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失读症:当你的大脑让阅读变得困难 – 译学馆
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失读症:当你的大脑让阅读变得困难

Dyslexia: When Your Brain Makes Reading Tricky

[片头曲]
[♩INTRO ]
想象一下你正试着辨认“字母汤”里的字母
Imagine trying to read alphabet soup.
汤里的字母形面条不会乖乖不动
None of the letters really stay in place,
“b”和“d”相互倒转
‘b’s and ‘d’s flip around,
可能你还信誓旦旦地说刚还有个“e”来着……
and you could’ve sworn there was another ‘e’ here a second ago…
这很让人困惑 对吧?
That would be confusing, right?
那么 试想你最爱的书里的字母也是这样
Now, imagine the words in your favorite book doing something similar.
那就是一些失读症患者的感受了
For some people, this is kind of what dyslexia is like.
失读症患者很难
People with dyslexia find it difficult to
将书本上的文字转换成有意义的语句
turn written characters into meaningful language.
比如说 他们可能会搞混英文中相似的字母
In English, for instance, they might confuse similar letters,
给单词增减字母
add or subtract letters from words,
甚至在无意识间用相似的单词替换了原单词
even swap words for similar ones without realizing it —
还有很多其他症状
among many other symptoms.
在临床上 失读症被视为一种学习障碍
Clinically, dyslexia is considered a learning disability
在很多有书面文字的文化中都有记载
and has been documented in lots of cultures with written language.
一些研究者估计全世界有
Some researchers have estimated that somewhere
5~12%的人患有某种程度的失读症
between 5 and 12 percent of people worldwide have some degree of dyslexia,
这种病与智商高低无关
and it’s not linked to any measure of intelligence.
多亏了大脑成像技术在过去几十年的巨大进步
Thanks to giant leaps in brain imaging over the past couple of decades,
通过功能磁共振成像和其它技术
with fMRI and other techniques,
研究人员发现了失读症患者脑部的不同之处
researchers have found differences in the brains of people with dyslexia.
实际上 不同之处太多了
So many differences, in fact,
以至于失读症的成因仍莫衷一是
that there’s really not one unifying theory right now.
阅读需要大脑的多种语言和视觉系统的参与
Reading uses a lot of different linguistic and visual systems in the brain,
因此 不同区域的失用都可能会造成阅读障碍
so weaknesses in different areas could all probably lead to trouble with reading.
话虽如此 许多研究员报告说
That being said, many researchers have reported that
有迹象表明 失读症患者
patients with dyslexia have shown evidence of problems with systems that
处理音韵或将声音与书面文字匹配等信息的系统出现了问题
handle information like phonology, or matching sounds with written characters.
同样典型的熟练阅读者
Same typical, experienced readers
在阅读时激活了大脑左半球的一些区域
reading activates a few areas in the left hemisphere of the brain,
和被科学家们称为“视觉词形区” 的区域 简称VWFA
along with what scientists call the Visual Word Form Area, or VWFA.
这些区域被一条相当于信息高速公路的
All these areas are connected by a white matter tract,
白质纤维束连接起来
which is like a highway for information.
白质纤维束由脑细胞的细小纤维束——轴突组成
It’s made of the thin fibers of brain cells called axons,
轴突外面包有脂含量很高的 可以帮助信息传导的髓磷脂
surrounded by a fat-rich substance called myelin, that helps signals travel
科学家认为 在我们阅读时
Scientists think that, when we read,
这整个系统在把字母形状转化成声音的过程中起着很大的作用
this whole system plays a big part in converting the shapes of letters we see into sounds.
该系统还将字母连接在一起使之有含义
And then it stitches them all together and connects that to a meaning.
但在对失读症患者功能磁共振成像的研究中
But in fMRI studies with dyslexic patients,
这些系统的某些部分 比如说颞叶皮质区
parts of these systems, like the temporal cortex,
在患者们阅读时表现出较低的活性
have shown lower levels of activation when they read.
而他们大脑其他区域却显示出较高的活性
And different brain regions tend to show higher activation.
比如说额区
Like frontal areas, for example,
也就是经常参与较高水平的思考和问题解决的区域
which are usually involved in higher levels of thinking and problem solving.
该迹象可能表明 失读症患者大脑的一些区域
So this might be evidence that some brain regions of people with dyslexia
通过延时工作来尝试补偿语言系统
are working overtime to try and compensate for a linguistic system
不能轻松或自动地应答书面文字的功能缺失
that doesn’t respond easily or automatically to written characters.
它们可能用截然不同的方法来处理文字
They could be processingwords in a fundamentally different way.
许多研究者正在关注
And many researchers are focusing on the
特定区域中脑细胞的数量或
amount of brain cells in certain regions or
它们之间的联系
these connections between them to try and figure out
并尝试找出失读症患者大脑的不同之处
what’s different about people’s brains who have this disability.
然而 一项新的研究吸引了人们的眼球
However, one new piece of research was making headlines
因为它提出到这种不同之处
because it suggests that this condition
在一些患者身上 不仅限于的脑部 还包括眼睛
might go beyond brain differences in some patients — and involve eyes.
在2017年10月发表的一份研究中
In a study published in October 2017,
两位来自雷恩大学的物理学家
two physicists from the University of Rennes
对比了30位典型阅读者学生的视网膜和
compared the retinas of 30 students that were typical readers
30位失读症学生的视网膜
and 30 students with reported dyslexia.
当你在看某些东西时
When you look at something,
光投射在眼后部叫做“光感受器”的特殊细胞上
light shines onto specialized cells at the back of your eye called photoreceptors,
这些细胞再将信号传导到大脑中
which then send signals to your brain.
人眼通常分为主视眼和非主视眼
And usually people have a dominant and a non-dominant eye
人的构造就是这样的
– it’s just how we’re built.
当眼睛处理视觉信息时
The brain gets a stronger signal
大脑从一只眼中能获得更强的信号
from one eye when it’s processing visual information.
在该研究中 研究者们通过研究
In this study, the researchers looked at eye dominance
视网膜的麦克斯韦质心区域来观察主视眼
by studying a region of the retina called Maxwell spot centroids.
他们发现 本质的区别是 典型阅读者们双眼的质心不对称
Essentially, they found that typical readers’eyes were asymmetrical,
而失读症患者们的质心是对称的
while the participants with dyslexia had symmetrical centroids.
研究者提出 失读症患者的眼睛向大脑传递着
And they proposed that dyslexic patients’eyes were sending
与现实世界相矛盾 互为镜像的世界
conflicting, mirror images of the world to their brain.
他们举了个例子 左眼说:“这是“b”!”
The example they gave was: the left eye might be saying “ this is a b! ”,
而右眼说:“不 这明显是“d”!”
while the right eye is like, “no way, man, that’s obviously a ‘d’”.
研究人员认为
And these researchers suggested
他们的发现可能使与眼部有关的失读症有了新疗法
that their discovery could lead to new treatments for dyslexia involving the eyes.
但事实是
But here’s the thing,
其他研究失读症的科学家们
other scientists who specialize in dyslexia research
对这项研究持不同看法
have many critiques of this study.
比如 他们提到这些物理学家选择的是
For instance, they mention that these physicists chose one
失读症的一个症状 “镜像文字”
of the symptoms of dyslexia to focus on — the mirrored letters —
但其在所有的症状中并不具有代表性
but that’s not representative of the whole disability.
甚至不是每种语言都有镜像文字的 比如中文或阿拉伯文就没有
It’s not even present in every language, like Chinese or Arabic.
失读症的研究者同样对
Dyslexia researchers have also brought up problems
研究方法提出了疑问
with the methodology of the study,
比如该研究没有测试参与者们患失读症的情况
like not testing participants for dyslexia as part of the experiment.
他们还提到科学家们已经
And they mentioned that scientists have been looking
研究了几十年眼睛和失读症的关系
into the relationship between eyes and dyslexia for decades
但还是没找到确切的联系
without finding a solid link.
因此如果想反对现有的普遍理解
So to go against that general understanding,
我们需要更多证据
we need more evidence
而不仅是一篇与60个学生相关的论文
than just one paper involving 60 students.
现在 科学家们不再只是
Now, they didn’t voice concerns just to
怀疑并尖锐地批评这项新研究
discredit this new research and be snarky.
这种讨论在科学上是很有价值的
This kind of discussion is really valuable in science,
因为它可以推翻甚嚣尘上的媒体报道
because it can fight against sensationalized media reports.
总的来说 对失读症的研究还在继续
So, basically, research on dyslexia is an ongoing process.
我们并没有在一夜之间就找到一个神奇的新治疗方案
We didn’t find a miraculous new treatment overnight,
我们需要强有力的证据来证实
and we’re going to need a lot of replication to figure out
眼睛生物学的差异同大脑生物学的差异一样影响着失读症
differences in eye biology play a role like differences in brain biology.
另外 我有一个振奋人心的消息!
And also, I have an exciting announcement!
是这样的 你可能意识到了
Alright, here’s the situation, you probably are maybe aware of,
“科学秀”团队和我谈论了一个我们常有的问题
the SciShow team and I were talking about this problem that we have
人们喜欢问:“你圣诞节想要什么?” 我们就会说
where people would be like “what do you want for Christmas” and we would be like,
“我不知道 想不出来啊!
“I don’t know man, this is…stressful!
你老让我想些麻烦事儿!”
You are making me think about stuff!”
难道我需要那些小东西吗?
Do I even need stuff!?
这都2017年啦!
This is 2017!
这年头都没人要那些小零碎了吧?
Aren’t we like in a post stuff world?.
但随后我又在想
But then I was thinking, you know,
我想要的东西不多 或者说
there are a few things that I would like to get, or
我给自己买的东西不多
that I’ve bought for myself,
抑或人们送给我的东西都是我真心喜欢的
or that people have given me that I really love.
一般来说 这是因为那象征着
And often, it’s because like it’s emblematic
我对宇宙 对世界 或者对现存生命的爱
of my love for the universe, the world, or like the existence of life.
因此 我们在“科学秀”里从世界各地收集了些东西……
So we, at SciShow, put together a collection of artifacts from this universe…
每一件物品数量都很有限
we got a limited number of each of those things,
我们把它们放入了一个叫“科学秀发现”的商店
and we have put them up at a store called SciShow Finds.
这个“科学秀发现”商店主要由我来管理
These SciShow Finds are curated mostly by me,
这里有一些我特别想放进长袜里的东西
there are things that I know that I would love to get in my stocking.
物品清单很短
It’s a very small list,
东西很少 价格不等
with just a few things with varying price points.
我控制住了自己 只往里放了一本科学类书籍
I did my best to only include one science book,
是我今年读过的最喜欢的一本书
it’s the one I liked the most of all the ones I read this year,
书名是《生命是什么》 它描些了非常吸引人的案例
it’s called” What is Life” and it makes a very compelling case
生物学就像是化学的必然结果
that biology is like a chemical inevitability.
如同世界所受到的物理影响
It’s like a physical effect of the universe.
这本书真的很有趣
It’s really interesting.
我们可能加入一些这一年中
We’re probably going to be adding new finds…
寻得的新物品
as we find them throughout the year,
那些新物品将取代现有的这些
and those new ones will replace the current ones,
因此所有的这些物品存在的时间都很有限
so all of these products are only around for a limited time.
你一定有朋友或者家人喜欢这种火星袜
You’re bound to have friends or family who would love these Mars Socks,
三叶虫的化石 或者是太空梭的衣服别针
trilobite fossils, or this Space Shuttle lapel pin.
如果没有的话 可能你自己想要这些东西
And if not, you might want to get them for yourself or
或者告诉你的妈妈又或者周围其他人
like tell your Mom’s or other person in your life,
“科学秀商店里面的东西我都好想要啊“
“ Hey, this is the place where anything from here would be something that I want.”
你或者其他人在SciShowFinds.com上购物
And know that when you buy from SciShowFinds.com,
都是在支持我们“科学秀”频道
or other people do, you’re also supporting SciShow.
就像你观看视频时也是在支持我们
Just as you are doing by watching this video.
谢谢大家所做的一切
So thank you for doing that.
[片尾曲]
[♩OUTRO ]

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视频概述

失读症的成因及表现!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qw3o_dCyv4M

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