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东方哲学:行路的俳句诗仙——松尾芭蕉 – 译学馆
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东方哲学:行路的俳句诗仙——松尾芭蕉

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY - Matsuo Basho

东方哲学
松尾芭蕉
西方观念中认为诗歌是可以陶冶灵魂的
In the west, we have a vague sense that poetry is good for our souls
可以让我们更有灵性 更加睿智
makes us sensitive and wiser.
但我们并不知道这到底是怎样进行的
Yet we don’t always really how this should work
在现实生活中
Poetry has a hard time
诗歌几乎没有任何切实的影响
finding its way into our lives in any practical sense.
然而在东方 有不少诗人
In the east, however, some poets
比如十七世纪的佛教俳谐师松尾芭蕉
like the 17th century Buddhist monk and poet Matsuo Basho
很清楚创作诗歌的意义何在
knew precisely what effect their poetry was meant to produce
正如禅宗所言 诗歌作为一种媒介
It was a medium designed to guide us to to calm and wisdom
指引我们走向智慧与平和
as these terms are defined in Zen Buddhist philosophy.
宽永二十一年(公元1644年)芭蕉出生于日本的伊贺上野
Basho was born in 1644, in Uego, in the Iga province of Japan.
幼时 芭蕉曾做过藤堂良忠的侍童
As a child, he became a servant of the nobleman Toudou Yoshitada.
而藤堂教会了他如何作俳句
who taught him to compose poems in the haiku style
俳句通常分三部分
Traditionally, haikus contain three parts
两种意象
two images
然后末句将这两种意象串联起来
and a concluding line which helps juxtapose them
古池塘青蛙跳入
水音响
这是日本文学史上最著名的俳句
This is the best-known haiku in Japanese literature.
芭蕉翁名之曰《古池塘》
And it’s called Old Pond by Basho himself
诗句看似简单
It’s all deceptively simple
然而心境澄明者看来
and when it was in the right generous frame of mind
它却幽美十分
very beautiful
宽文六年(1666年)藤堂卒
And Yoshitada died in 1666
芭蕉随后离家 四方浪迹多年
Basho left home and wandered for many years
直到他来到伊豆
before moving to the city of Edo
于斯成名 诗作也就此大量刊印 流传四方
where he became famous and widely published
芭蕉却愈发抑郁起来
However, Basho grew melancholy
常常杜门谢客
and often shunned company
元禄七年(1694年)芭蕉去世
and so until his death in 1694
而生前 除却赤足游历八方
And alternated between travelling widely on foot
就是独自幽栖于城郊陋室
and living in a small hut outskirts of the city
芭蕉翁是位遗世独立的诗人
Basho was an exceptional poet
但他并不信奉现代艺术中“为了艺术而艺术”的理念
but he didn’t believe in the modern idea of “art for art’s sake”
相反 他希望自己的诗歌能够带领读者
Instead, he hoped that his poetry would bring his reader
进入禅宗追求的玄妙的精神境界
into special mental states valued in Zen Buddhism
他的诗折射出禅宗的两样核心要义
His poetry reflects two of the most important Zen ideals
侘与寂
Wabi and sabi
“侘”指自足于朴素清贫
Wabi means satisfaction with simplicity and austerity
而“寂”指能欣赏残缺之美
while Sabi means an appreciation of the imperfect
没有什么比大自然
It was nature more than anything else
更能孕育出侘寂之感来了
that were thought to foster Wabi and Sabi
大自然也自然成为芭蕉翁诗作中最常见的主题之一
and therefore unsurprisingly, one of Basho’s most frequent topics
譬如这首体现着与世无争精神的春景诗
Take this spring scene which appears to ask so little of the world
诉说着对平日生活的赞美之情
and it is attuned to an appreciation of the everyday
桃花丛畔见早樱
芭蕉翁诗歌的主题
Basho’s poetry
常常简洁得难以置信
is an enormous shocking simplicity at the level of the theme
没有政治讽喻 情感纠葛
There’re no analysis of politics or love triangle
或是家族纷争
or family dramas
他旨在提醒读者
The point is to remind readers that
真正重要的
what really matters
是能够享受独处
is to be able to be content with our own company
和品味当下
to appreciate the moment we’re in
去感悟生命中最微细事物的美好
and to be attuned to the very simplest thing life has to offer
有如四时更替
like the changing of the seasons
隔街邻居们的笑语
the sound of our neighbors laughing across the street
日常生活中邂逅的小惊喜
the little surprise we encounter each day
以这首为例
Take this gem,
山路费寻攀居然眼见紫罗兰
芭蕉翁用这自然之景告诉我们
Basho also use natural scenes
花开花落 寒来暑往
remind his readers that flowers, weather
造化间的一切
and other natural elements
都如同我们的生命一般 变幻无常 转瞬即逝
are like our own lives, ever-changing and fleeting
兔走乌飞 阴晴流转
Time and the changing of weathers and scenes
亦可看作我们荏苒平生终归泉台的谶语
need to be attended to as harbingers of our own deaths
光阴苦短 生死无常 有时令人悲痛欲绝
This transient of life may sometimes be heartbreaking
但也正因此才有了寸金难买寸光阴
but is also what makes every moment valuable
棠棣花簌簌何似急湍漉漉
芭蕉翁既爱写作也爱绘画
Basho liked to paint as well as write
他许多画作旁边
and many of his works still exist
都会题一首应景的俳句
usually with a related haiku alongside them
这幅画就恰与这首俳句相和
This painting by Basho depicts this very haiku
文学创作中 芭蕉讲究かるみ(明快晓畅)
In literature, Basho values かるみ(lightness)
他希望自己的诗作看起来就像孩童写的一般
He wanted it to seem as if children has written it
他痛恨矫揉造作 穿凿营巧
He abhorred pretension and elaboration
他对门徒说
As he told his disciples
窃以为一首好诗 不论平仄音律 还是起承转合 都应当好似
溪水流过浅滩一般轻盈无息
明快晓畅最终目的是
The ultimate goal of the lightness
为了让读者忘却个人烦忧——
was to allow readers to escape the burdens of the self
境遇间的蝇头琐事
One’s own petty particularity in circumstances
方能达到“天人合一”
in order to experience a unity with the world beyond
芭蕉相信 好诗
Basho believed that poetry could at its best
能带给我们短暂的和自然融为一体的感受
allow one to feel a brief sensation of merging
纵然只是匆匆一瞬
with the natural world
以诗句为依托
When they become through language
木叶 流水 星辰
the leaf, the water, the stars
都有了令人顿悟的力量
leading one to an enlightened frame of mind
顿入“無我”之境 也即忘却自己的存在
known as Muga(無我), loss of awareness of oneself
芭蕉诗作间一些几近鲜有人问津的意象
We can see Basho’s concept of Muga or self-forgetting
昭彰着他無我或说忘我的哲学观念
a work in a way he invited almost uninhabited subjects
即使是全无诗意的死鱼也可入诗句
even if they are some rather unpoetic dead fish
鱼肆里咸家鲫
露出寒白齿
在充斥着社交媒体个人主页和精美简历的如今
In a world full of social media profiles and crafted resumes
想要忘却自我 似乎听起来有几分荒谬
it might seem odd to want to escape our individuality
我们如此精心地包装自己
After all, we carefully groom ourselves
渴望能够出人头地
to stand out from the rest of the world
芭蕉却道出了“無我”的珍贵
Basho reminds us that Muga, or self-forgetting is valuable because
它能让人
it allows us to
从欲望的泥淖与碌碌无为的恐慌中解脱出来
break free from the incessant thrum of desire and incompleteness
驱散这些困扰世人的梦魇
which otherwise haunted all human lives
芭蕉深谙这种苦痛
Basho knew what some of this way was like
长久以来 他饱受痛苦的折磨
for he suffered for long time long time from deep melancholy
屋舍焚毁之后 母亲去世之后
After his house burned down, after his mother died
抑或是偶尔的悲来无方
and sometimes for no reason at all
有时他甚至息交绝游
Sometimes, he didn’t feel like see any of his friends
多年来 他浪迹湖山
He spends long periods of time traveling
遍踏岛国的险乡僻土
the dangerous back roads of the Japanese countryside
纸笔之外 鲜有所携
with little more than writing supplies
也曾独自捱过无数枯寂的长夜
And he spent some truly unglamorous nights
蚤虱却横行枕畔惟闻马溺声
然而“無我”却超脱了芭蕉
Yet Muga freed Basho
正如它可以让我们所有人
and it can also freed us
从一己之悲中超脱出一样
from the tyranny of glum moments of individual circumstance
诗歌的宝贵之处
The poems are valuable
远非止于美 尽管它们确实很美
not because they’re beautiful, though they’re this too
而在于它们对灵魂
because they can serve as catalyst for
某种高度上的升华
some of the most important states of a soul
他的诗歌不断提醒我们要珍惜所有
His poetry constantly invited us to appreciate what we have
让我们看到个人的困境
to see how infinitesimal and unimportant
是多么的渺小而无足轻重
our personal difficulties are
在这茫茫宇宙之中
in the vast scheme of the universe
它让诗人还有读者明白
They remind the writer and the reader
真正的满足感来自于
the contentment relies on
懂得从疏淡质朴间觅得清欢
knowing how to derive pleasure from simplicity
还有如何挣脱
and how to escape
自我的枷锁
even only for a while
坐忘此身 哪怕只是一瞬
the tyranny of being ourselves

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视频概述

“今岁又秋临,人惊霜鬓新。韶华急似鸟,过眼入行云。”写下这首诗的人不是王维不是孟浩然,却是日本的俳句诗人松尾芭蕉。一面修禅,一面清吟……清课无负,草木有心。微阳细草小欣然。寂寥、质朴、纤细与贫瘠中的美,是叫做侘寂的清致。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90-2Dg2CJdw

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