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谈话行为

Encouraging Academic Conversations With Talk Moves

这些就是充分参与对话的关键
These are the keys toparticipating in a conversation fully.
有的时候 我们都需要说点开场白
Sometimes we all need a little bit of a kick-starter
好让别人觉得 我们似乎有话要说
to feel like we can contribute.
学习是如何发生的之用谈话行为鼓励学术讨论
孩子们会感到有些犹豫
Children are going to struggle a bit,
犹豫的程度取决于他们在课堂发言的自信程度
depending on how confident they feel in speaking up in class
而这位老师希望同学们都能感受到自己的价值
And yet this teacher wants everybody in the class to feel valued,
所以她教孩子们学着去表达
So the kids are all learning phrases
这会激励孩子们更好地发表自己的看法
that can inspire other kids to contribute more easily.
现在我们试着做一次关于关怀和尊重的小组谈论
We are trying to build the conversation here that is a community of caring and respect.
现在看一下放在桌子上的谈话行为清单
So look at your talk moves on the table today,
在这里我还会给你们一张便利贴
and I have a post-it note here for you.
谈话行为中最重要的是首句
Talk moves are essentially sentence starters
学生们可以用它来加入对话
that students can use to get themselves into the conversation
并吸引其它人一起加入对话
and to draw other people into the conversation.
研究发现鼓励参与技巧能营造更好的学习环境
我把谈话行为清单用胶带粘在了桌子上
I taped the talk moves right on the table
这样孩子们对这些内容的记忆会更深
so that they would be ever present in everyone’s mind.
我希望你们能记录下你们的谈话行为
Today, I want you to keep track of your talk moves.
他们每用一次谈话行为清单上的指导内容
Every time they used a talk move
他们就会在便利贴上打个对勾
they’d put a check on their sticky note.
所以 如果和你同桌的人
So if somebody at your table looks like
便利贴上没有对勾标记的话
that they don’t have a talk move check mark yet
邀请他们加入讨论
invite them into the conversation.
你会怎么邀请呢?
How could you do that?
我可能会说 “你怎么看待这个问题?”
Say, like,”What do you think? “
每次 但你可以叫他们的名字吗?
Definitely. Would you use their name?
-可以 -非常好
-Yeah -Awesome.
任何激发小孩认知技能的事情
Everything about activating a child’s cognitive skills
都是始于激发他们的社会性
begins with activating their social connectedness.
语言的表达运用及和同伴间的交谈
Verbalizing and using language and working with peers
产生了一种社交刺激
creates that kind of social stimulus
这种刺激推动了大脑的发展
that drives the development of the brain.
我几乎每次都会留意
I pretty much look at the thing every single time
看看自己是否能对此说些什么
to see if there’s something I can say,
比如说 使问题变得清晰易懂
like a clarifying question.
你能进一步解释下为什么你喜欢谈话行为吗?
Can you explain more about like why you enjoy move?
他在对手足球队的学校里
He spray-painted something
喷了些东西
on his rival soccer team’s school
当你问一个人阐述性问题的时候
When you ask a person a clarifying question
你要么说 “噢 我已经听你说过了”
it’s either,”Oh,I heard you said,”
要么说 “你可以重复下你刚说的吗?”
or,”Can you repeat what you said?”
或者说 “你接着说”
or “To add onto.”
谈话行为极大地帮助了语言学习者
They help enormously with language learners.
它为每个人提供了融入对话的平台
They give everybody a platform to jump into a conversation,
因为有一半的句子是已经为他们准备好了的
because half the sentence is there for them already.
但对其他善于自己完成任务的学习者来说
But they also challenge other types of learners
谈话行为是一次挑战
who may be accustomed to doing independent work
而且他们需要一个桥梁去与小组更好的合作
and they need a bridge to collaborate more with a group.
这会促使孩子们走出他们的社交舒适区
It pushes kids out of their comfort zone of social conversations,
并且也会促使他们更倾向于专业和学术型的对话
and it moves them more towards a professional and an academic kind of register.
他所有的成就和任务
All his accomplishments and tasks,
比如说 他参与过的所有游行
like all the other marches he had,
就像马丁·路德金一样
like Martin Luther King,
他希望他之前的游行
his other previous marches
能对他的演讲有所帮助
and he wants to help his lecture much.
我听到你说“之前的游行”
I heard you say previous marches.
他也参与了游行相关事宜吗?
Like does it say it anything about that?
是的 他在马丁·路德·金的游行队伍里
Yeah, like he was in Martin Luther King marches.
谈话行为活动的目的是促成更好的交流
I do talk moves because in order to have a great discussion,
每个人都要觉得自己很重要并参与讨论
everyone has to feel like they’re a part of it, and valued.
当他们走开时
And when they walk away,
他们确实和那些他们可能不会与之交谈的
they really have bridged a gap with someone
或者说不会在那种水平上交谈的人
that maybe they wouldn’t necessarily talk to,
架起了沟通的桥梁
or talk to on that level.
凯瑟琳老师意识到 孩子们在展示自己的技能时
This teacher is aware of children having different levels of comfort and discomfort
会有不同程度的自在感和不适感
of making their skills visible.
她使得孩子们用谈话行为鼓励彼此参与讨论
And she’s getting kids to support each other’s participation with these talk moves,
她为班上的每一位同学找到了专属沟通方式
this teacher created a pathway for every single child in this class to belong.

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视频概述

不知道怎么进行学术交流?谈话行为了解一下。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSI4imt0dXg

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