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In the middle of the night, Hans Spaans finds himself being overwhelmed by cramps
午夜时分 Hans Spaans忽然感到一阵痉挛
slowly tightening up the muscles in his arms, back, thighs and calves
渐渐的 手臂 背部和大小腿的肌肉开始抽筋
until his whole body is a knot of pain
and he’s practically paralyzed.
So what is the strategy he uses
to deal with these Parkinson’s symptoms?
He buries his face into his pillow,
and begins yelling a string of curse words.
Hans had found that putting himself into a rage
somehow gave him strength.
The furious shouting works him up enough to get to his feet
and he would then continue the fit by kicking a couple pillows around.
And then, as the anger faded away, so did his cramps
过了一会儿 怒火渐渐平息 痉挛也随之缓解
and he can suddenly move freely.
This case, featured in Scott Carney’s book “What doesn’t kill us”,
该案例出自Scott Carney所著 《那些杀不死我们的》书中
is a rare instance where anger can be helpful.
Somehow, channeling this strong emotion
had substantial physiological effects on Hans.
The connection between emotions in the mind and the state of our body
is apparent in the fact that
mood disorders like anxiety and depression
are often associated with other disorders like irritable bowel syndrome,
heart disease, chronic pain and chronic fatigue.
Last time I discussed the theory of constructed emotion
which says emotions are not simply triggered by things happening outside your body,
your brain also takes into account data from inside your body
and compares that against your past experiences to create an emotion.
This means that we have two avenues for controlling our emotions.
We can’t always control what’s happening outside of our body
but we can change the software in our head.
The other strategy, which we’ll be focusing on today
is changing what’s happening inside your body.
Going back to Hans, his strategy was effective,
but the anger was self-destructive
and was breeding resentment in him.
So what did he do instead?
His new, more effective strategy
involves deep breathing and taking cold showers and ice baths.
Something about the cold would shock his body enough
to break through his Parkinson’s symptoms
without having to work up a fit of rage.
Some research has found that there is a loss of noradrenaline neurons in the brain in Parkinson’s patients.
and interestingly, Noradrenaline, also called norepinephrine,
有趣的是去甲肾上腺素 （又名 norepinephrine）
is one of the neurotransmitters released when you are exposed to the cold.
People submerged in 14 degrees celsius water up to their shoulders
experienced a 530 % increase in norepinephrine
a reduction in cortisol and a 250 % increase in dopamine.
Norepinephrine has substantial effects on focus, attention, vigilance
and it improves mood.
And disturbances in norepinephrine transmission
is thought to also be a key component in depression.
You may have heard of serotonin reuptake inhibitors being used as antidepressants
but there are also antidepressants
that work by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine.
Cold showers seem to be a big topic of interest nowadays,
and there’s a couple different reasons why
they reduce stress, improve immunity and enhance muscle recovery.
冷水澡有助于减压 提高免疫力 促进肌肉修复
But I think the bigger reason is they just make you feel really good.
At this point let me just say that this is what I mean when I say emotions are negotiable.
Let’s say you’re having an emotional response to something like… getting fired.
打个比方 你被炒了 感觉自己负能量爆棚
You’re filled with anger, resentment and worry,
but if you step into a cold enough shower,
the change in your physiology –
the boost in norepinephrine and dopamine
may have affected your mood enough
that you’re no longer a walking ball of worry,
and you’ve realized at the very least a solution to your problem exists.
If cold exposure seems too drastic for you,
heat exposure can also improve mood.
In this talk, Dr. Rhonda Patrick is explaining the benefits of using the sauna.
在一次演讲中 Rhonda Patrick教授阐述了蒸桑拿的好处
The heat exposure changes how your brain responds to feel good endorphins.
When you’re exposed to high enough heat,
something called dynorphin is released.
Dynorphin is like the opposite of endorphins
because it makes you feel uncomfortable.
That’s not the result we’re going for,
but when dynorphin is released
more of the receptors that endorphins bind to are created
and it sensitizes them to endorphin.
This means the next time you make endorphin
这意味着下一次 当你因为锻炼 大笑 或是拥抱某人
whether it’s from exercise or laughter or giving someone a hug
the positive endorphin effect will be stronger.
Dr. Patrick explained how she got interested in this topic
when she was a graduate student working towards her PhD –
she had to deal with the overwhelming stress and anxiety that
came from multiple exams and multiple time consuming experiments.
“I was experiencing a sense of, at times, crippling anxiety.”
She found that after using the sauna quite frequently – about 5 times a week
her mood was noticeably enhanced,
and she had less anxiety and
was generally able to handle stress much better.
Cold and heat exposure are things you can do quickly to affect your mood
but something that takes a bit longer
with a potentially bigger payoff
is to reduce inflammation.
When researchers want to study a disease,
one challenge they have is finding out how
to recreate the disease in animal models.
There are plenty of studies that look at ways
to treat depression by studying rodents with
something called “lipopolysaccharide induced depression.”
Lipopolysaccharide is something that induces a violent inflammatory response in humans,
and is used experimentally to rapidly create inflammation
in animal models to study all kinds of inflammatory diseases.
These diseases could be anything from diabetes,
inflammatory bowel disorders, rheumatoid arthritis,
to parkinson’s disease, alzheimer’s disease, anxiety and depression.
帕金森 阿尔茨海默症 焦虑和抑郁
A decent rule of thumb is
if something causes inflammation, especially chronic inflammation,
it will probably make you feel crappy.
Studies have found that people with depression
have higher biomarkers for inflammation by up to 50 %,
and the risk of major depression increased as c-reactive protein increased.
C-reactive protein is a biomarker for inflammation.
In one study, people were injected with one of three substances:
saline, lipopolysaccharide, or interferon another inflammation inducing substance.
生理盐水 脂多糖 以及一种可以诱导炎症的干扰素
The people with the saline showed no change,
but the people injected with the inflammatory substances,
interferon and lipopolysaccharide, experienced an acute increase
in depressive symptoms like anxiety, feelings of social disconnection and anhedonia –
他们表现为焦虑 消极厌世 快感缺失
the inability to feel pleasure.
So if chronic inflammation is at the very least a component of depression
it’s safe to say that keeping inflammation low
is a good strategy for maintaining positive mood
and keeping emotional reactivity in check.
The ways to keep inflammation low are probably unsurprising:
get enough sleep, get enough exercise, keep a healthy weight,
睡眠充足 积极锻炼 控制好体重
don’t spike your blood sugar,
and cut out refined carbohydrates,
sugar, processed vegetable oils, trans fats and artificial sweeteners.
糖 加工植物油 反式脂肪以及人造甜味剂
A new study released just this month in the Journal of Inflammatory bowel diseases
found that the artificial sweetener Splenda
increases inflammation in mice afflicted with Crohn’s disease-like symptoms.
I’ll wrap this up with a quote from Dr. Lisa Barrett’s book
“ How emotions are made ”
“When you experience affect without knowing the cause,
you are more likely to treat affect as information about the world,
rather than your experience of the world.”
Basically, what this means is
that we are prone to accept our emotions as accurate evaluations of what’s happening in the world,
unless we know the causes of these emotions.
For example, people report more happiness and life satisfaction on sunny days
例如 如果没有深究天气对情绪的影响 人们普遍在晴朗的天气
unless they are explicitly asked about the weather.
so, when you apply for a job,
it’s better to interview on a sunny day
because the interviewer isn’t going to be thinking about the fact that
they’re more positive because sun exposure enhances serotonin production in the brain.
They’re just going to think
“I felt pretty good when talking to that person,
I guess it’s because that person is a good candidate.”
In the same way, it’s easy for us to think
that the reason we feel bored and stressed at work
is because our job sucks.
But maybe if you got better sleep and stopped eating power bars for breakfast,
you wouldn’t feel so irritated during the weekly meeting.
And sometimes the difference between feeling anxious and overwhelmed and feeling challenged and motivated
有时 “不堪重负” 和“斗志满满” 只是一线之间
is more exercise, less alcohol and maybe hitting the sauna.
关键在于要多运动 少饮酒 可能的话偶尔蒸蒸桑拿
We can’t snap our fingers and change our emotions whenever we want,
but when we become aware of the various causes of our emotional state,
we can calmly seperate ourselves from the emotion
and start making changes that will allow for better emotional responses.
This video was brought to you by Skillshare.
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