that produces electricity.
通过这一系统 ALACAES声称能得到超过72%的循环效率
With this system, ALACAES claim over 72% round trip efficiency.
它能被用在什么地方?
Where could this be used?
在我们的采访中 也有提到 尽管地理因素必须被考虑在内
In our interview, give mentions that although geology has to be taken into account,
而适合采用这项技术的市场
the markets that would be suited for this technology
包括欧洲国家 美国 以及加拿大
include the continent of Europe, America, Canada.
但尤其是印度与中国
But especially India and China.
对于最后这两个市场
For those last two markets,
观察最近的趋势 就不难看出它们为什么合适
looking at recent trends, it’s not hard to see why they would be a fit.
这两个国家都有雄心勃勃的目标
These two countries have had very aggressive goals
即使用可再生能源以帮助国家基础设施的运转
and providing renewable energy to help run their country’s infrastructure.
为了让你更明白 到2027年
To give you an idea, by 2027,
印度目标将由化石燃料之外的能源提供其60%的能量
India is aiming for 60 percent of its energy to be provided by sources outside of fossil fuels.
与此同时 在中国
Meanwhile in China,
他们的煤炭使用量同比下降了5%
they’ve decreased their coal usage by five percent year-over-year,
作为可再生能源的领导者
and have just overtaken the United States
已经超过了美国
as a leader in renewable energy.
而13亿的人口
And with populations of about 1.3 billion apiece,
也意味着是可再生能源的电能储存技术的巨大市场
that’s a huge market for electricity storage solutions for renewable energy.
为什么选择用山脉?
Why mountains?
让我解释一下为什么我们需要山脉
Let me just say why we need the mountain is em…
基本上 你得有个容器 去容纳压缩空气
You need a container, basically, to store pressured air there.
你可能知道 即使只是一个小型储气容器
You probably know like, even from a small gas containers.
用于普通的野餐 或者为烹饪提供煤气口
to use for an ordinary picnic or providing the gas port for cooking.
它就是一个含有加压气体的小型容器
And it’s a small container that has a pressurized gas in it.
但是如果你需要的话 这种小型容器易于制作 价格低廉
However if you want, if it’s a small container is reasonably easy and cheap to do.
但如果你需要一个特别大的容器
But if you want to have a very large container
我们讨论的是数十万立方米的空气
we’re talking about hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of air.
要制造几个类似容器来储存所有气体根本无法支付
It is unpayable to make it few a container to do whole that,
尽管我有其他类型的容器
though I have other kind of container.
所以这也是为什么我们想要开发地理条件
So basically that’s why we want to exploit the geology
之后发掘山脉 发掘地层
and then awake up the mountains, awake up the earth
来储存这些空气
to contain, contain this air.
实验装置
The test plant.
2016年 这家公司建成了他们的第一套试点装置
In 2016, the company completed their first pilot plant.
这套装置位于瑞士的阿尔卑斯山
Located in the Swiss Alps,
装置长120米 隧道直径为5米
the plant is the shape of a 120 meter long and five meter diameter in a tunnel
能量容量为1兆瓦时
with an energy capacity of one megawatt/hour.
瑞士联邦能源办公室为该项计划提供了40%的经费成本
The Swiss Federal Office of Energy finance 40% of the cost of the plan,
因为他们看到这项技术能使国家受益
as they could see a benefit to the country from this kind of technology.
电池与压缩空气(成本方面)
Batteries VS Pressurised Air (Cost)
从经济方面来讲
Give states that, economically,
使用压缩空气的机械式储存还是比电池更便宜
the mechanical storage that uses compressed air is still cheaper than batteries.
这种机械设备已经存在很长时间
The tools and machinery have been around for a long time.
而现在 这样的技术每1千瓦时
And right now, the technology is of a factor of 4 to 6 times less than batteries
可以比电池便宜4到6倍
on a per kilowatt-hour scale.
尽管如此 电池成本的下降依然是一种风险 而公司也会密切关注
However the falling cost of batteries are a risk and the company would be keeping an eye on that.
电池与压缩空气(生态方面)
Batteries VS Pressurised Air (Ecological)
在可持续发展这一部分
On the sustainability part,
有几个很有意思的研究
there’s a couple of interesting studies that look at
着眼于比较储存设备中实际能储存的能量
actually how much energy you can store in storage device,
与制作该储存设备所消耗的能量
compared to how much energy was used to create that storage device.
所以实际上 对于锂电池来说
So actually for battery lithium-ion, you can now store 10 times
现在在使用寿命内所能储存的能量
the amount of energy that you use to make the battery
能达到制作电池所需能量的10倍
during the whole lifetime of it.
而对于压缩空气 则能达到250倍
And with compressed air, it’s 250 times.
所以两者有着巨大的差距
So there’s a huge difference.
当你想要通用型电网时 需要记住一点
Um…make something that needs to be kept in mind if you want to have a general grid
那就是长期的可持续性
that is sustainable with the long term.
否则 如果你每10次
Otherwise, if you have to every 10 times
就得消耗能源去制造电池 那你就得改变
that you use damage to create it that you need to change it
你也可以想象它还将会
You can…you can think about it will, em…
带来生态问题或者共生问题
also have ecological problems or symbiotic problems.
以前有这样做过吗?
Has this been done before?
是的 事实上它此前已经被使用过
Yeah, well, actually it has been used before.
所以目前世界上已经有两套在运行的设备
So there are two plants already running in the world.
一套位于德国 在1979年左右建造
One of them is in Germany, which’s built in 79 even.
另一套位于美国的阿拉巴马州
And the other one is in the USA, in Alabama.
它建于1991年
It was built in 91.
两者都使用了地下盐穴
Both of them use salt caverns under ground.
基本就是挖掘地层 制造大型的土壤空腔
So you basically dig on the ground, there’re big soil formations.
并且在里面压缩空气
Em…and they compressed the air there.
这种方式有两种问题
There are two problems with that.
其中之一
One of them is that…
虽然我之前没提到 不过非常重要
which I didn’t mention before, which is quite important,
就是当你压缩空气时 它们会自然而然地升温
that’s when you compress the air, it naturally heat up.
这是一种物理现象
It’s a physical phenomenon.
我们已经在使用打气筒时体验过
We have experienced with a bicycle pump.
当你向车胎打气时
when you wanna heat…when you pump the tire,
你就会让气筒升温 获得热量
if you let the pump warming up.
所以这里也会发生这种情况
So this happened that much stronger extent,
并且在更高的压力下情况更严重
when you’re working with higher pressures.
而这些热量也得被储存起来
And this heat needs to be also kind of stored,
因为它最高会占总能量的60%
because it can be up to 60% of the energy
即那些为压缩空气所使用的能量
that you use to compress the air.
而这些现存的计划并没有利用这些热量
And these plans that exist don’t use the energy, don’t use the heat.
他们直接就把它抛弃了
They just discard it.
那当一年之后他们需要再次扩建
And then when they need to expand a year again,
得提供电能以使用煤气炉时
build the electricity to use gas burners.
所以如果有减少二氧化碳产生的目标
So it has goals with reducing CO2
就会伴随着效率等的降低
it goes with the reduction efficiency and so on to force.
而这种情况的原因是 在那时
And the reason for that is that at the time
并没有能够同时存储热能
there were no machines who were able to also
或者阻隔在压缩空气时
kind of, store the heat or resist the heat
产生的热能的机器
that is produced during the compression.
所以气体都得被降温以保护机器
So they were cooled down to kind of protect the machine.
而现在这种情况已经变了
And this has now changed.
可以使用新的机器了
So the machine, your machine is available.
你可以在用机器压缩空气时
That you can use to compress at the same time
同时使用产生的热量
also use the heat that is being created.
而我们所做的是
And we, what we do is
我们在空穴中添加了一个新部件
we have then one component inside of our cavern,
它被称作蓄热器
which is called the thermal storage,
它能储存所有这些热量
which then stores all of these heat
并在空气膨胀时重新释放
and gives it back to the air when we are going to expand it.
这样的话 你就不再需要燃气燃烧了
And like this, you don’t need the gas burning anymore.
所以我们就没有这部分的二氧化碳排放
So we don’t have the CO2 emissions
我们有了更高的效率与更低的成本
and we have much higher efficiencies and we have lower cost.
而这种技术得已实现的部分原因
And this has also come true partially
也是过去数十年的技术发展
due to technology the development meter in the last decades.
要花多少钱?
How much will it cost?
让我们来谈谈成本
Let’s talk about costs.
根据吉伍所说的
So according to Giw,
它提供200到500兆瓦时输出的成本
it costs about 100 million to 200 million US. dollars
大概为1到2亿美元
for about 200 to 500 megawatt hours output.
项目规模越大 就越有意义
The larger the scale of the project, the more it makes sense.
它也更有价值
And it becomes more value for money.
而这样的技术也不是
This kind of technology isn’t really something
一个小型初创企业或一组顾问就能处理的
that a small start-up or a set of consultants can tackle.
ALACAES正目标寻找大型机构作为新项目的合作伙伴
ALACAES are targeting big institutions as partners for new projects.
所以我猜大概就这样了
So I guess that’s about it.
我要感谢吉伍能来到ColdFusion并与我们交谈
So I wanna thank Giw, coming on ColdFusion and talking with us.
还要感谢大家的关注并看完整期视频
Also wanna thank you for paying attentionand watching through the whole video.
我希望你们学到些有趣的东西
I hope you learn something interesting.
从更广的角度来说
And in a wider kind of way,
这也表现出
it kind of shows that
你没法完全抛弃可再生能源
you can’t really just throw renewable energy out the window,
说它不会起作用
saying that it’s not going to work.
还有很多人通过不同的研究方式
There are a lot of people working on different ways
来使这项技术更加可行
to make the technology more feasible.
就在此时此刻
RIGHT NOW, TODAY.
无论如何 感谢收看
So anyway, thanks for watching.
我是盖革 你收看的是ColdFusion
This has been the Geiger, you’ve been watching ColdFusion.
如果你偶然发现这个频道 可以顺便订阅
If you just stumbled across this channel, feel free to subscribe.
各位再见 我们下期视频再见
Cheers, guys. And I’ll see you again soon for the next video.
祝各位开心
Have a good one.

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视频概述

Cold Fusion频道对话ALACAES公司总经理,谈谈可再生能源高效使用的技术

听录译者

川涼

翻译译者

4CObst

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VadUK8-5OSA

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