October 2, 1914
第一次世界大战已经肆虐了两个月 在这次空前血腥的战争中 无数士兵命丧于此
The Great War has raged for two months with hundreds of thousands of soldiers losing their lives in some of the bloodiest battles in history.
But a new and unforseen factor now entered the war and would play a huge part in determining its course.
with the October rains came the mud.
I’m Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War.
上次我们讲到 西方的英国 法国 德国军队已在埃纳河战役中陷入僵持
When we left off, the British, French, and German armies in the west had reached a stalemate at the Battle of the Aisne,
为了寻找新优势 交战双方展开了“奔向大海”的争先战 战壕开始向西北部蔓延
and in the search for new advantages the trenches had begun growing to the northwest in the Race to the Sea.
The Russians were pushing the Austro-Hungarian army back into Austria
and were also heading north into Poland to engage the Germans,
and both the war in the air and the war at sea were getting serious.
It was now autumn in Europe, and one thing we see that was a regular feature of the war
was mud. Endless mud.
The Austrian army had barricaded itself in the fortress town of Przemysl, 120,000 strong,
now entirely behind Russian lines, and the Russians began a siege on September 26th.
The Austrians had always planned and determined to hold Przemsyl,
but the preparations were typical of the last minute ramshackle efforts of Emperor Franz Josef’s army-
一半枪支过时了 用的还是黑火药 许多炮弹是哑弹
half of the guns were out of date pieces that still used black powder and loads of the shells turned out to be duds.
And though they did build a whole bunch of last minute defenses, including 30 miles of new trenches,
they never got around to chopping down the trees near the fortress town.
Which the Russians had the pleasure of using for concealment,
but the Austrians at least this time had the mud on their side.
You might except the fortress to fall fairly quickly
since so far this war no fortress on either front had been able to hold out against the power of modern artillery.
But the Autumn rains had turned the ground outisde the fortress to mud for many miles,
and it was too heavy and too deep for the Russians to bring their artillery close enough,
and the initial Russian attack would do nothing except produce 40,000 casualties.
The Russian General Ivanov was not pressuring them with his whole force, though.
He had send 30 divisions to the north a week ago.
And he now decided he wanted to re-group all of those forces on the east bank of the Vistula River to launch an invasion of Germany.
This turned out to be a stunning piece of incompetence on Ivanov’s part as it resulted.
真的 在数周的行军中 一场战役都没打过
Seriously,in weeks of marching and no fighting at all,
在波兰泥泞的秋天 人和马都饥肠辘辘 摔到在路边
with men and horses starving to death and falling by the roadsides during the march through the muddy Polish autumn.
So you have one army digging in and one army on the move,
听起来跟西部战线类似 一些人被困在战壕里 其他人则继续移动
which on the surface sounds similar to the western front, with some men stuck in the trenches, while the others were on the move.
There the race to the sea continued,
with the Germans and the French trying to outflank each other and the trench lines growing and growing toward the coast.
Now, on September 26th, the Germans began bombarding the forts around Antwerp.
Liege and Namur had fallen and Antwerp was the last bastion of Belgian resistance.
事实上 协约国盟军非常需要 安特卫普尽可能长的抵抗
Thing is, the allies seriously needed as long a resistance in Antwerp as possible.
Once the Germans conquered it, they could quickly move to the ports of the English Channel,
which would force the British to retreat to western France, and which would represent a very real threat to Britain herself.
If Antwerp could hold out for even just a week,
the British could get in place a defensive line in Flanders blocking the coast,
从那里可以很理想地发动进攻 解放比利时 迫使德国人退回本国
and from there could ideally launch an offensive to liberate Belgium and push the Germans back across their own border.
The Belgians by this point were understandably demoralized
and began sending their archives and national treasures to Britain.
On the evening of October 2nd, came a meeting of British giants-
Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener, Foreign Secretary Edward Grey,
还有温斯顿·丘吉尔 他在二战中的角色更深入人心 一战中他任英国海军部大臣
and Winston Churchill, who you probably remember more from the Second World War than this one, but was at this point First Lord of the Admiralty.
Realizing that continued resistance in Antwerp as long as possible was essential for the war effort in France,
Churchill himself would go to Antwerp
and spend the next three days in the trenches or meeting with the Belgian government.
But trying to get them to continue to resist in general was an uphill battle-
and one big reason is that the Belgians could not dig trenches for protection,
the ground between the forts and the city had been deliberately flooded and digging trenches was impossible.
Once again, we see the mud of October determining the direction of the war.
It was dire straits in Antwerp indeed.
Imagine being Belgian in 1914.
这个小国家 这个中立国已被蹂躏 变成战区 城市被轰炸 甚至被烧毁
Your little country, your neutral country had been overrun and turned into a war zone and your cities bombed and in some cases burned,
and you had nowhere to run.
While the war at home in the other warring countries might not have been in such a state of crisis, it was very much in a state of flux.
Think about it- you suddenly have all sorts of new rules and regulations on your life,
rules which would continue for over four years.
例如 德国禁止在公众场所说英语 而俄罗斯则禁止使用德语
Germany, for example, banned speaking English in public while Russia banned the German language.
Even speaking German on the phone was a 3,000 ruble fine and you were liable to be sent to Siberia for speaking German in person.
Soup kitchens were established in towns throughout Europe to provide for families who’d suddenly lost their source of income.
France did a good thing here: they imposed a moratorium on rents,
and paid an allowance to the families whose breadwinner had gone to the army
that was in many cases more money than the family had made before the war.
The French government considered the price worth paying to sustain morale.
但如果你很穷 依靠某种形式的消费交易为生 你就倒霉了
But if you were fairly poor and relied on some form of consumer trade for a living, you were out of luck,
and the pawnshop was probably your new best friend.
你也可以看到真正的社会分裂 例如 英国的劳工问题
You can also really see the social divisions in, for example, Britain in labor issues.
Trade unionists who had made truces with employers when the war broke out
were now seeing many of those same employers making tons of new profits and wondered why they weren’t getting a share.
The friction that arose from this would lead to dramatic work stoppages,
1915年 由于劳资纠纷 英国失去了300万工作日的国民收入
and by 1915, three million working days would be lost in Britain because of industrial disputes.
New industries sprang up like lightning to create nouveaux war rich:
铁锹 贝壳 帆布 皮革 炸药 罐头食品 笔和纸
spades, shells, canvas, leather, explosives, canned food and… pencils and paper.
See, most Europeans were literate by 1914 and the war produced a colossal amount of correspondence.
If you look back at the Franco-Prussian war 40 years earlier,
during the entire war the Prussian army received about 500,000 pieces of mail.
In 1914, the German army received 9.9 million pieces of mail EVERY DAY.
Here’s a weird fact that I got from the pages of Max Hastings’ book “Catastrophe”
about Lord Kitchener:
There’s an industry that you might not expect to boom during wartime, goat farming.
战时每个人都各司其职 在家里 在工作中 在战场上
Everybody was playing some part in the war effort, at home, at work, or on the battlefield,
and in the colonies of the empires things were no different.
德国的殖民地 也就是现在的纳米比亚 可能是最有利可图的了 不是吗？
The German colony in what is now Namibia was probably their most profitable colony, right?
With both diamond and copper mines. Well, this week saw the Battle of Sandfontein.
The brilliant German general Heyderbreck, with a force of 1700 mostly native riflemen,
sprung a trap on the South African forces, surrounding and overwhelming nearly twice his number of men,
after cutting the phone lines so that backup could not be called in.
Funnily enough, after the South Africans surrendered,
双方都冰释前嫌 Heyderbreck 格兰特上校 还有南非的领导人
both sides all hung out together, and Heyderbreck and Colonel Grant, the leader of the South Africans,
Congratulated to each other and discussed the battle.
By 1915 the Germans would be forced to surrender in southwest Africa,
but they won a string of victories in 1914 that were really important in tying down South African troops
and preventing them from heading to Europe to help the allies in the major battles that fall.
因此在本周末 俄罗斯人在波兰的泥浆周围徘徊 并在奥地利的泥浆中围攻奥地利人
So at the end of the week, the Russians were wandering around the Polish mud and laying siege to the Austrians in the Austrian mud.
The French and Germans were still shelling each other in the trenches at the ongoing battle of the Aisne,
but the Germans were now pushing to take Antwerp, the last free city in Belgium,
and the British were rushing to defend it,
while in Southwest Africa the Germans were being exceptional and tying down the South African troops.
1914年9月 速战速决的想法破灭了 因为持续战争打响了
In September 1914, the war of rapid victories ended as the war of continuous battles in the trenches began.
And as October began the autumn rains turned the battlefields of Europe to mud in both the east and the west,
making marching excruciating and making life in the trenches torture.
Over the next four years, millions of men would die in the filthy mud of Europe,
其中许多无名无姓 默默无闻 归于沉寂
many of them nameless, faceless, and unsung.
See you next week.
If you want to know more about the early weeks of war, check out our first episodes from July 28 right here.
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