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宇宙加速膨胀新解释

Einstein Might Have Been Wrong About Gravity... Here’s Why

The universe is expanding,and that expansion is speeding up…
整个宇宙正在膨胀 并且膨胀在加速
which is the opposite of what we expected.
这与我们的预测截然相反
We haven’t been able to figure out exactly why,
目前我们无法确切解释其缘由
but we have thought
而只是设想
it might have something to do with dark energy.
或许与一种叫做暗物质的东西有关
And a certain paradigm-shifting hypothesis
某种范式转移假说
may just resolve all of these uncertainties,
也许恰好能解答所有不确定
and if it’s true?
如果这一假说是真的
That means gravity has mass.
就意味着重力有质量
Okay, but let’s back up.
我们来论证一下
There are many weird and wonderful mysteries out there in space,
宇宙中存在许多奇妙的神秘现象
but one of the most perplexing is the fact that the universe is expanding.
但最令人困惑的事实就是宇宙在膨胀
We know this because we can see the Doppler effect in action
得知宇宙膨胀是因为 我们观测遥远的
when we observe distant galaxies.
银河系 发现多普勒效应在起作用
You may know of the Doppler effect as that distortion of sound that happens when say,
我们通过声音的失真 能感受多普勒效应
an ambulance approaches—it sounds different when it’s far away
比如 救护车驶来时的声音失真
versus when it’s right next to you in the street.
救护车在远处和近处时声音是不同的
That same thing happens with light waves,
光波也是一样
so we can tell where galaxies
由此我们可以判断银河系外的天体
outside of our own are going… and how fast.
移动的方向与速度
These observations fit within Einstein’s theory of general relativity.
这些观测现象符合爱因斯坦的广义相对论
In fact, the universe’s expansion is one predicted outcome of his theory.
事实上 宇宙膨胀是该理论的一个预测结果
But here’s the catch:
但有点需要注意的是
accelerating expansion DOESN’T fit with our current theory of gravity.
加速膨胀不符合现有的重力理论
According to Einstein,
根据爱因斯坦的理论
the universe’s expansion should actually be slowing down.
宇宙膨胀应该在减速
There are lots of different ideas about what could be causing the inexplicable acceleration of this expansion
是什么导致加速膨胀的呢 关于这个有许多不同的观点
,and one commonly suspected culprit is something called dark energy…
普遍猜测元凶是一种名为暗物质的东西
…and we’re not entirely sure what that is, either.
并且我们并不完全确定暗物质是什么
But now, we might finally have an explanation.
但现在 我们终于有了一个解释
A theory proposed by professor Claudia de Rham at Imperial College London
伦敦帝国理工学院的Claudia De Rham教授提出的一个理论
suggests something pretty radical: that gravity has mass.
包含相当激进的想法 重力具有质量
Within the Standard Model, there are four fundamental forces that pretty much govern
标准模型下 四种基本力控制着
the way the universe works.
宇宙运行的方式
Three of those four forces have “carrier particles” that we can observe:
通过观测 其中的三种力有“载体粒子”
the weak force has bosons, the strong force has gluons , and the electromagnetic force has photons
弱力含有玻色子 强力含有胶子 电磁力含有光子
That fourth force is gravity, and hypothetically its carrier particle would be called a graviton…
第四种力是重力 假设重力的载体粒子为引力子
if we could find it.
前提是我们已经发现有载体粒子存在
Which we haven’t yet.
至今尚未发现
In Einstein’s theory of general relativity, gravitons should be massless
根据爱因斯坦的广义相对论 引力子是零质量的
, but in de Rham’s proposal, the graviton has mass.
但De Rham教授认为 引力子是有质量的
This would resolve our confusion about the universe’s expansion.
这就可以解答有关宇宙膨胀的疑惑了
If gravitons have mass, then gravity as a force
如果引力子有质量 那么重力作为基本力
isn’t as easily able to propagate over long distances.
就无法轻松地长距离传递
The math tells us that gravity is actually weaker on cosmological scales if gravity has mass.
数学告诉我们 如果重力有质量 在宇宙就会减弱
So gravity wouldn’t be able to slow down the expansion of our universe.
因此重力无法减缓宇宙膨胀的速度
And this also means that, maybe, we now know what dark energy is—
这也就意味着也许我们现在知道什么是暗物质
or rather, we’ve known all along because…it’s gravity.
或者说我们一直都知道 因为它就是重力
If gravity itself is a particle with mass,
如果重力本身是有质量的粒子
it takes up space, it is STUFF,
占有宇宙空间 是真实存在的物质
then it could be fulfilling the role we’ve assigned to this mysterious ‘dark energy.’ And
那就符合我们对神秘“暗物质”的角色设定
scientists are calling this the theory of “massive gravity.”
科学家们把这一理论命名为质量重力
So, just very casual—this work may have upended some of the most fundamental things
但这一理论会推翻某些我们对宇宙
we believed about the universe
最为基本的认知
and solved some of its biggest mysteries…
并且已经揭开了一些宇宙大谜题
no big deal.
没关系
But it’s not just interesting for that reason.
但宇宙的趣味不限于此
The idea was originally proposed in the 1930s,
这个观点最初在20世纪30年代提出
but de Rham and her co-authors reignited the debate around it
2011年De Rham及其合著共同发表一篇论文
back in 2011 with a pretty controversial paper.
再次激起有关这一假说的争论
There was a big backlash from others
引起某些研究宇宙的科学家们强烈反对
in the cosmology community who didn’t believe this could possibly be true.
他们不认为这可能会是真的
But in the almost ten years since,
但是将近十年过去
the work has withstood the tests it’s been put to.
这个理论经受了诸多考验
It’s been steadily gaining credibility,
如今越来越多的人认可这一理论
and sparking conversation about the nature of our universe more than ever before.
并引起人们对宇宙本质 前所未有的讨论
The math checks out,
尽管这一理论经受了数学的验证
but now we need to look for evidence we could observe and record
但我们仍然需要通过观测记录寻找证据
that might empirically support this theory.
以经验主义的方式来支撑这一理论
Luckily, we live in an era where we can measure gravity—although indirectly—via gravitational waves
幸运的是 我们现在能借助激光干涉引力天文台
with tools like LIGO.
间接地通过重力波来测量重力
The future of gravitational wave astronomy may allow us to measure and observe gravity
未来重力波天文学甚至可以帮助我们测量并观测重力
and its behavior and its effects on the universe in ways that may blow this whole case wide open,
及其行为和对宇宙的影响 黑匣子终将打开
helping us settle this question of whether gravity is as massive as it seems it could be
彻底解答重力是否真的具有质量
For even more on gravitational wave science and scientific controversy,
想要了解更多关于重力波的知识及其争议
check out this video here,
请收看本视频
and let us know what other mysteries of the universe you want to see us cover next
下期还想了解哪些宇宙谜题
down in the comments below.
请在下方评论区留言
Subscribe to Seeker for all your paradigm-shifting news
欢迎订阅《探索新闻台》 这里有一切颠覆你认知的新闻
and as always thanks for watching.
感谢观看
I’ll see you next time.
下次见

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视频概述

爱因斯坦的广义相对论无法解释宇宙加速膨胀的事实,具有质量的引力子也许能解释这一现象

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

艳芳

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHh_d45GY10

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