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与抑郁情绪谈判

Emotions are Negotiable | How we can control Mood through our Physiology

Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video.
感谢Skillshare对本视频的大力支持
In the middle of the night, Hans Spaans finds himself being overwhelmed by cramps
午夜时分 Hans Spaans忽然感到一阵痉挛
slowly tightening up the muscles in his arms, back, thighs and calves
渐渐的 手臂 背部和大小腿的肌肉开始抽筋
until his whole body is a knot of pain
直到全身痛苦地缩成一团
and he’s practically paralyzed.
仿佛瘫痪一般
So what is the strategy he uses
面对突如其来的帕金森症状
to deal with these Parkinson’s symptoms?
他是如何应对的呢?
He buries his face into his pillow,
他把脸埋进枕头里
and begins yelling a string of curse words.
飙出一连串咒骂
Hans had found that putting himself into a rage
Hans发现自己每次发怒的时候
somehow gave him strength.
反而会获得一种力量
The furious shouting works him up enough to get to his feet
一番大吼大叫过后 双脚恢复了知觉
and he would then continue the fit by kicking a couple pillows around.
他还得继续发泄 他把身旁的枕头全部踢飞
And then, as the anger faded away, so did his cramps
过了一会儿 怒火渐渐平息 痉挛也随之缓解
and he can suddenly move freely.
他的身体一下子可以行动自如
This case, featured in Scott Carney’s book “What doesn’t kill us”,
该案例出自Scott Carney所著 《那些杀不死我们的》书中
is a rare instance where anger can be helpful.
这是个罕见的例子 它表明愤怒也可以是有益的
Somehow, channeling this strong emotion
不知何故 宣泄这种强烈的情绪
had substantial physiological effects on Hans.
对Hans产生了显著的生理影响
The connection between emotions in the mind and the state of our body
显然 人的思维情绪和身体状态之间
is apparent in the fact that
存在一定联系
mood disorders like anxiety and depression
比如焦虑 抑郁等情绪失调
are often associated with other disorders like irritable bowel syndrome,
往往伴随着肠易激综合征
heart disease, chronic pain and chronic fatigue.
心脏病 慢性疼痛和慢性疲劳等其他生理性失调
Last time I discussed the theory of constructed emotion
上一次 我在探讨情绪构筑理论时说过
which says emotions are not simply triggered by things happening outside your body,
情绪并不只会受外界事物刺激而产生
your brain also takes into account data from inside your body
人的大脑也会参考身体内部的信息
and compares that against your past experiences to create an emotion.
并将其与过往状态进行比较 从而产生情绪
This means that we have two avenues for controlling our emotions.
这意味着控制情绪有两大途径
We can’t always control what’s happening outside of our body
很多时候 我们无法控制自身以外的事物
but we can change the software in our head.
但我们能左右大脑内部的软件运作
The other strategy, which we’ll be focusing on today
今天我们将着重讨论的 是途径之二
is changing what’s happening inside your body.
就是改变身体内部的状态
Going back to Hans, his strategy was effective,
说回Hans 他的方法是有效的
but the anger was self-destructive
但发怒无异于自残
and was breeding resentment in him.
而且会让他的心中滋生怨恨
So what did he do instead?
那么他还能怎么做呢?
His new, more effective strategy
一个更加有效的新方法是
involves deep breathing and taking cold showers and ice baths.
通过深呼吸 冲冷水澡和冰浴进行自我调节
Something about the cold would shock his body enough
冰冷的触感对身体的刺激
to break through his Parkinson’s symptoms
可以缓解帕金森的症状
without having to work up a fit of rage.
也不必把自己气得够呛
Some research has found that there is a loss of noradrenaline neurons in the brain in Parkinson’s patients.
有研究发现 帕金森患者的脑内缺少“去甲肾上腺素神经元”
and interestingly, Noradrenaline, also called norepinephrine,
有趣的是去甲肾上腺素 (又名 norepinephrine)
is one of the neurotransmitters released when you are exposed to the cold.
正是大脑在寒冷环境中分泌的一种神经递质
People submerged in 14 degrees celsius water up to their shoulders
当人浸泡在深度及肩的14℃的水中时
experienced a 530 % increase in norepinephrine
体内去甲肾上腺素含量会增加530%
a reduction in cortisol and a 250 % increase in dopamine.
皮质醇含量降低 多巴胺含量也会增加250%
Norepinephrine has substantial effects on focus, attention, vigilance
去甲肾上腺素对人的专注度 注意力和警觉性都有显著影响
and it improves mood.
而且可以改善情绪
And disturbances in norepinephrine transmission
去甲肾上腺素传递的紊乱
is thought to also be a key component in depression.
也被认为是抑郁症的关键诱因
You may have heard of serotonin reuptake inhibitors being used as antidepressants
你可能听过 临床使用5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂作为抗抑郁药物
but there are also antidepressants
但也有一些抗抑郁药
that work by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine.
是通过抑制去甲肾上腺素的再摄取起作用的
Cold showers seem to be a big topic of interest nowadays,
近年来 洗冷水澡似乎是个很受关注的话题
and there’s a couple different reasons why
理由有很多
they reduce stress, improve immunity and enhance muscle recovery.
冷水澡有助于减压 提高免疫力 促进肌肉修复
But I think the bigger reason is they just make you feel really good.
但我想最重要的原因是 洗冷水澡真的很爽啊
At this point let me just say that this is what I mean when I say emotions are negotiable.
而这正是此刻我想说的 “人是可以和情绪谈判的”
Let’s say you’re having an emotional response to something like… getting fired.
打个比方 你被炒了 感觉自己负能量爆棚
You’re filled with anger, resentment and worry,
你怒火中烧 既气愤又担忧
but if you step into a cold enough shower,
但如果这时你去冲个冷水澡
the change in your physiology –
生理机能产生了变化
the boost in norepinephrine and dopamine
去甲肾上腺素和多巴胺的增加
may have affected your mood enough
会引发情绪上的转变
that you’re no longer a walking ball of worry,
你将不再坐立难安
and you’ve realized at the very least a solution to your problem exists.
你会告诉自己 问题总归是有办法解决的
If cold exposure seems too drastic for you,
如果你觉得挨冻太过极端
heat exposure can also improve mood.
高温环境也能改善情绪
In this talk, Dr. Rhonda Patrick is explaining the benefits of using the sauna.
在一次演讲中 Rhonda Patrick教授阐述了蒸桑拿的好处
The heat exposure changes how your brain responds to feel good endorphins.
高温会刺激大脑 影响令人愉悦的内啡肽的分泌
When you’re exposed to high enough heat,
当人体周围温度足够高时
something called dynorphin is released.
大脑会分泌一种叫强啡肽的物质
Dynorphin is like the opposite of endorphins
强啡肽与内啡肽正好相反
because it makes you feel uncomfortable.
它让你觉得不舒服
That’s not the result we’re going for,
这显然不是我们想要的
but when dynorphin is released
然而当强啡肽产生之时
more of the receptors that endorphins bind to are created
人体会生成更多内啡肽的受体
and it sensitizes them to endorphin.
它们对内啡肽十分敏感
This means the next time you make endorphin
这意味着下一次 当你因为锻炼 大笑 或是拥抱某人
whether it’s from exercise or laughter or giving someone a hug
从而产生内啡肽
the positive endorphin effect will be stronger.
这个时候内啡肽的积极作用会更强
Dr. Patrick explained how she got interested in this topic
Patrick教授解释了自己对这一课题产生兴趣的起因
when she was a graduate student working towards her PhD –
当她还是一名努力考博的研究生时
she had to deal with the overwhelming stress and anxiety that
为了应付大量的考试和难搞的实验
came from multiple exams and multiple time consuming experiments.
她陷入了巨大的压力和焦虑之中
“I was experiencing a sense of, at times, crippling anxiety.”
“时常感觉自己心力交瘁”
She found that after using the sauna quite frequently – about 5 times a week
然而她发现 在大约每周五次频繁地蒸桑拿后
her mood was noticeably enhanced,
自己的情绪明显改善了
and she had less anxiety and
变得不那么焦虑
was generally able to handle stress much better.
对压力的耐受能力也有所提升
Cold and heat exposure are things you can do quickly to affect your mood
挨冻和高温 是能让你快速调节情绪的方法
but something that takes a bit longer
还有个方法可能花的时间久一点
with a potentially bigger payoff
但远期回报更大
is to reduce inflammation.
那就是抗敏抗炎
When researchers want to study a disease,
当研究者们试图研究某种疾病
one challenge they have is finding out how
面临的挑战之一是
to recreate the disease in animal models.
如何在动物模型体内重现人类疾病
There are plenty of studies that look at ways
目前有大量研究着眼于
to treat depression by studying rodents with
对脂多糖诱导的小鼠抑郁行为的观察
something called “lipopolysaccharide induced depression.”
从而探究抑郁症的治疗手段
Lipopolysaccharide is something that induces a violent inflammatory response in humans,
脂多糖是人类产生剧烈炎症反应的诱因
and is used experimentally to rapidly create inflammation
临床用于在动物模型体内快速制造炎症
in animal models to study all kinds of inflammatory diseases.
从而对各类炎性疾病进行研究
These diseases could be anything from diabetes,
这类疾病包括糖尿病
inflammatory bowel disorders, rheumatoid arthritis,
炎性肠病 类风湿性关节炎
to parkinson’s disease, alzheimer’s disease, anxiety and depression.
帕金森 阿尔茨海默症 焦虑和抑郁
A decent rule of thumb is
有一个不错的经验法则
if something causes inflammation, especially chronic inflammation,
如果某件事物会引发炎症 尤其是慢性炎症
it will probably make you feel crappy.
它可能会让你觉得很糟糕
Studies have found that people with depression
研究表明 抑郁症患者体内
have higher biomarkers for inflammation by up to 50 %,
炎症标志物的浓度相对之前升高了50%
and the risk of major depression increased as c-reactive protein increased.
并且随着C-反应蛋白增多 罹患重度抑郁的风险也会增大
C-reactive protein is a biomarker for inflammation.
C-反应蛋白是一种炎症标志物
In one study, people were injected with one of three substances:
在一项研究中 我们为受试者分别注射三种试剂
saline, lipopolysaccharide, or interferon another inflammation inducing substance.
生理盐水 脂多糖 以及一种可以诱导炎症的干扰素
The people with the saline showed no change,
注射生理盐水的人无变化
but the people injected with the inflammatory substances,
而注射了炎症干扰素和脂多糖的受试者
interferon and lipopolysaccharide, experienced an acute increase
均出现抑郁症状 且不断加剧
in depressive symptoms like anxiety, feelings of social disconnection and anhedonia –
他们表现为焦虑 消极厌世 快感缺失
the inability to feel pleasure.
即无法感知快乐
So if chronic inflammation is at the very least a component of depression
因此至少可以说 如果慢性炎症是抑郁症的症状之一
it’s safe to say that keeping inflammation low
那么可以肯定 保持低炎症水平
is a good strategy for maintaining positive mood
在维持积极情绪和
and keeping emotional reactivity in check.
控制情绪反应方面是个很好的策略
The ways to keep inflammation low are probably unsurprising:
保持低炎症水平的方法超级简单
get enough sleep, get enough exercise, keep a healthy weight,
睡眠充足 积极锻炼 控制好体重
don’t spike your blood sugar,
保持血糖平稳
and cut out refined carbohydrates,
拒绝精细碳水
sugar, processed vegetable oils, trans fats and artificial sweeteners.
糖 加工植物油 反式脂肪以及人造甜味剂
A new study released just this month in the Journal of Inflammatory bowel diseases
本月发表于《炎性肠病》期刊的一项最新研究表明
found that the artificial sweetener Splenda
一种叫做“三氯蔗糖”的人造甜味剂
increases inflammation in mice afflicted with Crohn’s disease-like symptoms.
会增加患有“克罗恩病样症状”的小鼠的炎症反应
I’ll wrap this up with a quote from Dr. Lisa Barrett’s book
我要引用丽莎·巴雷特教授书中的一句话作为总结
“ How emotions are made ”
书名是《情绪是如何产生的》
“When you experience affect without knowing the cause,
“当人产生一种情绪 却不了解其成因
you are more likely to treat affect as information about the world,
人们更可能把它视为外界客观存在的信息
rather than your experience of the world.”
而非你对外界的主观感受”
Basically, what this means is
这句话告诉我们
that we are prone to accept our emotions as accurate evaluations of what’s happening in the world,
除非了解情绪产生的原因 否则人们容易把自身的情绪
unless we know the causes of these emotions.
当成是对外界活动的准确判断
For example, people report more happiness and life satisfaction on sunny days
例如 如果没有深究天气对情绪的影响 人们普遍在晴朗的天气
unless they are explicitly asked about the weather.
对生活的满意度更高 幸福感更强
so, when you apply for a job,
所以如果你要应聘一份工作
it’s better to interview on a sunny day
最好在晴朗的日子面试
because the interviewer isn’t going to be thinking about the fact that
因为面试官不会想到自己心情好
they’re more positive because sun exposure enhances serotonin production in the brain.
是因为光照促进了大脑5-羟色胺的分泌
They’re just going to think
他们只会以为
“I felt pretty good when talking to that person,
“我和那个人聊天的感觉很好
I guess it’s because that person is a good candidate.”
我想他是个合适的候选人”
In the same way, it’s easy for us to think
同理 我们往往认为
that the reason we feel bored and stressed at work
上班很无聊 而且压力山大是因为
is because our job sucks.
这份工作很差劲
But maybe if you got better sleep and stopped eating power bars for breakfast,
但如果你睡得好一点 别再用能量棒代替早餐
you wouldn’t feel so irritated during the weekly meeting.
你就不会觉得周例会那么痛苦难熬
And sometimes the difference between feeling anxious and overwhelmed and feeling challenged and motivated
有时 “不堪重负” 和“斗志满满” 只是一线之间
is more exercise, less alcohol and maybe hitting the sauna.
关键在于要多运动 少饮酒 可能的话偶尔蒸蒸桑拿
We can’t snap our fingers and change our emotions whenever we want,
我们无法随时随地打个响指就让心情变好
but when we become aware of the various causes of our emotional state,
但当我们了解了情绪产生的种种原因
we can calmly seperate ourselves from the emotion
便能理性地将“自我”与“情绪”分开
and start making changes that will allow for better emotional responses.
并开始做出改变 从而获得更好的情绪反应
This video was brought to you by Skillshare.
本视频由Skillshare赞助播出
I’m hoping some of you have noticed that
期待大家可以发现
my editing is a little more advanced than before.
这一次的剪辑比之前有了一些进步
That’s of course thanks to new software,
这得归功于新的制作软件
but it’s also thanks to straightforward,
同时也感谢skillshare平台
organized classes like this one on Skillshare
提供了如此简明直观 编排合理的教程
showing me how to actually use the software.
让我学会了怎么用这个软件
Skillshare is an online community with more than 17,000 classes in Design,
Skillshare是个在线社区 里面包含17000多节课程
Marketing, Business, Technology and more.
内容涵盖设计 营销 商业 科技等等
All the classes are professional, organized,
所有课程内容专业 编排合理
and have very clear and actionable take home points.
知识点明确 操作性强
An annual premium membership is less than just $ 10 a month
开通年度高级会员 每月仅需不到10美元
and it gives you unlimited access to quality classes from experts working in their field.
便可畅享由行业大咖为您打造的品质课程
The Final Cut Pro class I mentioned was just what I was looking for,
我提到的《Final Cut Pro》就是我一直想找的课程
but I’ve also been enjoying coming across Skillshare classes that I wasn’t specifically looking for,
但我也乐于在Skillshare上发掘其他的宝藏课程
like these logo and typefacing classes by the famous designer Aaron Draplin.
比如著名设计师Aaron Draplin出品的设计标识和字体的教程
If that’s not your thing,
如果这些不合你的胃口
there’s plenty more people to learn from.
还有很多其他课程可供选择
The first 500 people to use my linkin the description
点击详情链接 前五百名登录的用户
can get 2 months of Skillshare Premium for just $0.99.
仅需0.99美元 便可体验两个月Skillshare高级会员
After that, it’s as low as $ 10 a month
之后恢复原价 每月只要10美元
to keep on learning with Skillshare.
就能继续在Skillshare上学习啦

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视频概述

了解情绪背后的真相,与坏情绪谈判,做情绪的主人

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8OTgthhS0g

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