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人生头五年是怎样学习语言的 – 译学馆
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人生头五年是怎样学习语言的

Einstein Was a Late Speaker: Essentials on Language Development

Of all mankind’s inventions,
语言
none was more consequential than the birth of language.
是人类所有发明中最为重要的一项
Before its creation,
在语言诞生之前
each person’s knowledge was limited to what he or she experienced directly.
人们只能通过切身经历获取知识
Afterwards,
而有了语言之后
someone who learned something
人们就能把自己学到的知识
could share it with anybody else.
分享给其他任何人
In this video,
通过这个视频
we’ll look at four things known about language learning in general,
我们会先大致了解一下关于语言学习已知的四个特点
and then listen to the story of lucky Lucy and poor Pete
然后再通过幸运露西和倒霉皮特的故事
to understand the importance of language in everyday life.
帮你理解语言在日常生活中的重要性
Our brains foundation is built through experiences early in life.
1.幼年时期的经历为我们大脑的发育打下基础
Pat Levitt from the center of the Developing Child at Harvard University
来自哈佛大学儿童发展中心的莱维特博士
studied our brain development over the course of our life extensively.
全面地研究了一生中人脑的发育规律
He showed how the brain’s ability to change,
他指出 随着年龄增长
dramatically drops in the years of life,
大脑可塑性会大幅减弱
while the amount of effort such change requires increases.
同时大脑发生改变也会需要消耗更多能量
Another research showed that
另一项研究表明
at age five 90 % of a kid’s brain has been formed.
90%的儿童在5岁时大脑就会定型
If during these years,
而假如在这几年里
the child is blocked from receiving stimulating experiences,
大脑潜能没能被有效地激发
the Language Center and other parts of the brain
那么这些儿童大脑的语言中枢和其他部分
are likely to remain weak for life.
可能会一直表现很弱
We learn language socially by observing and imitating others.
2.我们在社交过程中通过观察和模仿他人来学习语言
Some 1,000 years ago,
大约一千年前
German emperor Friedrich II
德国皇帝弗里德里希二世
wanted to prove the opposite
想要通过反证法来反驳这一观点
and showed that we develop language naturally, all by ourselves.
证明人们只靠自己就能自然而然地学会语言
He made his nannies raise some children.
于是他命自己的女仆们抚养一些孩子
they were allowed to feed and clean them,
女仆们被要求只能给孩子喂饭洗澡
but not to interact socially,
而不能跟他们有交流
or ever speak a word.
甚至不能出声
Not one child learned to speak,
结果所有的孩子都没能学会讲话
but instead, they all died.
反而全部夭折了
For the same reason,
同理
toddlers can’t learn language via tape or technology.
幼童也无法通过磁带或其他科技学习语言
They need to be motivated
他们需要与人交流并产生联系
through a human relationship,
被激发出学习语言的热情之后
then, they pay attention and learn.
才会用心学习语言
Our language brain growth is strongest in year one.
3.大脑语言中枢在我们1岁时发育最快
If we study the brains development
假如通过比较
by the rate of new synapse formation
出生之后11个月内和之后15年间
over the first 11 months of life,
突触结构的更新速率
and then the next 15 years,
来研究大脑的发育情况
we can see how much the first five years matter.
我们会发现人生的前五年太重要了
The growth in the part of the brain responsible for language
大脑负责语言学习的部分
peaks between birth and age 3.
会在我们出生到3岁之间达到发育的最高峰
During this critical period,
在这一重要时期
children can learn a new word every 90 minutes,
儿童每90分钟就能学会一个新单词
and several languages simultaneously.
并且能同时学习多种语言
Our sensory pathways responsible for vision and hearing peak before,
而我们视听感知功能的发育高峰则要早一点
which makes sense,
这一点很重要
because we need to see and hear to imitate language.
因为我们需要通过视听感知才能模仿别人说话
Four month old infants for example,
举个例子
if raised bilingual by a British mom and the Chinese dad
一个被中国爸爸和英国妈妈用两种语言养大的婴儿
can already differentiate between two languages
在四个月大的时候
just by observing the lip movements of their caregivers.
就已经能通过观察父母嘴唇的动作来分辨两种语言了
Higher cognitive function such as logical reasoning peaks
但像逻辑推理这种更高级的认知功能的发育顶峰
only once we have the words and know the symbols to make sense of our world.
就要等到我们刚学会说话并且能够使用符号来理解世界的时候了
Language makes our world.
4.语言塑造世界
Rich language skills allow us to really listen,
丰富的语言技能能让我们善于倾听
to speak well, to enjoy reading and master writing,
并且善于表达 享受阅读 精通写作
they can create an entire world around us.
语言能为我们创造一整个世界
As the German philosopher Wittgenstein said:
正如德国哲学家维特根斯坦所说:
”the limit of my language is the limit of my world”.
“我语言的界限就是我世界的界限”
Let’s take for example the word “daycare center”.
让我们以“托管中心”这个词为例
Some people think of it as a “preschool”,
有人认为它指的是“学前班”
the Irish call it “play school” ,
爱尔兰人则叫它“玩乐学校”
and the Germans invented the word “Kindergarten”.
而德国人发明了“幼儿园”这个词
Only if we know all three words can we understand what’s possible.
只有三个单词都认识 我们才能更好地理解世界
Now let’s listen to the story about lucky Lucy and poor Pete,
接下来我们来听听两个用不同方式养大的孩子
two children raised in two very different ways.
幸运露西和倒霉皮特的故事
Lucy is raised by her mother.
露西由妈妈抚养
The mother is an average native English speaker who knows around 20,000 different words.
她的妈妈是一个大约知道2万词的普通英语母语者
Pete’s parents hire a nice nanny from a foreign country.
而皮特的父母则为他雇佣了一个不错的外国保姆
Instead of speaking in her native language,
这个保姆被告知只能跟皮特说英语
the nanny is told to talk to Peter only in English.
而不能说她的母语
While her everyday English seems okay,
然而她的英语水平很一般
she actually knows only around 5,000 words.
她大概只会5000词
one fourth of what Anne(Lucy)’s mom knows.
只有露西妈妈知道的四分之一
Year one is when the language brain is developing the strongest.
我们知道出生第一年是大脑语言中枢发育最快的时候
if Lucy is awake
假如露西在妈妈说话时
half of the time her mom speaks,
有一半时间是醒着的
she will hear around 10,000 words per day
那么她每天大约会听到10000个词
and maybe 2500 being directed at her.
并且可能有2500个是直接对着她说的
Directed language is what matters.
这2500个词很重要
Whenever her mom connects a word with an actual experience,
只要她妈妈在具体的语境中使用某个词
Lucy learns its meaning.
露西就能明白它的意思
Peter hears English only when the nanny directly speaks to him,
而皮特只有在保姆直接跟他交流时才能听到英语
around 1,000 words a day.
每天还只有大约1000个词
But not only is quantity lower,
而且不只是数量上少
but also the quality.
质量也要差一些
As the nanny is not fluent,
并且由于保姆的英文不那么流利
there is a chance that many words come across broken.
所以很多单词她可能都没办法讲得很清楚
At their first birthday
到了1周岁的时候
both kids can say:”mama” and”papa”.
虽然他们都能够说“爸爸” “妈妈”这样的词了
What we don’t see is that Lucy actually already knows many many words
但我们看不到的是 露西其实已经知道很多词了
even though she can’t say them.
她只是还不会说而已
But Pete’s language universe is more limited.
而皮特的语言广度就很有限
When Lucy and her mom look at picture books,
当露西在和妈妈看儿童绘本时
her mom points out what they see:
妈妈会指着书上的猴子跟她说
a little monkey is also a gorilla, an ape,
小猴子也是猩猩 是猿猴
a clever animal which uses tools, climbs trees
是会使用工具 会爬树的灵长类动物
and lives with his mama and papa
小猴子还和它的爸爸妈妈一起
in the rainforests of Africa.
住在非洲的热带雨林里
When Pete looks at a picture book,
而当皮特在看儿童绘本时
his learning is limited by the language of the nanny.
他的学习就被保姆的语言能力限制了
The same monkey is just cute and eats bananas.
同样的猴子就只是可爱和会吃香蕉了
To compensate
作为补偿
he’s given a language app,
皮特得到了一个语言app辅助学习
but as Pete lacks the foundation he doesn’t understand a word.
但由于皮特缺乏语言基础 所以他一个词都看不懂
To him,
对他来说
it’s just a bunch of new sounds strangely connected to colorful characters.
那只是一串会发出奇怪声音的彩色字符而已
On their second birthday,
到他们两岁时
Lucy knows already well over 200 words,
露西已经知道200多个词了
the amount where children start to learn rules
这时她已经可以开始学习语言的规则
and apply grammar.
开始运用语法了
Pete knows less.
而皮特知道的就少一些
Sometimes he gets frustrated
有时因为无法表达自己的想法
because he can’t express himself.
他会感到十分沮丧
Lucy likes to go with her mom into the park.
露西喜欢和妈妈去逛公园
Sometimes they watch the old men play chess.
有时候她们会去看老人下棋
She doesn’t understand the game,
这个游戏露西看不太懂
but knows that there are pawns, rooks, knights,
但她知道里面有兵 车 骑士
a queen and a king, a bishop and a horse.
还有女王 国王 主教和马
One day she will learn the rules.
只要她以后学会规则
It will be easy,
下棋就会变得很简单
because she sees each figure clearly.
因为她能清楚地区分这些棋子的角色
Her understanding of their special skills is obvious.
也知道它们各自的用处是什么
For a lack of language,
而由于语言能力的限制
Pete sees just a big checkered board
皮特只能看到一块画着方格的木板
and some wooden figures which all look quite the same:
和一些看起来一模一样的木头人:
pawns, knights, bishops.
不管是兵 骑士还是主教
to understand the rules later will be hard for Pete.
所以他将来很难理解国际象棋的规则
All figures look so similar.
他心里会想:这些棋长得都一个样
how could they do different things?
作用怎么就不一样呢?
At their third birthday,
到了三岁的时候
both can say their own name
他俩就都能说自己的名字了
and form sentences.
也可以造句了
Lucy’s vocabulary now holds 1500 words.
不同的是 露西现在大概有1500词的储备
Pete’s got 500 to make sense of this world.
而皮特则只有500词来理解世界
In year 4 they enter kindergarten.
第四年 他们开始上幼儿园了
When Pete stands in front of the big shelf,
皮特在木架前
he sees different wooden blocks, the ball,
看到了一些不同的木块 一个球
some old toy, a horse and the yellow digger.
一些旧玩具 一匹马和一辆黄色小挖掘机
When Lucy stands in front of the same shelf,
而同样是坐在这个木架前的露西
she sees circles, triangles, squares,
却能看到圆 三角形 正方形
a basketball, the red pinwheel,
一个篮球 一架红色纸风车
the beige rocking horse
米黄色的摇摆小木马
and the carton box of the lego technic digger.
和装有乐高挖掘机的卡通盒
At playtime,
小朋友们一起玩的时候
Lucy understands what others are talking about
露西总能知道别人在说些什么
and often takes the lead by suggesting a new idea.
而且经常能提出新点子主导对话
Pete often doesn’t understand what she means.
可皮特总是不理解露西在说什么
If the group discusses something for longer,
要是大家讨论地稍微久一点
he zones out,
他就会走神
because he has trouble following the conversation.
因为他跟不上大家的对话
By the end of the year Lucy knows 3,500 words,
一年之后 露西学会了3500个词
where Pete only knows 1000 words.
然而皮特却只知道1000个词
Lucy now forms more complicated sentences
现在露西已经可以造更复杂的句子了
in perfect grammar.
语法也没有什么错误
In the evening her mom reads bedtime stories to her
妈妈晚上给她讲睡前故事的时候
Words she’s missing,
露西如果听到不会的词
she learns out of context.
也能通过语境理解其意思
As a native speaker,
作为一个英语母语者
the mom can raise and lower her voice,
妈妈会把故事讲得抑扬顿挫
making the stories exciting.
生动形象
Fairy tales become alive in her headtales
童话故事在露西脑海里变得活灵活现
and Lucy learns to imagine and to think creatively.
她学会了想象和创造性思考
Pete still speaks in more simple sentences
但皮特仍然只能讲简单的句子
and his grammar is not perfect.
而且还有语法错误
When his nanny reads to him,
他的保姆读儿童绘本时
the voice is more monotone.
声调没有什么起伏
It’s more boring
听起来就很单调
and paying attention is more difficult.
难以吸引他的注意
Words he’s missing, often remain missing.
他不会的单词还是听不懂
By the end of the year Lucy knows 6,000
一年之后 露西已经认识了6000词
and Pete knows 2,000 words.
而皮特却只会2000词
To understand why the actual difference in language abilities
为什么语言能力上的差距要比看起来更大呢?
between the two is even larger than it seems,
我们可以这样理解
let’s imagine that words are nothing
不要把单词当做单词
but tools that help us
而是把它想象成一种
encode the world, form thoughts, structure ideas
帮助我们编译世界 形成见解 构建思想
and then communicate with others.
并与他人交流的工具
With 6,000 words compared to 2,000 words
那么拿露西6000词的储备与皮特2000词的储备相比
Lucy’s toolbox is now three times the size.
露西的工具箱已经是皮特的三倍大了
Lucy has a huge head start as she
她一开始上小学
is entering elementary school.
就会有很大的先天优势
Einstein by the way,
顺便一提
as a child seldom spoke
爱因斯坦儿时几乎不说话
one interesting anecdote goes like this:
有一件关于他的趣闻:
As he was a late talker and hardly spoke at the age of 7
因为他说话晚 直到7岁都还很少说话
his parents were worried
所以他的父母很担心
and tried many things to get him to speak.
想尽了办法让他说话
At one point they were afraid that he had learning disabilities.
他们担心爱因斯坦有学习障碍
At last, at the dinner table one night,
某天吃晚饭时
he broke his silence to say:
爱因斯坦终于说话了:
“the soup is too hot!”
“汤好烫!”
Greatly relieved his parents asked
他父母才终于松了口气
why he had never said a word before?
问他以前为什么不说话
The young genius replied:
这个小天才回答:
“Because up until now, everything was in order.”.
“因为至今为止每件事都井井有条”
What are your thoughts about language learning?
你是怎么看待语言学习的呢?
Can someone like Pete still catch up later in life
像皮特这样的孩子以后还能跟上其他孩子
or maybe find other good ways to express himself?
或者找到其他好的方式表达自己吗?
Maybe our point of view is too narrow
也许我们的观点太狭隘了
and Pete and Lucy actually balance each other out
皮特和露西也许实际上没有很大的差距
with the different skills they have?
因为他们各自有不同的能力
Please share your thoughts in the comments below!
请在下方评论区分享你的观点吧!
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全世界无数学生
have watched our sprouts videos for better learning,
都通过《铅绘心理》来帮助学习知识
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无数老师在课堂上播放这些视频来开展课题
volunteers on YouTube have translated them to over 25 languages.
油管上的志愿者们翻译出了超过25种语言版本
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我们的任务就是推动全球课堂学习
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假如你有很好的讲解能力 是一个满怀激情的老师
and you want to help us to develop outstanding contents
并且也想帮助我们创造更多的优秀内容
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请联系我们
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视频概述

本视频介绍了人生前五年大脑学习语言的生理机制,并通过两个以不同方式培养的孩子——露西和皮特的例子,说明了人生头五年不同的语言学习经历能够在此后的人生中产生多么巨大的影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小霸王阿呆

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u49uLLCUlEk

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