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道家的无为思想

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY: Wu Wei

[MUSIC]
[音乐]
Wu Wei means in Chinese none doing or doing nothing.
在中文中 无为意为无所作为或无所事事
It sounds like a pleasant invitation
听起来它像是邀人去愉悦地放松
to relax or worse fall into laziness or apathy.
或更有甚者堕入懒惰与漠不关心
Yet this concept is key to the noblesse kind of action according to the philosophy of Taoism,
然而在道教哲学中 无为是高洁行为的关键
and is the heart of what it means to follow Tao or the way.
亦是道教思想及处世方式的核心
According to the central text of Taoism, the Dao De Jing
在道教经典《道德经》中
the way never acts, yet nothing is left undone.
“无为而无不为”
This is the paradox of Wu Wei.
这也正是无为的矛盾所在
It doesn’t mean not acting. It means effortless action or actionless action.
它并不是不行动 而是指不刻意努力的行为或是不采取行动的行为
It means being at peace while engaged in the most fanatic tasks.
它意味着在激流中也要保持平和状态
so that one can carry these out with maximum skill and efficiency.
这样人就可以发挥出他最大的技能和效率
Something of the meaning of Wu Wei is captured when we talk of being in the zone
当谈到全神贯注做事时的状态时
at the one with what we’re doing in a stage of profound concentration and flow.
我们能稍稍体会到无为的含义
Wu Wei is closely connected to the Taoist reference for the natural world.
无为在道教中与自然世界紧密相关
For it means striving to make up a behavior, a spontaneous and inevitable of certain natural processes,
它努力使人的行为成为一种自发的不可避免的自然过程
and to ensure that we are swimming with rather than against the currents.
并确保我们顺势而为而非逆流而动
We ought to be like the bamboo that bends in the wind
我们应该像在风中弯曲的竹子
or the plant that adjusts itself to the shape of a tree.
或者按照成长规律调整长势的植物
Wu Wei involves letting go of ideals that we may otherwise try to force too violently onto things.
无为意味着我们要放下那些让我们用力过猛的理想
It invites us instead to respond to the true demands of situations.
它要我们根据实际情况做出回应
which tend only to be noticed when we put our own ego-driven plans to one side.
而只有当我们将那些自我驱动的计划放在一边时 我们才能感受到这种境界
What can follow is a loss of self-conscienceness, a new unity between self and its environment.
随之而来的是自我意识的消失 以及自我与环境之间融为一体
But none of this means we won’t be able to change or affect things if we strive for Wu Wei.
但这些并不意味着在追求无为时我们不能改变或影响事物发展
The Dao De Jing points out that we should be like water,
道德经指出 我们应该如同水
which is submissive and weak, and yet which can’t be surpassed for attacking what is hard and strong.
顺从避让 但却依然能以柔克刚
Through gentle persistence and compliance with the specific shape of a problem,
通过平和坚持及顺应问题的具体状态
an obstacle can be worked around and gradually eroded.
阻碍最终可以被克服并渐渐消弭
The idea of achieving the greatest effects by wise strategic passivity
这种通过战略性被动取得最大成效的思想
has been central to Chinese notions of politics, diplomacy and business.
已经成为了中国政治、外交、经商理念的核心
In the manuals of wisdom produced by Taoists,
在道教智慧的指南中
we’re repeatedly told that rather than impose a plan or model on the situation
我们反复学到 与其将计划或模型施加于某一状况
we should let others act frantically, and then likely adjust ourselves
我们更应该让他人先大肆动作 然后根据事物
as we see the direction that matters’ve evolved in.
发展的方向调整自己的策略
In China’s Tang Dynasty, many poets like the Wu Wei to the best aspects of being drunk.
在中国宋代 许多诗人喜欢将喝醉酒的状态比作无为
It wasn’t the alcoholism they were promoting but the decline in rigidity and anxiety
他们并不是鼓励酗酒 而是鼓励醉酒时那种不再紧绷和焦灼的状态
that sometimes comes with being a little drunk, which can help us to accomplish certain tasks.
它有时候反而会帮助我们达成一些事情
One poet compared someone inspired by Wu Wei to a drunk man who falls uninjured from a moving cart,
有诗人把一个无为的人比作是从行进货车上摔下来结果却毫发无伤的醉汉
such is their spiritual momentum that they are unaffected by accidents and misfortunes
他们的精神状态是如此上佳 以至于在面对意外和不幸时
that might break those of a more controlled and controlling mindset.
那些更克制更善于掌控事态的人都可能被击溃 而他们却能自保周全
Theories of painting from the Tang period onwards made Wu Wei central to artistic practice.
唐代以来的绘画理论使得无为成为艺术创作的核心思想
Rather than laboriously attempting to reproduce nature as faithful copiests,
与其费尽心思地制作一张张完美无缺的大自然复制品
the artists should find nature within themselves and surrender to its cores.
画家应该从自身寻找自然 并遵从自然道法
The painters’ task is not to imitate the external surface of things,
画家的使命不是模仿事物外在
but to present the Qi or spirit of things like mountains, trees, birds and rivers
而是要体现事物的“气” 即事物的内在精神 我们要感受高山河流丛林飞鸟的精神
by feeling some of the spirit in themselves and then letting it flow out through the brush onto silk paper.
然后再将它们付诸纸上 流泄自然
It followed that Taoist thinkers revere not just the finished work of art but the act of painting itself,
道教思想家们敬重的不仅仅是完成的艺术品 而且还有作画这种行为本身
and considered artist studios as places for applied philosophy.
艺术家的画室也被视为运用哲学思想的地方
The Tang Dynasty poet Fuzai described a big party
唐代诗人符载曾在诗中描绘了众人观看
that had been thrown to witness the painter Zhang Zao in action:
画家张璪作画的情形:
Right in the middle of the room, he sat down with his legs spread out, took a deep breath
“员外居中箕坐鼓气,
and the inspiration began to issue forth.
神机始发。
Those present were startled as if lightning were shooting across the heavens
其骇人也,若流电击空,
or a whirlwind was sweeping up into the sky.
惊飙泪天。
The ink seemed to be spitting from his flying brush.
摧挫斡掣,伪霍瞥列,毫飞墨喷,
He clapped his hands with a cracking sound.
掠卒掌如裂,
Suddenly strange shapes were born. When he’d finished,
离合徜徉,忽生怪状。及其终也,
there stood pine trees, scaly and riven, cracks,
则松麟皴,古峰岩,
steep and precipitous, clear water and turbulent clouds,
水湛湛,云窈眇,
He threw down his brush, got up and looked around in every direction.
投笔而起,为之四顾,
It seemed as if the sky had cleared after a storm,
若雷雨之澄雾,
draw a view of the true essence of ten thousand things.
见万物之情性……”
Fuzai added of Zhang whose works are sadly now lost, but he had left mere skill behind.
符载最后点评张璪这位如今作品散佚徒留画技传世的画家说:
“And the art was not painting but the very Tao itself.”
“观夫张公之艺非画也,真道也。”
A good life could not be attained by Wu Wei alone,
只靠无为思想并不能取得人生美满
but this Taoist concept captures a wisdom we may at times be in desperate need of,
但是这一道教理念蕴含一种我们常常亟需的智慧
when we are in danger of damaging ourselves through an overly stern and unyielding adherence
尤其是在我们过度执着于不合时宜的想法
to ideas which simply don’t fit the demands of the world.
而陷于自我伤害的时候

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视频概述

无为而无不为,无为讲求的是放下不必要的执着心,顺时而动,达到天人合一的境界。这种思想对于今天精神紧绷思想焦虑的现代人来说尤为重要。

听录译者

Philovist

翻译译者

霜霜

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvZi7ZV-SWI

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