佛陀的一生 跟所有佛教徒一样 都充满着苦难
The story of the Buddha’s life, like all of Buddhism, is a story about confronting suffering.
He was born between the sixth and fourth century B.C., the son of a wealthy king in the Himalayan
foothills of Nepal.
It was prophesied that the young Buddha — then called Siddhartha Gautama — would either
become the emperor of India or a very holy man.
Since Siddhartha’s father desperately wanted him to become the former, he kept the child
isolated in a palace.
Young Gautama had every imaginable luxury: jewels, servants, lotus ponds,
even beautiful dancing women.
For 29 years, Gautama lived in bliss, protected from the smallest misfortunes of the outside world
But then, he left the palace for short excursions.
所见所闻使他震惊:开始他遇到一位病人 然后遇到一位年迈老者 再后来遇到一位死者
What he saw amazed him: first he met a sick man, then an aging man, and then a dying man.
He was astounded to discover that these unfortunate people represented normal—indeed, inevitable—parts
不可避免地 总有一天 他也会了解这些百姓的状况！
of the human condition that would one day touch him, too.
Horrified and fascinated, Gautama made a fourth trip outside the palace walls—and encountered
a holy man, who had learned to seek spiritual life in the midst of the vastness of human suffering.
Inspired by the holy man, Gautama left the palace for good.
He tried to learn from other holy men.
他像其他修行者一样 通过摒弃一切物质上的享受和愉悦 让自己忍受饥饿痛苦
He almost starved himself to death by avoiding all physical comforts and pleasures, as they did.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, it did not bring him solace from suffering.
Then he thought of a moment when he was a small boy: sitting by the river, he’d noticed
that when the grass was cut, the insects and their eggs were
trampled and destroyed.
As a child, he’d felt a deep compassion for the tiny insects.
Reflecting on his childhood compassion,
乔达摩对和平有着深深的执念 他食斋 冥想
Gautama felt a profound sense of peace. He ate, meditated, and finally reached
the highest state of enlightenment:
It refers to the “blowing out” of the flames of desire.
With this, Gautama had become the Buddha, “the awakened one”.
The Buddha awoke by recognising that all of creation, from distraught ants to dying human beings,
is unified by suffering.
Recognising this, the Buddha discovered how to best approach suffering.
First, one shouldn’t bathe in luxury,
nor abstain from food and comforts altogether.
Instead, one ought to live in moderation .
The Buddha called this
the middle way
This allows for maximal concentration on cultivating compassion for others and seeking enlightenment
Next, the Buddha described a path to transcending suffering called
The four noble truths
The first noble truth is the realisation that first prompted the Buddha’s journey:
that there is suffering and constant dissatisfaction in the world.
The second is that this suffering is caused by our desires.
As the Buddha said,
“attachment is the root of all suffering.”
The third truth is that we can transcend suffering by removing or managing these desires.
因此佛陀睿智地声明 我们必须改变自己的前景 而不是我们的环境
The Buddha thus made the remarkable claim that we must change our outlook, not our circumstances.
我们不开心不是因为我们的缺钱 少爱 没有地位
We are unhappy not because we don’t have enough money, love or status but because we
而且我们贪婪 虚荣和没有安全感 通过调整我们自己的心
are greedy, vain, and insecure. By re-orienting our minds we can grow to be content.
The people become happier—superimpose smiles or use a second image of their face
With the correct behaviour and what we now term a mindful attitude, we can also become
better people. We can invert negative emotions and states of mind, turning ignorance into
无知化为智慧 暴躁化为友爱 吝啬化为慷慨
wisdom, anger into compassion, and greed into generosity.
The fourth and final noble truth the Buddha uncovered
is that we can learn to move beyond suffering through what he termed
the noble eightfold path.
The eightfold path involves a series of aspects of behaving “right” and wisely:
正见解 正思维 正语言 正行动 正职业 正精进 正意念
right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness,
and right concentration.
What strikes the western observer is the notion that wisdom is a habit, not merely an intellectual
realisation. One must exercise one’s nobler impulses on a regular basis, as one would
就像火车的一节 变成一个更好的人 只是理解时刻中的一部分
train a limb. The moment of understanding is only one part of becoming a better person.
After his death, The Buddha’s followers collected his “sutras” (sermons or sayings)
编写成“佛经”(说教或语录) 指导追随者的冥想 道德
into scripture, and developed texts to guide followers in meditation, ethics,
and mindful living.
The monasteries that had developed during the Buddha’s lifetime grew and multiplied,
throughout China and East Asia.
For a time, Buddhism was particularly uncommon in India itself, and only a few quiet groups
of yellow-clad monks and nuns roamed the countryside, meditating quietly in nature.
但是 在公园前3世纪 一个叫阿育王的印度国王被战争困扰
But then, in the 3rd century B.C., an Indian king named Ashoka grew troubled by the wars
he had fought and converted to Buddhism.
He sent monks and nuns far and wide to spread the practice.
Buddhist spiritual tradition spread across Asia and eventually throughout the world.
Buddha’s followers divided into two main schools:
Theravada Buddhism which colonised Southeast Asia, and
Mahayana Buddhism which took hold in China and Northeast Asia.
Today, there are between a half and one and a half billion Buddhists in both East and West
following the Buddha’s teachings and seeking a more enlightened and compassionate
state of mind.
Intriguingly, the Buddha’s teachings are important regardless of our spiritual identification.
Like the Buddha, we are all born into the world not realising how much suffering it
contains, and unable to fully comprehend that misfortune, sickness, and death
will come to us too.
As we grow older, this reality often feels overwhelming,
and we may seek to avoid it altogether.
但是佛教 提醒了我们 直面痛苦的重要性
But the Buddha’s teachings remind us of the importance of facing suffering directly.
We must do our best to liberate ourselves from the grip of our own desires,
and recognise that suffering can be viewed as part of our common connection with others,
spurring us to compassion and gentleness.
佛陀的一生 跟所有佛教徒一样 都充满着苦难