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孔子论 – 译学馆
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孔子论

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY - Confucius

我们对这位中国哲学家的生平确实知之甚少
We know very little for certain about the life of the Chinese philosopher,
他叫孔子
Confucius
据说他生于公元前551年的中国 有可能是道家宗师老子的学生
He is said to have been born in 551 BC in China. He may have been a student of the Daoist master, Lao Tzu
按照当时的传统
According to tradition,
他走上了从政之路 并担任了许多官职 其中包括鲁司寇
he began Government service, and served many roles, including: Minister of Crime,
受任于鲁国统治者鲁定公
under Duke Ding in the state of Lu.
然而
However,
在鲁定公接受邻国统治者的礼物之后 孔子就和他闹翻了
Confucius and the duke fell out, after the duke received a present from a neighboring ruler:
礼物是八十名美女 和124匹马
80 beautiful women, and 124 horses.
鲁定公整日骑马游玩 沉迷于美色之中
The duke spent all of his time riding the horses, and being entertained by the woman.
在孔子看来 作为一位统治者这样的行为是极不恰当的
Which Confucius found deeply improper for a ruler.
所以他离开了鲁国朝廷 开始周游列国
So he left the court, and wandered for years.
大约在公元前三世纪到五世纪之间
Around between the 3rd, and 5th century B.C,
孔子的著作被收集进
Confucius’ works were collected into
《论语》 这是一本语录集合 由他的追随者编撰而成
the “Analects 论语 (Lunyu)”, a collection of sayings, written down by his followers.
孔子在书中传教的一些道德思想 很容易被后人理解
Some of the morals Confucius taught, are easily recognizable.
最值得一提的是 孔子版本的“黄金法则”
Most notably, his version of the Golden Rule:
“己所不欲 勿施于人”
“Do not do unto others what you don’t want done to yourself”
但是 其中有些也听起来非常奇怪 或者在当代人看来早已不合时宜了
But, some of them also sound very strange, or old-fashioned to modern ears.
特别是对于西方人来说
especially to western ones
但正因为这样我们才更需要听取他的建议
But we need his advice all the more for this.
对于我们当前遇到的困难 他的话就像一剂良药
It serves as an antidote to the troubles we currently face.
下面是一些例子 也是孔子希望我们一直谨记的
Here are a few examples, of what Confucius helps us to remember:
第一 礼节很重要
One: Ceremony is important.
《论语》通篇都是孔子和他的弟子之间不同寻常的对话
The Analects are filled with strange conversations between Confucius and his disciples,
像这个
like this one:
子贡欲去告朔之饩羊(子贡想要取消不用每月初一告祭祖庙的活羊)
Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep.
孔子说:“赐也 尔爱其羊 我爱其礼”
Confucius said, “Ts’ze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony.”
乍看起来 这些话很令人费解
At first, this is baffling,
还有点幽默
If not also humorous.
为什么不救那只羊呢?
Why not save the sheep?
这是孔子在提醒子贡 也提醒我们 礼节的重要性
But, Confucius is reminding Tsze, and us, about the importance of ceremony.
在现代社会 我们往往忽视礼节
In the modern world, we tend to shun ceremony,
甚至把这看做一件好事 一种亲密的象征 或是不做作的体现
and see this as a good thing, a sign of intimacy, or lack of pretension.
但是 孔子始终认为礼节的价值远大于羊
But, Confucius believed in the value of ceremonies over sheep,
因为他看重他称之为“礼”的东西
because he valued what he called “Ritual Propriety 禮 (Li)”
这看起来也许是一个过时已久而且很保守的观点
This might seem a very outdated and conservative idea
但是 事实上 许多人都渴望有这些特殊的礼节
but, in fact, many of us long for particular rituals.
无论何时我们生病了 妈妈为我们做的饭
That meal mum cooked for us whenever we were sick,
或是每年生日的全家出游
or the yearly birthday outing.
还有我们在婚礼上的誓言
Or our wedding vows.
我们深知那些预先计划好的 经过深思熟虑的 精确的姿势
We understand that certain premeditated, deliberate, and precise gestures
深深打动着我们
stir our emotions deeply.
礼节让我们的动机更加明确
Rituals make our intentions clear
而且告诉我们我们应该如何表现得体
and they help us to understand how to behave.
第二 我们应该尊敬父母
2 : We should treat our parents with reverence.
特别地 关于我们应该如何对待我们的父母 孔子提出了一个非常严格的要求
In particular, Confucius had a very strict idea about how we should behave towards our parents
他认为我们在年轻时 应该听从父母的意见
He believed that we should obey them when we are young,
当他们年老时 照顾好他们
care for them when they are old,
他们过世后 我们应当服丧足够的时间
mourn at length when they die
并且在此之后要以祭拜的形式纪念他们
and make huge sacrifices in their memory thereafter.
他甚至还说 父母在 不远游
He even said that we shouldn’t travel far away while our parents are alive,
而且 如果他们偷了一只羊 我们应该掩护他们
and should cover for them if they steal a sheep
这种态度被称作“孝”
This attitude is known as “Filial Piety”
这听起来很不切实际 现今很多人在青年时期便离开父母
This sounds strange now when many of us leave our parents’ home as teenagers
而且很少回家看望
and rarely return to visit.
我们甚至可能把他们看做陌生人 是命运不经同意强加于我们的
We may even see them as strangers arbitrarily thrust upon us by fate.
毕竟我们的父母是那么无法沟通
After all our parents are so out of touch,
那么多可恨的小毛病
so pitifully human in their shortcomings,
那么难相处 那么爱评头论足 而且音乐品味那么差
so difficult, so judgmental, and they have such bad taste in music.
但是孔子意识到 在许多方面道德生活始于家庭
Yet Confucius recognised that in many ways moral life begins in the family.
我们不可能真的懂得体贴 明理 感恩 尽责
We cannot truly be caring, wise, grateful and conscientious
如果我们连母亲的生日都不记得 或是不愿意与父亲见个面吃顿午餐
unless we remember mum’s birthday and meet dad for lunch.
第三 我们应该尊敬有声望的人
3 : we should be obedient to honorable people
如今社会十分主张人人平等 我们也相信人人生来平等
Modern societies are very egalitarian – we believe that we are all born equal
而且应该有权言行自如
and should ultimately be able to say and do whatever we like.
我们抗拒着很多严格的等级制度
We reject many rigid hierarchical roles
然而孔子对他的追随者说:“君君
Yet Confucius told his followers: “Let the ruler be a ruler,
臣臣 父父 子子”
the subject a subject, a father a father and a son a son”.
这似乎听起来不顺耳 但是确实认识到这一点非常重要
This might sound jarring but it is in fact important to realise
因为有很多人值得我们深深尊敬
that there are people worthy of our deep veneration
甚至值得我们简单而谦恭的追随
even our simple and humble obedience.
我们应该以足够谦逊的态度去认可别人
We need to be modest enough to recognise the people
特别是那些阅历丰富 成就超过我们的人
whose experience or accomplishments outweigh our own
我们也应该平和地去践行
We should also practise peaceably doing
这些人所需要 要求或者命令的事情
what these people need, ask or command
孔子解释说:“君子之德风 小人之德草
Confucius explained: “the relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass:
草上之风 必偃 ”
the grass must bend when the wind blows across it.”
优雅的鞠躬 实际上 并不是弱小的体现
Bending gracefully is, in fact, not a sign of weakness
这个姿势代表着谦虚 和尊重
but a gesture of humility, and respect
第四 耕耘已有的知识比创造力更重要
4. Cultivated knowledge can be more important than creativity.
现代文化过多的强调创造力
Modern culture places a lot of emphasis on creativity
很多独特的观点突涌而来
unique insights that come to us suddenly
但是孔子坚定的相信普世智慧的重要
but Confucius was adamant about the importance of the universal wisdom
这些智慧来自多年的努力工作和反思
that comes from years of hard work and reflection
他列出:仁 礼 义 智 信
He listed: benevolence, ritual propriety, righteousness, wisdom, integrity
这五个永恒的美德
as the five constant virtues
一方面 孔子相信人性本善
While Confucius believed that people were inherently good,
同时他也知道这些美德必须经常地耕耘
he also saw the virtues like these must be constantly cultivated
就像花园里的植物(需要不断地照料)
just like plants in a garden
他认为道德的人格和智慧
He spoke about moral character and wisdom
是人的一生都应该追求不懈的
as the work of a lifetime
现在我们知道他为什么如此地尊重长辈了
We can see now why he had such reverence with elders!
当然 一次灵感的涌现是需要的 当我们要开始自己的事业
Of course a burst of inspiration may will be what we need to start our business or
或者将草案推倒重来 甚至彻底改成我们的人生
redo our rough draft or even reinvent our life
但是如果我们真的非常忠实于自我
But if we are being very honest with ourselves
我们将不得不承认 我们还需要投入更多的精力去缓慢地改变自己的积习
We’ll have to admit that we also need to devote more energy to slowly changing our habits
这些积习 相比于其它任何事 是阻挡我们变得更聪明 更成熟 更博学的最大障碍
This, more than anything else, is what prevents us from becoming truly intelligent , accomplished, and wise.
孔子到死也没能成功改变堕落的鲁定公及其治下官僚
Confucius died without reforming the decadent duke and his officials.
但是他死后 他的追随者们以他的名义建造了许多学校和庙宇 遍及东亚
But after his death ,his followers created schools and temples in his honour across East Asia.
将他的学说传承了2000多年
passing his teachings along for over two thousands years.
今天 仍有数百万的人在遵循孔子的学说
Today,millions of people still follow Confucius’s teachings
他们将它作为一种精神或宗教上的戒律
as a spiritual or religious discipline,
而且他的观点对东方的政治理念产生了巨大的影响
and his thought has been a huge influence on eastern political ideas
包括何为道德 何为服从 以及何为好的领导
about morality,obedience,and good leadership.
我们也许会决定孔子的道德理论有点奇怪或不合时宜
We might find Confucius virtues a bit strange or old-fashioned.
但这才是使得它们无比重要的根本所在
But this is what ultimately makes them all the more important .
我们需要这些道德理论来矫正我们的无度行为
we need them as a corrective to our own excesses.
现代世界出人意料地几乎完全看不到孔子的思想
The modern world is almost surprisingly totally un-Confucian.
不拘礼节 人人平等 充满新事物
informal,egalitarian,and full of innovation.
所以相反的 我们有可能变得冲动 无礼 自私
so we are conversly at risk of becoming impulsive,irreverent,and thoughtless
如果没有了孔子关于好的品行和羊的那些建议
without a little advice from Confucius about good behavior and sheep.
[结束]
[end]

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视频概述

孔子的思想与理论 对后世产生着深远的影响 那么现如今的我们又是怎样看待这一切的呢

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赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUhGRh4vdb8

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