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宫外孕 – 译学馆
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宫外孕

Ectopic Pregnancy, Animation

宫外孕就是孕卵在子宫外着床发育
An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus.
正常情况下受精会发生在输卵管内最宽阔的部分
Normally, fertilization takes place in the widest section of the fallopian tube.
然后受精卵会游进并植入子宫
The fertilized egg then travels toward the uterus where it is to be implanted.
宫外孕就是受精卵卡在通往子宫的路上
Ectopic pregnancy happens when the egg gets stuck
直接在输卵管内着床发育了
on its way and starts to develop inside the tube.
这就是输卵管妊娠
This is known as tubal pregnancy.
着床也可能发生在子宫颈
Implantation may also occur in the cervix,
卵巢 腹腔
ovaries and abdominal cavity but tubal pregnancy
但输卵管妊娠是最常见的宫外孕
is by far the most common.
在这些极端罕见的例外下 胎儿是不能在宫外存活的
With extremely rare exceptions, the fetus cannot survive outside the uterus.
宫外孕如果不接受治疗 会导致输卵管破裂
Without treatment, the growing tissue may rupture,
祸及母体的生育结构
resulting in destruction of the surrounding
并造成足以威胁生命的大出血
maternal structures and a massive blood loss that could be life-threatening.
宫外孕初期没有任何迹象
An ectopic pregnancy may have no signs,
和正常妊娠没什么两样
or may feel like a normal pregnancy at first,
经hCG测定 结果为正常怀孕
with positive pregnancy test result for hCG.
宫外孕临床症状最早一般出现在
First clinical symptoms usually appear after 4 weeks
上一次正常月经期四周后
from the last normal menstrual period
会出现腹痛 阴道出血 或者两者兼而有之
and may include abdominal pain, v. bleeding, or both.
还可能伴有肩痛
There may also be shoulder pain.
如果输卵管破裂就会有大量出血
If the fallopian tube ruptures, heavy bleeding,
还可能造成晕厥和休克
fainting and shock can be expected.
这时就需要挂急诊 立即就医
This is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention.
宫外孕之所以会发生
Tubal pregnancy occurs because of problems
是因为受精卵在输卵管里的运输过程出现了问题
in transportation of the fertilized egg through the tube.
输卵管内分布着叫作“纤毛”的毛发状结构
Fallopian tubes are lined with hair-like structures called cilia
它们能帮助受精卵移动
that help to move the egg through.
人们认为如果纤毛过于稀疏
It is believed that a reduction in number
就会减缓受精卵的移动速度 进而导致宫外孕
of cilia may slow down the transport and lead to tubal pregnancies.
输卵管组织瘢痕 化学物质 毒品
Cilia degeneration can happen as a result of tubal tissue scarring or as an effect of
这些都会导致纤毛退化
certain chemicals or drugs.
宫外孕的病因包括:一 输卵管炎症
Risks factors include: -Inflammation of fallopian tubes –
比如输卵管炎 盆腔内器官感染等盆腔内器官疾病
salpingitis; or infection of pelvic organs – pelvic inflammatory disease.
这些感染一般由淋病和衣原体引起
These infections are commonly caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia.
二 避孕时使用子宫内避孕器
-Use of an intrauterine device as a contraceptive method.
三 输卵管和子宫做过手术 比如输卵管结扎
-Tubal or intrauterine surgeries such as tubal ligation,
输卵管再通 输卵管扩张 输卵管刮治
tubal reversal and dilation & curettage.
四 宫外孕先例
-Previous ectopic pregnancy.
五 先天输卵管畸形
-Abnormal fallopian tubes due to birth defects.
六 抽烟
-Smoking.
七 服用过某种生育药物
-Exposure to certain fertility drugs.
八 孕妇的母亲在怀孕期间服用过
-Daughters of mothers who have taken
人造雌性激素“乙烯雌酚”
the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy.
宫外孕确诊一般包括hCG血检和经阴道超声两种方法
Diagnosis is often based on blood tests for hCG and a transvaginal ultrasound.
如果宫外孕发现得早
If the ectopic pregnancy is detected early,
可以通过注射甲氨蝶呤来溶解胚胎组织
methotrexate may be injected to dissolve the pregnancy tissue.
此外 洞眼手术也是可行的
In other cases, a keyhole surgery may be performed.
但如果输卵管破裂 就需要进行紧急开腹手术
If the fallopian tube has ruptured, an emergency open surgery is required.
把破裂的输卵管切除
The ruptured tube is usually removed.
手术后
After treatment the hCG levels are
要进行hCG测定 以确保异常组织被完全切除
monitored to ensure that the entire ectopic tissue has been taken out.
如果hCG值居高不下 就需要进一步治疗
An hCG level that remains high would require further treatment.
感谢观看
Thank you for watching.
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Please feel free to suggest a topic you want us to cover by leaving a comment below.

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视频概述

宫外孕的病因、临床表现、鉴别诊断以及治疗。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPR1ocFayFc

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