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东方哲学: 赏石文化


在西方 我们通常从书本上了解哲学
In the west, we generally expect philosophy to come from books.
在东方 人们有一种更智慧的认识是 哲学也可以从其他事物身上发现 比如石头
In the east, more wisely, there’s an awareness that it may also come from other things, for example, rocks.
This is a brief history of a remarkable eastern tradition of philosophical rock appreciation.
公元826年 中国唐朝 江苏太湖
826 AD, Tang Dynasty, Lake Tai, Jiangsu Province, China.
在东部长江三角洲平原 一位中年男士在一个大湖边上散步
A middle-aged gentleman is taking a stroll around a large lake ,the Yangzi Delta Plain in eastern China,
岸边有什么东西引起了他的注意 这是个看起来琐碎
when something on its shore catches his eye. It’s an apparently trivial
yet momentous discovery, a pair of oddly shaped rocks.
This is perhaps no less than a founding moment in Chinese petrophyllia.
这位有素养的散步者是个特殊的人物 在他仕途几起几落后
this cultivated pedestrian is someone special. After numerous ups and downs in his career as a state official,
经历了失去皇宠乃至被流放 白居易最终挺过来了
including periods of imperial disfavor and exile, Bai Juyi has finally made it.
他被任命为苏州的地方官 而他也是中国历史上著名的大诗人之一
He’s been appointed prefect of the nearby city of Suzhou. He also happens to be one of China’s major poets.
这些天赋的结合并不是偶然的 一个理想的管理者不应只懂得算数和计时
It’s not a chance combination of talents. The ideal administrator doesn’t just know maths and time keeping.
在中国 他还得博学和懂得艺术 中国史上许多著名诗人和画家都有过公职
In China, he’s meant to be a man of learning and the arts. Many of China’s leading poets and painters have careers in public service.
白居易被这些嶙峋怪石所吸引 便把它们带回苏州
So struck as Bai Juyi by these rocks, with that twisted angles and perforations that he has them taken back home to Suzhou.
回来后 他即刻坐下来为此赋诗一首 名为《双石》
Soon after his return, he sits down and writes a poem about them, a Pair of Rocks.
他在开头写到 这两块石头并不具传统意义上的美:
Bai Juyi starts by meeting that the rocks are not typically beautiful.
苍然两片石, 厥状怪且丑……
Dark sallow, two slates of rocks,their appearance is grotesque and ugly.
孔黑烟痕深, 罅青苔色厚……他还描述了自己洗刷石头的过程
They are also covered in dirt and begrimed with smoke, their cavities thick with green moss. He described himself washing and scrubbing them.
So just what is the value of these unprepossessing specimens?
在古代中国 道学在成为流行宗教之前是一种哲学思想
Taoism, which began as a philosophy in ancient China before turning into a popular religion,
它崇尚自然以及能显示自然之力的事物 而白居易在这些石头中感受到了这一点
cherishes nature , and its evidence of nature’s force that Bai Juyi welcomes in these rocks.
-the holes, perforations, and indentations signal the patient mighty forces of the universe.
而我们应该尊重这种力量 欣赏它 并试着与其和谐相处
which we should respect, admire and attempt to find harmony with.
The ancient rocks are also a consolation for aging Bai
“渐恐少年场,不容垂白叟。” 他写到 :
who feels excluded from the world of youngsters, as he writes,
Turning my head around,I ask the pair of rocks
“Can you keep companywith an old man like myself?”
Although the rocks cannot speak,They promise that we will be three friends.
白居易对于石头的热情及诗文天赋 带动起一波赏石的潮流
Thanks to Bai Juyi’s enthusiasm and poetic talent, a wave of interest in rocks follows.
公元12世纪 中国北宋时期 安徽无为县
12th century AD, Northern Song Dynasty, Wuwei District, China.
Mi Fu, another rather eccentric scholar official, has just been appointed as a magistrate in Wuwei County.
新官上任 他必须得游走各方社交一番
On arrival, he has to pay an important social visit.
he’s been invited to meet and greet all the other important administrators with whom he’ll be working.
They stand waiting for him in the front garden of the official residence.
当他走来时 他们被他接下来不合常理的举动震惊了
But as he walks towards them, they are shocked at a sudden breach of protocol on his behalf.
for he’s been stopped in his tracks by an unusually large rock in the garden.
他没有向接待他的主人们致敬 反而转身对着这块石头隆重地鞠躬
Instead of offering his respects to his hosts, Mi Fu turns and bows ceremoniously to the rock
呼之为兄 膜拜不已
then addresses it as “elder brother rock” and makes an elaborate speech in its honor
在做完这一切后 米芾才走向那些目瞪口呆的官员们
Only after fully expressing his devotion to this amazing rock does Mi finally turned to his flabbergasted hosts.
It was this story that earned Mi Fu his sobriquet, Crazy Mi
and captured the imagination of aethetician painters,
对他们来说 米芾与其石兄千百年来是最喜闻乐见的形象
for whom Mi Fu and Elder Brother Rock remained a favorite image for centuries to come.
米芾还专门写了赏石准则 列举了石头的四种美学价值
Mi Fu goes on to write a treatise on rocks that enumerates four main aesthetic qualities he detects in them:
“瘦” 优雅正直之态 “皱” 褶皱沟壑的纹理
“Shou”, an elegant and upright stature; “Zhou”, a wrinkled and furrowed texture;
“漏” 石上如同渠道或道路的裂痕
“Lou”, or cracks that are like channels or paths through the rock,
“透” 石头上用以透气透光的孔洞
and “Tou”, the holes in the rock that allow air and lights to pass through.
In the 11th and 12th century, Chinese Northern Song Dynasty,
the passion for collecting rocks among scholar officials like Mi Fu takes off in earnest.
石头被镶嵌在木质底座上 放在桌上供人持续观赏
Stones are mounted on wooden bases and placed on desks as constant sources of inspiration.
这些装饰性石头被称为“供石”、灵石 在英语里被普遍误译为“仕石”
The decorative stones become known as Gongshi, spirit stones, popularly mistranslated as “scholars’ rocks” in English.
人们欣赏它们的奇形怪状 因为这恰恰是
their peculiarly twisted shapes are admired as the evidence of the
Qi energy that is believed animate nature and the human body alike.
Any cultivated person is expected to have an appreciation of rocks,
that are valued quite as highly as any painting or calligraphic scroll.
宋朝年间 最受追捧的石头是安徽北部采集的灵璧石(属隐晶岩石灰岩)
During the Song Dynasty, the most favored rocks are quarried from the limestone of Lingbi
灵璧石色如墨玉 纹理光滑
in the northern Anhui Province. Lingbi rocks are dark black and glossy in texture.
公元1127年一月 中国北宋末期 开封
January 1127 AD, end of the Northern Song Dynasty, Kaifeng, northern China.
宋朝首都开封府 兵临城下 即将被女真族的金朝攻破
The imperial capital of China, Kaifeng, is under siege, and about to fall to the Jurchens,
a nomadic people from Manchuria.
Soon Song emperor, Huizong, will be taken captive and forced to abdicate,
他儿子 钦宗则南下逃亡 重建朝廷
while his son, Qinzong, would flee to the south and restablished a new court.
因此南宋年间的中国被一分为二 在北宋绝望的末日里
And the Southern Song Dynasty, China will be split in two. In these desperate final days of the Northern Song,
the order is given for the trees in Huizong’s spectacular imperial garden at Kaifeng to be cut down for firewood.
And for its incredible array of fabulous rocks to be pulled out to the ground and used in catapults against the invaders.
曾经在世界上盛极一时的著名园林 以如此悲惨结局收场
It’s a sad end to what was reputed to have been one of the most remarkable gardens in world history.
The royal park is set to have been teeming with striking rocks,
but emperor Huizong’s passion for rocks has clearly got rather out of hand
这也解释了他在国家安全事务上的荒废不为 就在之前数年
and explains his neglect of security issues. Huizong had in previous years
appointed a royal official to explore the whole of China in search for precious rocks for his garden.
Tales abounded with his officials’ abuses.
It’s said that he dismantled a bridge to let boats with huge rocks pass by on a particular cannel.
A love of rocks appears to have hastened the collapse of the Northern Song Empire.
公元1450年 日本室町时代
1450AD, Muromachi Period, Japan.
15世纪的日本 一种新的石园发展起来
In 15th century Japan, a new type of rock garden develops.
如同中国的赏石文化一样 对石头的迷恋也传到日本
As with much in Chinese culture, the obsession with rocks has crossed over to Japan,
but has been adapted there in a particular way.
在日本 石头的精神被称为“水石”
In Japan, the spirit of rocks are called “suiseki”.
and the Japanese favored much more subdued smooth rocks than the Chinese.
它们因风化的外形而变得宝贵 这代表了一种磨损的简约美
In Japan, rocks are treasured for their weathered appearance that exemplifies the worn simplicity
of the aesthetic known as Wabi-sabi.
In Japan, the rocks are not so much placed on wooden stands
as positioned in trees surrounded by sand or water
and are meant to evoke mountains and corresponding lakes.
在几所禅宗寺庙里 比如最知名的京都龙安寺
At several Zen Buddhist temples, and most remarkably at Ryōan-ji in Kyoto,
the stones start to be set in very minimal settings so as to emphasize their qualities.
The raking of the gravel around the rocks by temple monks grows into a careful and precise art.
有各种扒垄样式可用 比如水波纹样式
There are various patterns once meant to use including the water pattern
of concentric rings or ripples like those produced when a stone is dropped in a lake;
the stormy water pattern of haphazardly overlapping semicircles;
and the continuous wave effect of parallel or gently undulating lines.
The originator of the east nation reference for rocks, Bai Juyi,
was well aware of how powerful the love of rocks can become
In his essay, Account of the Lake Tai Rock
he speaks of an addiction that some rocks can bring about.
他说 人们应该将他们赏石时间限定在一天几时才明智
Truly wise people should, he says, restrict their rock worship to a few hours a day.
如果我们一年只是花几分钟赏石 那么也就不会有这么迫切的建议了
When few of us spent more than a few minutes a year looking at a rock, the advice seems less than urgent.
诚然 爱石的传统教给我们许多东西
Indeed, the tradition of rock reference has a lot to teach us.
智慧不仅可以从书本上得到 也可以来自大千世界中的点滴
that the wisdom can hang off bits of the natural world just as well as issuing from books
that we need to surround ourselves with objects that embodies certain values,
人们一天天变得茫然不见 而生命里的某些重要时刻
we’re in danger of losing sight of day to day, and some of our most precious moments
是可以不喧闹 不张扬 不排场地在赏玩一块上了年头的旧石中度过的
can be spent in the presence of nothing more chatty, prestigious or costly than an old stone riped with years.