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如何做出视觉的喜剧效果

Edgar Wright - How to Do Visual Comedy

一 二 三 四
One, two, three four
嗨 我是托尼 这里是《一帧一画》节目
Hi my name is Tony and this isEvery Frame a Painting.
那我今天要讲一个导演 他的作品我很喜欢
So today I’m going to talk abouta director whose work I love.
但是开始前 我要声明下 我认为当今的喜剧电影
but before that let me be upfront.I think comedy movies today
特别是美国的喜剧电影 已经迷失了
especially American oneshave totally lost their way.
尽管电影里有许多问题 但是我不讨厌
I don’t hate the jokesor the actors or the dialogue or the stories
那些玩笑啊演员啊对话啊或是故事
though there’s plenty of issues there.
我真正的担忧是那些电影制作的手法
My real qualm is that the filmmaking
那些制造笑点时画面和声音的处理 真的 太……
the use of picture and soundto deliver jokes, is just…
-什么鬼?-太无聊了
–What?–This is booooring.
-删了
–Delete.
看吧 每个人的兴趣点不同
Look, everyone’s taste is different.
你觉得搞笑的事情只是你觉得搞笑
What you find funny is what you find funny.
所以我不会说这些电影烂 或者是喜欢它的人烂
so I’m not saying these movies suck or you suck if you like them.
我要说的是 这些电影都不能算作电影
what I am saying is that these movies aren’t movies.
它们只是稍微编辑了一下的即兴表演
They’re lightly edited improv.
每个人都站着不动 然后在各自的特写镜头里给彼此打电话
Everyone stands still andtalks at each other in close-up.
几乎没有什么搞笑的东西是通过视觉传达的 全是通过声音
Almost none of these jokes come visuallyThey’re overwhelmingly sound.
而且连其它类型的声音都没有 只是对话
And not even the full range of sound,just dialogue.
这太悲哀了 因为声音要素在电影里只是一小部分啊
And this is really sad because that’s just a fractionof what’s possible in cinema.
除了动画和一些商业片
Apart from animationand some commercials,
视觉喜剧实际上在走下坡路
visual comedy is actuallymoving backwards. And that’s why
所以如果你喜欢这些东西 那么我一定要向你强烈推荐埃德加·赖特
if you love this kind of stuff,I cannot recommend Edgar Wright enough.
-你是医生呀 快点处理-嗯嗯 混蛋
–You’re a doctor, deal with it.–Yeah, motherfucker.
他是为数不多的能应用各种喜剧手段的人
He’s one of the only peopleworking in the genre
using the full range of what is possible
也正因如此 他能察觉到别人无法发现的笑点
And because of that, he can findhumor in places that other people don’t look.
举个例子吧 如果故事中
Here’s an example.Say you need to move your character
人物要从一个城市前往另一个城市 你怎么拍
from one city to another to get thestory going. How do you shoot it?
你能拍出笑点吗……嗯 不能
And can you get a joke out of it?…Well, no.
当然不能 因为你总是把这事儿交给第二小组永远都是从左向右的平移镜头
Not if you send out a 2nd unit to do it,every shot pans from left to right
明显的地标和标志混入庸俗的航拍镜头
you include obvious landmarks and signs,you mix in generic helicopter footage
还得加上轻快的音乐 这样观众才不会无聊
and you put upbeat music under itso the audience doesn’t get bored.
我们无数次的看到过这种偷懒无聊的电影制作
This is just lazy filmmaking and boring.We’ve seen it a million times.
那么真正有创造力的人是怎么拍这种场景的呢
What would happen if you were trulyinventive with this type of scene?
我们来见识下 这个不只是一组快切镜头
There we go! And this isn’tjust a series of quick cuts.
有许多故事信息展示在屏幕上
There’s a lot of goodvisual storytelling here.
这两个出租车镜头准确地告诉你 我们的出发点和目的地
These two taxi shots tell you exactlywhere we came from and where we’re going
这两个镜头强调了远离人烟的过程
These two shots emphasizethe move away from civilization.
我们的主角总是面向前面或是靠右
Our main character always facesforward or to the right
这样就遵循了屏幕方向
so screen direction is respected.
调小音乐 调大音效这个手法很有趣因为每个场景声音都很刺耳
Turning the music down and the sound FX up is funnybecause each cut is jarring.
而且西蒙·佩吉和瑞恩·高斯林的表演也是极赞的
And there’s even some nice performancesfrom Simon Pegg and Ryan Gosling.
好吧 这就是一个完全截出来的例子 没有前后关系 你说的对 没有说服力
Okay that was 1 example without context.You’re right. Totally unfair.
如果在你的电影里 非常可怕的灾难就要来临了
Well what if you had a movie wherea horrible apocalyptic event happens,
而你想事先有所预示 可能要安排人物没能注意到电视上面的一些重要细节
and you want to foreshadow it earlier,maybe by having the characters
那你要怎么表示这个呢
not notice something important on TV.How would you show it?
你是剪两个两秒的镜头
Would you just throw it in the editfor 2 seconds and 2 frames
还不交代任何人物与电视的联系
and no shot shows the relationshipbetween the characters and the TV?
-他刚建好他的房子 正在举办乔迁之宴
–he’s having a housewarming party,he just finished building his house.
还是这样处理?
Or would you do this?
-尽管官方没人准备对这一天发表声明 但宗教团体称这一天为判决日
–Although no one official is preparedto comment, religious groups are calling it judgment day.
-发生了……-大恐慌 就在伦敦的街上
–There’s…- panic on the streets of London
-源源不断的报道袭来……-全都是关于残忍袭击的
–as an increasing number of reports of…–serious attacks on
-人们真的是被……-生吞活剥了
–people who are literally being–eaten alive
好吧 还是不够有说服力那么如果电影里有个人说他不喝了
Okay still unfair. What if you had moviewhere one character has stopped drinking
其他人都觉得很扫兴 如果要从中制造个笑点
but the others are disappointed in himand you want to get a joke out of it.
你会怎么做
How would you do it?
他们是不是要站成一圈然后谈论他的酒量呢
Would they just stand aroundand talk about his drinking?
-不了 谢谢你 但是我跟我太太说了 我今晚不喝酒
–No I appreciate it but I told my wifeI wouldn’t drink tonight
-另外 我明天还有重要的事呢 你们几个喝好就好
–Besides I got a big day tomorrow.You guys have a great time.
-重要的事?什么事啊
–Big day? Doing what?
还是这么处理?-什么?!
or would you do this?-What ?!
-我不相信
–I don’t believe this.
这就是普通导演和大导演的差别
This is what separates a mediocredirector from a great one.
就是能将极简单枯燥的场景用新的方式表达的能力
The ability to take the most simple mundane scenesand find new ways to do them.
大导演能在人物或事物刚出场就让你笑出来
Great directors understand that youcan get a laugh just through staging.
举个大卫·波德维尔的例子让事物突然闯进镜头 就很搞笑
Here’s an example from David Bordwell:things popping up into frame are funny.
-让我做慢点 行啊 我就做慢点 你下来啊 跟这些烂东西为伍啊
–Slow ahead, I can go slow ahead.Come on down and chum some of this shit!
不仅仅是进入画面的事物 反着想想
And it’s not just things entering frame.Consider the opposite.
-我说了 跟劳拉女士说再见
–I said tell Ms. Laura “Goodbye”
-再见 劳拉女士
–Bye, Ms. Laura
放大画面也是笑点
You can get a laugh from a zoom.
-请你打开后备箱 摇下车窗 好吗
–You wanna pop the trunk and rollthe windows down, please?
升起视角也可以成为笑点-雪莉 对不起
You can get a laugh from a crane up.–Shirley, I’m so sorry.
-我要回家了 Britta-我知道 雪莉 我知道
–I’m going home, Britta.–I know, Shirley, I know.
-不是 我要回家了 你能帮我起来吗-哦
–No I’m going home, can you help me up?–Oh
平移镜头也能制造笑点
You can get a laugh from a pan.
正如马丁·斯科赛斯所说做电影的关键就在于什么能入镜 而什么不能
As Martin Scorsese put it cinema is a matter of what’s inthe frame and what’s not in the frame.
所以思考下构图吧就没有聪明或是愚蠢的喜剧这一说法
So think about the frame. And this isn’ta matter of smart or stupid comedy.
如果它真的有效 那就是有效
Really if it works, it works.
这里有埃德·加莱特处理画面和声音的8个手法
So here are 8 things Edgar Wrightdoes with picture and sound that
我希望其他的电影制作者可以借鉴一下
I want to see othercomedy filmmakers try out.
第一 事物以搞笑的方式进入画面
#1 Things entering the framein funny ways
是丽兹找你
It’s Lizy.
找史考特的
It’s for Scott.
法律实施不该受到地域的限制
The geographical location shouldn’t factor in the application of the law.
不用 谢谢
No thanks.
第二 人们以搞笑的方式离开画面
#2 People leaving the framein funny ways
你不知道怎么关闭
you don’t know how to switch off.
你都没察觉可疑情况 那谁干的呢
you didn’t see anything suspicious then who did it?
第三 在那里 还在那里
#3 There and back again
他们还在吗?
They are still out there?
还在
Yeah.
第四 相似的场景过渡
#4 Matching scene transitions
我记得这家
I remember this house.
天啊 你是怎么做到的?
Oh how do you do that?
华勒斯
Wallace!
第五 找准时机的声效
#5 The perfectly-timed sound effect
-你不跟金玩了-拜托 我跟金和好了 好吗
-You dumped Kim. -Okay, me and Kim are all good new, all right?
仔细看这本书吧
Do feel free to the book through.
第六 与音乐同步的动作
#6 Action synchronized to the music
第七 超级戏剧的光感
#7 Super-dramatic lighting cues
像个男人
Be a man.
我不知道 她有种特殊的魅力
I don’t know. What it is about that girl?
史考特 我禁止你追罗蒙娜
Scott I forbid you from hitting on Ramona
即使你有一年没交过真正的女朋友了
even if you haven’t had a real girlfriend over a year.
第八点
And number eight
我之前走过捷径的
I’m taking a shortcut before
第九 假想的枪战画面
And you know what, let’s thrown in#9 Imaginary gunfights
让他们见识见识
Let them have it.
所以如果你是电影制作人 请这样制作电影 画面是个操场 所以尽情的玩吧
So if you’re a filmmaker, work on this.The frame is a playground. So play.
下次你去影院 花15刀看个喜剧
And the next time you go toa theater and pay $15 to see a comedy
不要满意那些创造力上连Vine(电影名)都不如的垃圾们
don’t be satisfied with shitthat is less inventive than Vine.

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视频概述

在好莱坞喜剧电影越来越烂俗越来越不走心的年代,我们应该回归经典,看看马丁·斯科塞斯等经典喜剧大师是如何做出搞笑而不尴尬的喜剧的

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lala

审核员

YF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3FOzD4Sfgag

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