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东方哲学之佛陀 – 译学馆
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东方哲学之佛陀

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY - The Buddha

佛陀的一生 跟所有佛教徒一样 都充满着苦难
The story of the Buddha’s life, like all of Buddhism, is a story about confronting suffering.
他出生于公元前6世纪到公元前4世纪之间
He was born between the sixth and fourth century B.C., the son of a wealthy king in the Himalayan
是尼泊尔的喜马拉雅山麓地区的一位富有国王的儿子
foothills of Nepal.
这位年轻的佛陀–也就是被称为乔达摩·悉达多 曾经被预言
It was prophesied that the young Buddha — then called Siddhartha Gautama — would either
要么成为印度的君主或者成为伟大的圣人
become the emperor of India or a very holy man.
因为悉达多的父亲拼命地想他成为前者
Since Siddhartha’s father desperately wanted him to become the former, he kept the child
他把这个孩子禁锢在宫中
isolated in a palace.
年轻的乔达摩拥有无尽的奢华:珠宝、仆人、莲花池塘
Young Gautama had every imaginable luxury: jewels, servants, lotus ponds,
甚至美艳的舞姬
even beautiful dancing women.
老天保佑 乔达摩在远离外界的一切不幸中度过了29年
For 29 years, Gautama lived in bliss, protected from the smallest misfortunes of the outside world
但后来 他离开了王宫开始短途旅行
But then, he left the palace for short excursions.
所见所闻使他震惊:开始他遇到一位病人 然后遇到一位年迈老者 再后来遇到一位死者
What he saw amazed him: first he met a sick man, then an aging man, and then a dying man.
他惊讶的发现这群不幸的人就代表了平民百姓 事实上
He was astounded to discover that these unfortunate people represented normal—indeed, inevitable—parts
不可避免地 总有一天 他也会了解这些百姓的状况!
of the human condition that would one day touch him, too.
怀着惊恐和期待的心情 乔达摩开始第四次宫外旅行
Horrified and fascinated, Gautama made a fourth trip outside the palace walls—and encountered
并遇到了一位圣人 一位知晓在人类的苦难中寻求精神解脱的人
a holy man, who had learned to seek spiritual life in the midst of the vastness of human suffering.
在修行者的鼓舞下 乔达摩为了寻求解脱离开了宫殿
Inspired by the holy man, Gautama left the palace for good.
他也试着向其他修行者学习
He tried to learn from other holy men.
他像其他修行者一样 通过摒弃一切物质上的享受和愉悦 让自己忍受饥饿痛苦
He almost starved himself to death by avoiding all physical comforts and pleasures, as they did.
然而不出所料 这并未给他带来安慰
Perhaps unsurprisingly, it did not bring him solace from suffering.
他会想起他还是小男孩的时刻 他坐在河边
Then he thought of a moment when he was a small boy: sitting by the river, he’d noticed
他注意到当青草被剪时
that when the grass was cut, the insects and their eggs were
昆虫和它们的卵都会被践踏和破坏
trampled and destroyed.
作为一个孩子 他对小虫子有着深深的同情
As a child, he’d felt a deep compassion for the tiny insects.
从他童年时期所表现的同情心看出
Reflecting on his childhood compassion,
乔达摩对和平有着深深的执念 他食斋 冥想
Gautama felt a profound sense of peace. He ate, meditated, and finally reached
直至最后到达启迪的最高境界
the highest state of enlightenment:
涅槃
Nirvana
它表示欲望之火的熄灭
It refers to the “blowing out” of the flames of desire.
因此乔达摩成为佛陀(觉知者)
With this, Gautama had become the Buddha, “the awakened one”.
佛陀通过认知受难的万物来实现自身顿悟
The Buddha awoke by recognising that all of creation, from distraught ants to dying human beings,
从心烦意乱的蝼蚁到濒临死亡的普罗大众
is unified by suffering.
佛陀觉悟这个道理 发现解救众生的最好办法
Recognising this, the Buddha discovered how to best approach suffering.
第一 不应该沉迷在浮华之中
First, one shouldn’t bathe in luxury,
也不应该完全摒弃食物和安逸
nor abstain from food and comforts altogether.
相反的 更应该学会适度生活
Instead, one ought to live in moderation .
佛陀称之为
The Buddha called this
中庸
the middle way
这最大程度地培养对别人的同情心和找寻启示
This allows for maximal concentration on cultivating compassion for others and seeking enlightenment
接着 佛陀描述了一个超越苦难的道路
Next, the Buddha described a path to transcending suffering called
称之为四圣谛
The four noble truths
第一圣谛促使首次佛陀旅行的实现
The first noble truth is the realisation that first prompted the Buddha’s journey:
世间有着苦难和无尽的不满
that there is suffering and constant dissatisfaction in the world.
第二是苦难是自身欲望造成的
The second is that this suffering is caused by our desires.
因为佛陀说
As the Buddha said,
贪恋是痛苦的根源
“attachment is the root of all suffering.”
第三谛是我们通过移除或管理自身欲望 能超越苦难
The third truth is that we can transcend suffering by removing or managing these desires.
因此佛陀睿智地声明 我们必须改变自己的前景 而不是我们的环境
The Buddha thus made the remarkable claim that we must change our outlook, not our circumstances.
我们不开心不是因为我们的缺钱 少爱 没有地位
We are unhappy not because we don’t have enough money, love or status but because we
而且我们贪婪 虚荣和没有安全感 通过调整我们自己的心
are greedy, vain, and insecure. By re-orienting our minds we can grow to be content.
我们能学会满足 人们也会变得更幸福
The people become happier—superimpose smiles or use a second image of their face
通过正确的行为和专注的态度
With the correct behaviour and what we now term a mindful attitude, we can also become
我们会成为更好的人 我们可以转化负面情绪和心态
better people. We can invert negative emotions and states of mind, turning ignorance into
无知化为智慧 暴躁化为友爱 吝啬化为慷慨
wisdom, anger into compassion, and greed into generosity.
佛陀揭露第四谛
The fourth and final noble truth the Buddha uncovered
是我们消除痛苦的方法
is that we can learn to move beyond suffering through what he termed
他称之为八正道
the noble eightfold path.
八正道包含一系列的正确行为和智慧:
The eightfold path involves a series of aspects of behaving “right” and wisely:
正见解 正思维 正语言 正行动 正职业 正精进 正意念
right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness,
以及 正禅定
and right concentration.
打动西方哲学家的是 这种智慧的观点是一种习惯
What strikes the western observer is the notion that wisdom is a habit, not merely an intellectual
而不是一种知识的表达 一个人需要定期修炼自己的心理
realisation. One must exercise one’s nobler impulses on a regular basis, as one would
就像火车的一节 变成一个更好的人 只是理解时刻中的一部分
train a limb. The moment of understanding is only one part of becoming a better person.
在他死后 佛陀的追随者记下他的经典
After his death, The Buddha’s followers collected his “sutras” (sermons or sayings)
编写成“佛经”(说教或语录) 指导追随者的冥想 道德
into scripture, and developed texts to guide followers in meditation, ethics,
和生活
and mindful living.
佛陀成长和修炼的地方已经发展成修道院
The monasteries that had developed during the Buddha’s lifetime grew and multiplied,
遍布中国和东亚地区
throughout China and East Asia.
有一段时间 佛教在印度是很罕见的
For a time, Buddhism was particularly uncommon in India itself, and only a few quiet groups
只有一小部分在农村的僧侣和尼姑 静静地沉思着
of yellow-clad monks and nuns roamed the countryside, meditating quietly in nature.
但是 在公园前3世纪 一个叫阿育王的印度国王被战争困扰
But then, in the 3rd century B.C., an Indian king named Ashoka grew troubled by the wars
然后改信了佛教
he had fought and converted to Buddhism.
他派僧侣和尼姑广泛传播实践
He sent monks and nuns far and wide to spread the practice.
佛教的传统精神最终传遍亚洲和整个世界
Buddhist spiritual tradition spread across Asia and eventually throughout the world.
佛教的追随者分裂成两个主要的学校
Buddha’s followers divided into two main schools:
在东南亚的小乘佛教
Theravada Buddhism which colonised Southeast Asia, and
和在中国以及东北亚的大乘佛教
Mahayana Buddhism which took hold in China and Northeast Asia.
今天 有接近5到15亿的佛教徒在东西方
Today, there are between a half and one and a half billion Buddhists in both East and West
追随着佛教的教导和寻求一颗更开明更富同情
following the Buddha’s teachings and seeking a more enlightened and compassionate
的心理状态
state of mind.
有趣的是 佛教对坚定我们精神非常重要
Intriguingly, the Buddha’s teachings are important regardless of our spiritual identification.
像佛陀一样 我们刚出生在这个世界上没有意识到
Like the Buddha, we are all born into the world not realising how much suffering it
它所含有的痛苦 不曾想过不幸和生老病死
contains, and unable to fully comprehend that misfortune, sickness, and death
也会来找我们
will come to us too.
随着我们年龄增长 这一现实常常势不可挡
As we grow older, this reality often feels overwhelming,
我们可能会想逃避它
and we may seek to avoid it altogether.
但是佛教 提醒了我们 直面痛苦的重要性
But the Buddha’s teachings remind us of the importance of facing suffering directly.
我们必须把自己从欲望中解放出来
We must do our best to liberate ourselves from the grip of our own desires,
认识到 痛苦其实是我们与他人之间联系的一部分
and recognise that suffering can be viewed as part of our common connection with others,
促使我们变得有同情心和温柔
spurring us to compassion and gentleness.

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