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简介埃博拉病毒

Ebola 101 | National Geographic

血栓开始形成
Blood clots begin to form,
内脏开始衰竭
internal organs begin to fail,
用不上几天时间
and in a matter of days,
身体就会开始出血 然后死亡
the body hemorrhages and dies.
这恐怖的一切 都是由一场噩梦造成的
Terrors all caused by a nightmare come to life.
埃博拉是种罕见却异常危险的疾病
Ebola is a rare but extremely dangerous disease.
它被列为地球上最致命的疾病之一
It’s classified as one of the most lethal diseases on the planet
这种疾病的死亡率高达90%
with a fatality rate of up to 90%.
埃博拉由6种病毒引起
Ebola is caused by six species of virus
其中有四种已经被确认会使人类患病
with four known to cause sickness in humans,
每种病毒都以其爆发的地点命名
and each is named after thelocations of their outbreaks.
第一种被发现的是扎伊尔埃博拉病毒
The first known species was Zaire ebolavirus
它于1976年在扎伊尔共和国的埃博拉河附近被发现
discovered in 1976 near Zaire’s Ebola River,
这条河流注定成为所有埃博拉病毒的名字
a river fated to become thenamesake of all Ebola viruses.
与所有病毒一样
Like all viruses,
埃博拉病毒从显微层面开始感染宿主
Ebola viruses infect and feed off of their hosts
并寄生在宿主体内
starting on a microscopic level.
这些绳结状结构的病毒
The viruses, which are string-like structures,
内部含有RNA构成的遗传信息
contain genetic information in the form of ribonucleic acid, or RNA.
这是包裹在RNA外面的多层蛋白结构
Encasing the RNA are layers of proteins.
最外层的蛋白质具有多重功能
The proteins on the outermostlayer are highly versatile,
它可以改变形状
capable of changing shape
与宿主体内不同类型的细胞结合
and binding to different types of cells within a host.
而一旦与细胞结合
When binding occurs,
埃博拉病毒就会与宿主细胞融合
the Ebola virus fuses with a host cell,
将病毒的RNA释放进细胞内
allowing the virus’ RNA to infiltrate the cell
在细胞内部复制病毒
and to replicate the virus from within.
感染迅速蔓延至体内无数细胞
This infection quickly spreads to countless cells throughout the body,
造成目前人类已知最可怕的几种症状
resulting in some of the most terrifying symptoms known to man.
受埃博拉病毒感染的人
Within eight to 10 days, thoseinfected by the Ebola virus
在8-10天内 可能出现多种不同的严重症状
may experience symptomsdrastically ranging in severity
从发烧 腹泻 呕吐
from fevers to diarrhea and vomiting
到体内和体外出血
to internal and external bleeding,
通常是眼部出血
often from the eyes.
虽然疫情可由多种埃博拉病毒共同造成
While outbreaks have been caused by multiple species of Ebola virus,
但造成死亡率最高的
the strain with the highest fatality rate
还是最先被发现的扎伊尔埃博拉病毒
was the first to be discovered, Zaire ebolavirus.
2014年 它造成了史上最严重的一次疫情
In 2014, it caused the most severe outbreak in history,
这次疫情席卷西非
sweeping through western Africa
导致11000余人死亡
and resulting in over 11,000 deaths,
超过之前所有疫情致死人数的总和
more than all earlier Ebola outbreaks put together.
到目前为止 埃博拉仍无法被治愈
At this point, no cure for Ebola exists.
此外 最可能受病毒影响的社区
Plus, the communities most likely to be affected
都没有足够的医疗与保健服务
do not have sufficient access to healthcare.
与此同时
In the mean time,
国际社会正在努力研发疫苗并进行测试
international efforts are being made to develop and test vaccines
疫苗或许可以一劳永逸杜绝此类疾病
that could potentially stop the disease once and for all.

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