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爱因斯坦和相对论 – 译学馆
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爱因斯坦和相对论

Einstein and The Special Theory of Relativity

大约在十九世纪
Around nineteen-hundred,
以爱因斯坦为代表的物理学家遇到了难题
all of physics, and particularly Einstein, was in trouble.
他们弄不清楚物体是如何运动的
they couldn’t figure out how anything could move…
在吐槽我在夸大其实之前
Now before you complain that I’m exaggerating,
看看这只猫吧
check out this cat!
可以清楚看到 这只猫匀度远离爱因斯坦
You can clearly see that the cat is moving away from Einstein at a constant velocity…
而我们慢慢滑动
but do a little sliding switcheroo,
现在看起来就像是爱因斯坦在移动
and suddenly it looks like Einstein’s the one moving.
这就是狭义相对论
This is the “old-fashioned principle of relativity,”
但是值得注意的是 这种突变会改变位置 速度等
but the point is that the switcheroo changes relative things, like position and velocity,
但并非绝对 就像爱因斯坦正在远离那只猫
and not absolute ones, like the separation of Einstein from his cat.
那么问题来了:在爱因斯坦出生前
Now for the problem: before Einstein was even born,
物理学家就指出光速是恒定的
physicists showed that the speed of light was one of those absolute things
不会因为运动而改变
which can’t be changed by a switcheroo,
因此不论我们做怎样的运动 光速都是一样的
so any switcheroo we do has to keep light moving at the same speed.
但是很显然我们无法做这样的滑动运动
But then it’s obvious that we can’t do our sliding switcheroo at all,
这意味着我们不能解释光以外物质的运动
which means we can’t explain how anything other than light can move!
好吧 我说得太快……有个解决方法 你看到没
Ok, I spoke too soon… there is one solution – do you see it?
假设我们的运动都同时处在同一时间片段
We were assuming that our switcheroo had to keep every slice of time at the same, well, time.
但没有一条物理定律证明
But there’s no law of physics that says
时间是恒定的 不会因运动改变
time is an absolute thing that can’t be changed by switcheroos.
因此如果我们移动的时候把时间片段旋转
So if we just rotate the slices of time while sliding them,
我们就能保持光速不变
then we can keep the speed of light the same,
也解释了物体是怎样运动的
and explain how things can move, too.
当然 爱因斯坦在1905年没有弄清“相对性原理”
Of course, Einstein didn’t figure out this “special principle of relativity” in 1905
早在十年前洛伦兹就提出了
– it was already done by a guy named Lorentz ten years earlier.
但是洛伦兹只是把时间循环看成数学技巧
But Lorentz just thought this time-rotation was a mathematical trick…
而这给了爱因斯坦机会
and it took Einstein to step in,
然后你假设“时间循环”是真的
and, you guessed it, propose that “time-rotation” is real,
时间的确是相对的
that time really is relative,
因此 相对于观察者的同时事件
and that consequently, simultaneous events relative to one observer
与相对运动者的是不同的
aren’t simultaneous relative to another who’s moving.
现在这是真正运动的观点
Now that’s a real switcheroo of perspective.
关注@minutephysics或登录facebook.com/minutephysics获取更多爱因斯坦及其成果的相关视频
More videos about Albert Einstein and his work: @minutephysics facebook.com/minutephysics

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视频概述

爱因斯坦狭义相对论的发现,解释了物质运动的原理

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajhFNcUTJI0

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