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针对苦难所呈现的反应类型 – 译学馆
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针对苦难所呈现的反应类型

Empathy vs Sympathy: Which one are you?

来吧 心理学
Psych2Go
对痛苦的反应
Reactions to Suffering
痛苦 是我们不管怎样
Suffering, we can’t avoid it,
都无法避免的现象
no matter how hard we try.
痛苦游走于穷人 无家可归的人以及病人之间
Between the poor, homeless and sick,
它就在我们身边
suffering is all around us.
我们习惯性地认为自己要淡然处之
We like to think we take it in stride,
但是我们到底对苦难是怎样反应的呢?
but how do we really react to it?
如果你看到一个老人在路边颤抖
If you saw an older man shivering on a curb,
身上只披着一条薄毯和旧衣物
with only a thin blanket and old clothing,
你很可能会感到难受
you’d most likely feel bad,
但你还是会继续往前走
but you’d keep walking.
当我们看到这位老人家 感觉他可能熬不过今晚
We all feel the pain of seeing this older gentleman
我们都会感到难受
look as though he might not make the night,
但是我们很少停下来做些什么
but seldom stop and do anything.
我们的反应成就了我们
Our reactions are what make us who we are,
就个人和物种而言都是如此
both individually and as a species.
人类天生就会对他人的伤痛和苦难产生共鸣
Naturally, mankind is sympathetic to the pain and suffering of others.
心理学家爱德华•铁钦纳于1909年将德文单词“Einfühlung”
Psychologist Edward Tichener translated the German word “Einfühlung”
(意为“移情”)翻译成了英文单词
meaning “feeling into” into English in 1909,
也就是我们今天大多数都知道的“Empathy”(移情,共情)
turning into the word most of us know today as “Empathy”.
然而为别人感到难过并不是共情
However, feeling bad for somebody is not empathy,
尽管大多数人都那么以为
despite what most people think.
我们的感受只是一些其他情绪的混合
The feeling we get are instead a mixture of other emotions.
那这些情绪中都包含了什么了?
What’s the breakdown of some of these emotions?
怜惜往往指的是在我们亲眼所见他人的苦难时
Pity is often distress, discomfort, and overall sadness,
所产生的悲痛 不安以及各种悲伤的情感
when witnessing someone else’s misery.
如果你看到有人对他们重要的人大吼大叫
If you were to see someone yelling at their significant other,
你很可能会为他们感到难过
you will most likely feel sad for them,
在你走开前会看上几秒
and look on for a few seconds before moving on.
怜惜是能感知他人的痛苦
Pity is the acknowledgement of another’s pain
是你为他人感到难过
and that you feel bad for them,
但也只是为他人难过而已
but pity does not go beyond this.
关于怜惜的另一个例子是求赞贴
Likebait is another example of pity,
或者说有些人在网上发布一张照片
or someone online post a photo
或一则视频 让观众感到难过
or video to make their viewers feel bad
并在最后附上:
and at the end says:
“如果你能理解某某的痛苦 想要提供帮助
“Like, repost, reblog, retweet, share
请点赞 转发 转载 转发推特并分享”
if you understand x’s pain and want to help.”
一个点赞显然不会减轻他们的痛苦
Of course, a like won’t help their suffering,
只是通过给推送的东西点赞
it’s just helping the poster
帮助了推主而已
by giving them likes on something they posted.
同情是怜惜的自然表现
Sympathy is the physical display of pity,
希望这个人经历的伤痛和苦难能够减轻
and hoping that the person will be relieved of that pain or suffering.
它是在自己没有亲身体验的情况下
It is caring about the wellbeing of somebody
对他人幸福的关心
without personally knowing the struggle.
你试图通过站在他们的角度去理解他们
You try to understand by putting yourself in their shoes.
共情既是关心
Empathy is both caring
又是能够切身感受他人所经历的苦难
and personally knowing the struggle the other person is going through.
请记住:切身感受并不一定就会关心
Remember: personally knowing is not always paired with caring,
也就不是真的共情
which means it’s not true empathy.
这在精神病者中显而易见
This is evident in psychopaths.
要产生共情你必须有切身体会并产生关心
You have to have personal experience and care in order to empathize.
怜悯要么是共情
Compassion is either empathy
要么就是同情加上想要减轻他人痛苦的欲望
or sympathy paired with a desire to relieve that person of their pain.
有了怜悯之心 你就会积极寻求解决办法
With compassion, you actively seek a solution.
你会抱着同感或共情做些事情
You do something with your sympathy or empathy
而不是直接走开
rather than just walking away.
需要指明的是利他主义和
It must be noted that altruism is very different from
共情 同感 怜惜以及怜悯是两码事
empathy, sympathy, pity and compassion.
当一个人表现出利他主义
When someone acts altruistically,
他们这么做是因为这是应该做的事情
they are acting on the basis that it is the right thing to do,
而不是因为他们感到难过
not because they feel bad.
利他主义可以是超然的 不带情感的
Altruism can be detached and emotionless,
因为它里面不包含个人情绪
as it is not buried in personal emotions,
只是在做他们认知上认定正确的事情
only in doing the perceived right thing.
利他主义不好的一点就是忽视了痛苦
One way that altruism can backfire is being ignorant of pain,
不了解这个问题
not understanding the problem,
却又在努力解决问题
but trying to fix it anyway.
有个很好的例子就是
A good example of this is
换掉孩子带有回忆的破旧玩具
replacing a child’s old broken toy that holds memories,
因为你相信这是正确的事
because you believe it is the right thing to do.
但是 丟掉这个玩具
However, by replacing this toy,
你也丢弃了孩子们倾注在玩具里的全部的回忆
you are tossing out all the memories they have attached to that toy.
所以如果你看到一个同样颤抖着的老人
So if you were to see that same old man shivering,
你会做出怎样的反应?
what would your reaction be?
怜惜?
Pity?
同情?
Sympathy?
还是共情?
Empathy?
你会出于利他还是怜悯
Would you give him another blanket out of altruism,
再给他一条毯子吗?
or out of compassion?
把你的答案写在下方
Write your answers below,
不要忘记订阅更多有关人类情感的视频哦
and don’t forget to subscribe for more videos about human emotions.
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Check out the new merch in the description!

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视频概述

对于别人经历的苦难,你会感同身受并伸出援手,还是会怀着同情的心袖手旁观,让我们一起来了解,自己到底都经历了哪些情感吧

听录译者

小多荷

翻译译者

哟嚯嚯~,哦嚯嚯嚯

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35Wt8LhoVHA

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