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厄尔尼诺与拉尼娜现象的解释

El Niño and La Niña Explained

世界上任意一处地方的海水温度过高或过低
Warmer or colder than average ocean temperatures in one part
都会对全球气温造成影响
can influence weather around the globe
有点不可思议 对吧?
boggles the mind, right?
看 这就是它的运作过程
Here’s how it works.
在正常状态下
During normal conditions
信风会从东向西吹
trade winds which blow from east to west
将温暖的表层海水吹向亚洲
push warm surface waters towards Asia
并堆积在大西洋
piling it up in the westernPacific.
但在一些特殊年份里 信风减弱
In some years though, the trade winds weaken.
温暖的表层海水会向东移动
The warm surface water moves eastward and
并且会削弱远离降低南美海岸的冷海水上升流
reduces upwelling of cold water off the coastof South America.
气候学家称这种现象为厄尔尼诺现象
Climatologists call this
这种气候现象主要盛行于北美的冬季
in the wintertime over North America.
温暖的海水会加剧急流向南移动
The warmer ocean fuels an intensification and southward shift of the jet stream.
会给美国南部带来洪灾和气温上升
brings flooding to the Southern United States and warmer,
同时气候干旱
drier conditions over parts of
也会发生于太平洋西北部 美国北部 以及加拿大
the Pacific northwest, northern U.S. and Canada.
尽管这些信风会重新积聚
But eventually those trade winds pick up again
有时候甚至比原来的威力更大
and sometimes become even stronger than normal.
当这一切发生时 它们会把温暖的海水重新吹回到大西洋
When that happens, they blow the warm water back
然后冷的海水上升流又会重新积聚于太平洋东部表层
into the western Pacific and restart the upwelling of cool water towards the surface in the eastern Pacific.
the upwelling of cool water towards the surface in the eastern Pacific.
这种强劲的信风则是拉尼娜现象来袭的信号
These strong trade winds are a signature of what is called La Niña,
它会给热带地区带来异常的降温
unusually cold conditions in the tropical
太平洋会将北部的海水急流进行置换
Pacific that displace the Jet Stream northward.
拉尼娜现象会给美国南部带来旱灾
La Niña can lead to drought in the southern
以及低温 暴雨 和太平洋西北部的海水上涨
US and cooler temperatures, heavy rains and flooding in the Pacific Northwest.
厄尔尼诺现象和拉尼娜现象都是
El Niño and La Niña together are part
周期性循环的气候现象 会带来极端天气和
of a cycle that influences extreme weather and
影响作物收成
can impact food production,
淡水供应 甚至是人们的健康
water supply and even human health not just in the US, but
这些不只发生于美国 还会影响地球上的其他区域
in many parts of the globe.

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视频概述

厄尔尼诺和拉尼娜现象是周期性循环的气候现象,会给地球的各个区域带来重要影响。

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翻译译者

Joooooiii🌊

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVlfyhs64IY

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