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如何把你在乎的事做得更好

Eduardo Briceño: How to get better at the things you care about | TED

Most of us go through life trying to do our best at whatever we do,
人在一生中不管是在工作 家庭 学校还是其他领域
whether it’s our job, family, school
大都尽己所能
or anything else.
把任何事情都做得最好
I feel that way. I try my best.
我这么想 也这么做
But some time ago, I came to a realization
但前段时间 我开始意识到
that I wasn’t getting much better at the things I cared most about,
在我最在意的事情上 我并没有进步
whether it was being a husband or a friend
无论是作为一个丈夫或是一个朋友
or a professional or teammate,
或者是一位专业人士还是队员
and I wasn’t improving much at those things
即使我花费了很多时间
even though I was spending a lot of time
努力处理那些事情
working hard at them.
我一直没有很大提升
I’ve since realized from conversations I’ve had and from research
我之后在与他人谈话和研究中意识到
that this stagnation, despite hard work,
经管努力工作 却仍停滞不前
turns out to be pretty common.
这个现象十分普遍
So I’d like to share with you some insights into why that is
所以我想同你们分享一下 这种现象为何发生
and what we can all do about it.
以及如何应对的见解
What I’ve learned is that the most effective people
我了解到 在任何领域的
and teams in any domain
最高效的人和团队
do something we can all emulate.
我们可以模仿他们去做事
They go through life deliberately alternating between two zones:
他们在生活中有意识地在两个区域中切换
the learning zone and the performance zone.
学习区和执行区
The learning zone is when our goal is to improve.
学习区用来提升技能
Then we do activities designed for improvement,
我们通过专门设计的活动来提升技能
concentrating on what we haven’t mastered yet,
专注于那些我们尚未掌握的事情
which means we have to expect to make mistakes,
这意味着我们一定会有失误
knowing that we will learn from them.
且知道我们会从中汲取教训
That is very different from what we do when we’re in our performance zone,
这个跟我们在执行区做的事情有很大不同
which is when our goal is to do something as best as we can, to execute.
在执行区时我们的目标是尽力把事情做到最好 去执行
Then we concentrate on what we have already mastered
那么 我们在已经掌握的东西上集中精力
and we try to minimize mistakes.
然后 我们尽力缩小错误
Both of these zones should be part of our lives,
这两个区域都应该成为我们生活的部分
but being clear about when we want to be in each of them,
但当你清楚地想游刃于这两种不同的区域
with what goal, focus and expectations,
你得清楚你的目标是什么 关注什么 预期效果如何
helps us better perform and better improve.
从而帮助我们更好地表现和提高自己
The performance zone maximizes our immediate performance,
执行区可以使我们当下工作表现得最优
while the learning zone maximizes our growth
而学习区可以使自己进步最大化
and our future performance.
并且提升未来的表现
The reason many of us don’t improve much
尽管我们许多人努力工作
despite our hard work
但并没有得到很大提高的原因
is that we tend to spend almost all of our time in the performance zone.
是我们几乎将所有时间花在执行区
This hinders our growth,
这阻碍了我们的成长
and ironically, over the long term, also our performance.
更讽刺的是 长期来看也会影响我们的表现
So what does the learning zone look like?
那么学习区是什么的样子的?
Take Demosthenes, a political leader
以狄摩西尼为例 他是一位政治领袖
and the greatest orator and lawyer in ancient Greece.
还是古希腊最伟大的演说家和律师
To become great, he didn’t spend all his time
为变得优秀 他并没有花费全部时间
just being an orator or a lawyer,
仅仅作为一个演说家或者一个律师
which would be his performance zone.
也就是他执行区的一部分
But instead, he did activities designed for improvement.
相反 他开始做一些提高自己能力的活动
Of course, he studied a lot.
当然 他学习了很多
He studied law and philosophy with guidance from mentors,
他不仅在导师的指导下学习了法律和哲学
but he also realized that being a lawyer involved persuading other people,
他还意识到了律师的职责包括说服他人
so he also studied great speeches
所以他还研究了大量的演讲
and acting.
和表演
To get rid of an odd habit he had of involuntarily lifting his shoulder,
为了克服无意识耸肩的怪毛病
he practiced his speeches in front of a mirror,
他在镜子前练习演讲
and he suspended a sword from the ceiling
他还在天花板上悬挂一把剑
so that if he raised his shoulder,
所以 一旦耸肩
it would hurt.
肩膀就会受伤
(Laughter)
[笑声]
To speak more clearly despite a lisp,
尽管口齿不清 但为了发音清晰
he went through his speeches with stones in his mouth.
他曾嘴里含着石子来练习他的演讲
He built an underground room
他建造了一间地下室
where he could practice without interruptions
在那里他可以不受打扰地练习
and not disturb other people.
并且不会打扰到其他人
And since courts at the time were very noisy,
因为法庭有时候是很嘈杂的
he also practiced by the ocean,
他也会在海边练习
projecting his voice above the roar of the waves.
保证他的声音在海浪咆哮中清晰可听
His activities in the learning zone
他在学习区的活动
were very different from his activities in court,
与他在法庭上的行为 也就是执行区行为
his performance zone.
截然不同
In the learning zone,
在学习区
he did what Dr. Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice.
他会做安德斯•爱立信博士所说的刻意训练
This involves breaking down abilities into component skills,
这包括将要学习的能力拆解为所需技能
being clear about what subskill we’re working to improve,
从而明确我们要努力提高的是什么次级技能
like keeping our shoulders down,
比如不要耸肩
giving full concentration to a high level of challenge
要全神贯注于舒适区之外的
outside our comfort zone,
更高水平的挑战之上
just beyond what we can currently do,
刚好超越我们目前在做的事情
using frequent feedback with repetition and adjustments,
在重复和调整中得到反馈
and ideally engaging the guidance of a skilled coach,
最好能得到熟练者的指导
because activities designed for improvement
因为 为提升自己而设定行为
are domain-specific,
是有领域特殊性的
and great teachers and coaches know what those activities are
而好的老师和教练知道什么行为能进步
and can also give us expert feedback.
并且可以给予我们专业的反馈
It is this type of practice in the learning zone
正是学习区中的这种练习方式
which leads to substantial improvement,
让我们有真正的提高
not just time on task performing.
而不是单纯完成任务
For example, research shows that after the first couple of years
举个例子 有研究表明 在一个行业
working in a profession,
工作几年后
performance usually plateaus.
表现会到达停滞期
This has been shown to be true in teaching, general medicine,
这也在教育 医学
nursing and other fields,
护理和其他领域得到证实
and it happens because once we think we have become good enough,
我们一旦认为我们足够好
adequate,
骄傲自满
then we stop spending time in the learning zone.
而停止学习 这种现象就会发生
We focus all our time on just doing our job,
我们把所有的时间集中在我们的工作上
performing,
也就是展现
which turns out not to be a great way to improve.
而这不是一种提升技能的好方法
But the people who continue to spend time in the learning zone
但是那些继续在学习区花费时间的人
do continue to always improve.
他们持之以恒 能力获得了持续提高
The best salespeople at least once a week
最优秀的销售人员至少每周
do activities with the goal of improvement.
进行一次自我提高活动
They read to extend their knowledge,
他们通过阅读来拓展知识
consult with colleagues or domain experts,
咨询同事或者领域内专家
try out new strategies, solicit feedback and reflect.
尝试新的策略 征求反馈意见 然后认真反思
The best chess players
顶尖的国际象棋棋手
spend a lot of time not playing games of chess,
并没有花费大量的时间在下棋上
which would be their performance zone,
因为下棋是在他们的执行区
but trying to predict the moves grand masters made and analyzing them.
而是尽力预测大师们的走棋并对其进行分析
Each of us has probably spent many, many, many hours
我们中的每一个人可能曾经在电脑打字上
typing on a computer
花费了很多很多时间
without getting faster,
然而没有打得更快
but if we spent 10 to 20 minutes each day
但是如果我们每天花费10到20分钟
fully concentrating on typing 10 to 20 percent faster
完全专注于打字
than our current reliable speed,
就比目前稳定速度快10%到20%的样子
we would get faster,
这样我们的速度就会提升
especially if we also identified what mistakes we’re making
尤其是如果我们还能发现犯了什么错
and practiced typing those words.
然后练习这些字
That’s deliberate practice.
这就是有意练习
In what other parts of our lives,
我们生活中的其他部分 大概也是我们比较在意的
perhaps that we care more about,
还有哪些是
are we working hard but not improving much
我们努力工作仍没有很大改进的部分?
because we’re always in the performance zone?
是不是因为我们总是呆在执行区?
Now, this is not to say that the performance zone has no value.
现在 不是说执行区没有价值
It very much does.
其实很有价值
When I needed a knee surgery, I didn’t tell the surgeon,
当我需要做膝盖手术 我可不想告诉医生
“Poke around in there and focus on what you don’t know.”
随便戳戳 重点探索你不知道的地方
(Laughter)
(笑声)
“we’ll learn from your mistakes!”
“我们会从你的失误中吸取教训!”
I looked for a surgeon who I felt would do a good job,
我会寻找一个我认为靠谱的外科医生
and I wanted her to do a good job.
我也希望她好好给我治病
Being in the performance zone
在执行区
allows us to get things done as best as we can.
让我们尽可能地把事情做到最好
It can also be motivating,
同时也具有激励性
and it provides us with information to identify what to focus on next
它也可以提供信息 当我们回到学习区时
when we go back to the learning zone.
下一步要注意什么
So the way to high performance
通往高水平展现的路
is to alternate between the learning zone and the performance zone,
就是在学习区和执行区中交替
purposefully building our skills in the learning zone,
在学习区有目的地提升我们的技能
then applying those skills in the performance zone.
然后将这些技能应用在执行区
When Beyoncé is on tour,
当碧昂斯在巡演时
during the concert, she’s in her performance zone,
演唱会 就是她的执行区
but every night when she gets back to the hotel room,
但当每天晚上她回到酒店房间时
she goes right back into her learning zone.
她马上又回到了自己的学习区
She watches a video of the show that just ended.
她会观看自己刚刚结束演出的视频
She identifies opportunities for improvement,
为她自己 舞者 摄像组
for herself, her dancers and her camera staff.
寻求进步突破口
And the next morning,
然后在第二天早上
everyone receives pages of notes with what to adjust,
每个人都会收到数页笔记 告诉大家哪里需要调整
which they then work on during the day before the next performance.
他们会在下一场演出前进行调整
It’s a spiral
这是一个
to ever-increasing capabilities,
能力不断螺旋上升的过程
but we need to know when we seek to learn, and when we seek to perform,
但我们需要知道何时学习 何时表现
and while we want to spend time doing both,
另外当我们想花时间兼顾两者时
the more time we spend in the learning zone,
想要进步
the more we’ll improve.
就要多花时间在学习区
So how can we spend more time in the learning zone?
所以我们应该如何将更多时间用在学习区?
First, we must believe and understand
首先 我们必须相信和明白
that we can improve,
我们可以提高能力
what we call a growth mindset.
我们称作成长性思维模式
Second, we must want to improve at that particular skill.
其次 我们必须想要去提高特殊技能水平
There has to be a purpose we care about,
因为时间 精力有限
because it takes time and effort.
它们必须花费在我们在乎的目标上
Third, we must have an idea about how to improve,
第三 我们必须知道怎样去提升
what we can do to improve,
如何提升
not how I used to practice the guitar as a teenager,
而不像我们年轻时练习吉他那样
performing songs over and over again,
一遍又一遍地重复练习同一首歌曲
but doing deliberate practice.
而是要有意练习
And fourth, we must be in a low-stakes situation,
最后一点 我们必须在低风险环境中
because if mistakes are to be expected,
因为如果失误是意料之中的
then the consequence of making them must not be catastrophic,
那么失误的后果一定不会是灾难性的
or even very significant.
有一点严重都不行
A tightrope walker doesn’t practice new tricks without a net underneath,
如果身下没有保护网 钢丝演员就不会练习新技巧
and an athlete wouldn’t set out to first try a new move
一个运动员在冠军赛中
during a championship match.
不会首先尝试新的动作
One reason that in our lives
在生活中
we spend so much time in the performance zone
我们花太多的时间在执行区的一个原因是
is that our environments often are, unnecessarily, high stakes.
我们通常不必要地将环境置于高风险状态
We create social risks for one another,
我们对彼此制造了社会风险
even in schools which are supposed to be all about learning,
即使在一切为了学习的学校
and I’m not talking about standardized tests.
我不是在讨论标准化考试
I mean that every minute of every day,
我意思是很多学生每时每刻
many students in elementary schools through colleges
从小学到大学
feel that if they make a mistake, others will think less of them.
觉得其他人会因为他们犯错而轻视他们
No wonder they’re always stressed out
难怪他们总是很紧张
and not taking the risks necessary for learning.
并且不愿意去冒必要的风险去学习
But they learn that mistakes are undesirable
当老师或父母对正确答案趋之若鹜时
inadvertently
无意中
when teachers or parents are eager to hear just correct answers
学生知晓了犯错是不好的
and reject mistakes rather than welcome and examine them
而不是勇于试错和检视过错
to learn from them,
并从中汲取教训
or when we look for narrow responses
又或者是我们寻求’标准答案’
rather than encourage more exploratory thinking
而不是激励学生进行大有裨益的
that we can all learn from.
开拓性思考
When all homework or student work has a number or a letter on it,
一旦所有的家庭作业或者学生作业都用一个数字或一个字母来评定等级 标上分数
and counts towards a final grade,
最后计入期末成绩
rather than being used for practice, mistakes, feedback and revision,
就起不到练习 犯错 反馈和修正的作用
we send the message that school is a performance zone.
我们让孩子认为学校是一个执行区
The same is true in our workplaces.
职场亦是如此
In the companies I consult with, I often see flawless execution cultures
在我所咨询的公司中 我经常看到无缺陷企业文化
which leaders foster to encourage great work.
领导们培育这种文化来激励出色的工作
But that leads employees to stay within what they know
但这导致员工们只能停留在在他们已知的领域里
and not try new things,
固步自封
so companies struggle to innovate and improve,
所以公司很难创新和进步
and they fall behind.
然后他们就会落居下风
We can create more spaces for growth
我们可以通过与别人沟通交流
by starting conversations with one another
为彼此创造更多的成长空间
about when we want to be in each zone.
让行为各属所区空间
What do we want to get better at and how?
谈论我们想在什么方面变得更好 怎么做
And when do we want to execute and minimize mistakes?
何时决策 何时控损
That way, we gain clarity about what success is,
这样我们就清楚什么是成功
when, and how to best support one another.
何时以及以何种方式支持对方
But what if we find ourselves in a chronic high-stakes setting
但如果我们发现自己长期处于高风险环境中
and we feel we can’t start those conversations yet?
并且感觉仍然无法开始对话怎么办?
Then here are three things that we can still do as individuals.
作为个人 我们仍然可以自己着手做的三件事
First, we can create low-stakes islands in an otherwise high-stakes sea.
第一 我们可以在高风险的海洋中开辟低风险岛屿
These are spaces where mistakes have little consequence.
在这些地方 错误不会有严重后果
For example, we might find a mentor or a trusted colleague
比如 我们可以找一位导师或值得信赖的同事
with whom we can exchange ideas or have vulnerable conversations
和他们交换想法或者接受批评
or even role-play.
甚至是角色扮演
Or we can ask for feedback-oriented meetings as projects progress.
或者随着项目推进我们可以召开反馈会议
Or we can set aside time to read or watch videos or take online courses.
或者我们可以腾出时间来阅读 观看视频或参加在线课程
Those are just some examples.
这只是一些例子
Second, we can execute and perform as we’re expected,
第二 我们可以实践 遵循预期去执行
but then reflect on what we could do better next time,
然后反思下次哪些地方可以改进
like Beyoncé does,
像碧昂斯做的那样
and we can observe and emulate experts.
而且我们可以观察和模仿专家
The observation, reflection and adjustment is a learning zone.
观察 反思和调整同在学习区进行
And finally, we can lead
最后 我们可以通过分享我们想在何处取得进步
and lower the stakes for others by sharing what we want to get better at,
引导并降低他人的风险
by asking questions about what we don’t know,
通过询问未知的问题
by soliciting feedback and by sharing our mistakes
通过征求反馈意见和分享失误
and what we’ve learned from them,
和从错误中汲取教训
so that others can feel safe to do the same.
如此 别人就可以安心地做相同的事情
Real confidence is about modeling ongoing learning.
真正的自信是规范现行的学习行为
What if, instead of spending our lives doing, doing, doing,
如果 我们不再耗费时间在做事
performing, performing, performing,
表现 输出上
we spent more time exploring,
而是花更多的时间去探索
asking,
去提问
listening,
去聆听
experimenting, reflecting,
去实验 反思
striving and becoming?
去努力和成就自己?
What if we each always had something
如果我们每个人都有一些
we were working to improve?
事情需要我们为之努力改进 从而获得提升会怎么样呢?
What if we created more low-stakes islands
如果我们开辟更多低风险的岛屿
and waters?
和水域会怎么样
And what if we got clear,
如果我们弄清楚
within ourselves and with our teammates,
自身以及队友
about when we seek to learn and when we seek to perform,
什么时候该学习 什么时候该表现
so that our efforts can become more consequential,
这样我们的努力才会有更多回报
our improvement never-ending
我们的进步永无止境
and our best even better.
我们的工作会锦上添花
Thank you.
谢谢大家

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视频概述

我们大部分人终其一生也没有把自己在意的事情做好,因为我们不懂得生活中两个区域的作用和关系。我们可以把生活分为两个功能区,学习区和执行区。学习区用来提升自己能力,执行区用来展现自己。当事业遇到瓶颈时,要去学习区提升能力。无论何时都要学会把更多的时间花在学习区,练习、犯错、反馈、复习,从而在特定的方面获得提升。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

王康

审核员

审核员SLS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKACzIrog24

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