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第10周:秋天的重创 – 译学馆
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第10周:秋天的重创

Dying In The Mud - Autumn Is Taking Its Toll I THE GREAT WAR - Week 10

1914年10月2日
October 2, 1914
第一次世界大战已经肆虐了两个月 在这次空前血腥的战争中 无数士兵命丧于此
The Great War has raged for two months with hundreds of thousands of soldiers losing their lives in some of the bloodiest battles in history.
但是一个始料未及的因素产生了 它将很大程度上决定战争的进程:
But a new and unforseen factor now entered the war and would play a huge part in determining its course.
十月的雨 泥泞的路
with the October rains came the mud.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到《第一次世界大战》
I’m Indy Neidell. Welcome to the Great War.
上次我们讲到 西方的英国 法国 德国军队已在埃纳河战役中陷入僵持
When we left off, the British, French, and German armies in the west had reached a stalemate at the Battle of the Aisne,
为了寻找新优势 交战双方展开了“奔向大海”的争先战 战壕开始向西北部蔓延
and in the search for new advantages the trenches had begun growing to the northwest in the Race to the Sea.
俄罗斯人一方面迫使奥匈帝国军队退回奥地利
The Russians were pushing the Austro-Hungarian army back into Austria
一方面向北进军波兰 与德国交战
and were also heading north into Poland to engage the Germans,
空战和海战都日趋严峻
and both the war in the air and the war at sea were getting serious.
现在是欧洲的秋天 我们看到的战争的一大特色
It was now autumn in Europe, and one thing we see that was a regular feature of the war
是泥泞 无穷无尽的泥泞
was mud. Endless mud.
奥地利12万人的军队 被陷在了要塞城镇普热梅希尔
The Austrian army had barricaded itself in the fortress town of Przemysl, 120,000 strong,
现在完全落后于俄罗斯防线 俄国人于9月26日开始围攻这里
now entirely behind Russian lines, and the Russians began a siege on September 26th.
一直以来奥地利人下定决心要守住普热梅希尔
The Austrians had always planned and determined to hold Przemsyl,
但奥皇弗朗兹·约瑟夫的军备差强人意
but the preparations were typical of the last minute ramshackle efforts of Emperor Franz Josef’s army-
一半枪支过时了 用的还是黑火药 许多炮弹是哑弹
half of the guns were out of date pieces that still used black powder and loads of the shells turned out to be duds.
虽然他们建造了一大堆紧急关头的防御 包括30英里的新战壕
And though they did build a whole bunch of last minute defenses, including 30 miles of new trenches,
但他们从未在要塞城镇附近砍树
they never got around to chopping down the trees near the fortress town.
俄国人欣然将这些树作为藏身之处
Which the Russians had the pleasure of using for concealment,
这次奥地利人将祸水引到自己身上了
but the Austrians at least this time had the mud on their side.
你可能认为要塞城镇会很快速沦陷
You might except the fortress to fall fairly quickly
因为目前为止 这场战争中没有堡垒能抵抗现代炮火的威力
since so far this war no fortress on either front had been able to hold out against the power of modern artillery.
但是秋雨造成的泥泞 在堡垒外绵延了数英里
But the Autumn rains had turned the ground outisde the fortress to mud for many miles,
泥泞又重又深 以至于俄国人的火炮不能靠得够近
and it was too heavy and too deep for the Russians to bring their artillery close enough,
俄国人的首次进攻白白死伤了4万人
and the initial Russian attack would do nothing except produce 40,000 casualties.
不过 俄罗斯将军伊万诺夫并没有全力对他们施压
The Russian General Ivanov was not pressuring them with his whole force, though.
一周前 他往北部派出了30个师
He had send 30 divisions to the north a week ago.
他现在决定要重组维斯瓦河东岸的所有军队 以攻打德国
And he now decided he wanted to re-group all of those forces on the east bank of the Vistula River to launch an invasion of Germany.
就结果来看 伊万诺夫的这一决定是一次令人震惊的失策
This turned out to be a stunning piece of incompetence on Ivanov’s part as it resulted.
真的 在数周的行军中 一场战役都没打过
Seriously,in weeks of marching and no fighting at all,
在波兰泥泞的秋天 人和马都饥肠辘辘 摔到在路边
with men and horses starving to death and falling by the roadsides during the march through the muddy Polish autumn.
所以一支军队在掘壕 一支军队在前进
So you have one army digging in and one army on the move,
听起来跟西部战线类似 一些人被困在战壕里 其他人则继续移动
which on the surface sounds similar to the western front, with some men stuck in the trenches, while the others were on the move.
“奔向大海”的争先战仍在继续
There the race to the sea continued,
德国人和法国人试图互相包抄 战壕线向海岸靠近
with the Germans and the French trying to outflank each other and the trench lines growing and growing toward the coast.
9月26日 德国人开始轰炸安特卫普周围的堡垒
Now, on September 26th, the Germans began bombarding the forts around Antwerp.
列日和那慕尔已经沦陷 安特卫普是比利时抵抗军的最后堡垒
Liege and Namur had fallen and Antwerp was the last bastion of Belgian resistance.
事实上 协约国盟军非常需要 安特卫普尽可能长的抵抗
Thing is, the allies seriously needed as long a resistance in Antwerp as possible.
因为一旦德国人攻克安特卫普 就能长驱直入到英吉利海峡的港口
Once the Germans conquered it, they could quickly move to the ports of the English Channel,
这将迫使英国撤退到法国西部 对英国来说是一次非常真实的威胁
which would force the British to retreat to western France, and which would represent a very real threat to Britain herself.
如果安特卫普能坚持哪怕一星期
If Antwerp could hold out for even just a week,
英国就可以在弗兰德斯设置防线来守卫海岸
the British could get in place a defensive line in Flanders blocking the coast,
从那里可以很理想地发动进攻 解放比利时 迫使德国人退回本国
and from there could ideally launch an offensive to liberate Belgium and push the Germans back across their own border.
因此比利时人的士气低落是可以理解的
The Belgians by this point were understandably demoralized
他们开始把自己的档案和国宝送到英国
and began sending their archives and national treasures to Britain.
10月2日晚上 迎来了英国巨头的会议
On the evening of October 2nd, came a meeting of British giants-
国务卿基钦纳勋爵 外交部长爱德华·格雷
Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener, Foreign Secretary Edward Grey,
还有温斯顿·丘吉尔 他在二战中的角色更深入人心 一战中他任英国海军部大臣
and Winston Churchill, who you probably remember more from the Second World War than this one, but was at this point First Lord of the Admiralty.
他们认识到安特卫普的抵抗越长 对法国的战争努力来说是至关重要的
Realizing that continued resistance in Antwerp as long as possible was essential for the war effort in France,
丘吉尔本人会前往安特卫普
Churchill himself would go to Antwerp
然后在接下来的三天里亲临战场 或者和比利时政府会面
and spend the next three days in the trenches or meeting with the Belgian government.
劝比利时人继续抵抗 总而言之这是一场硬仗
But trying to get them to continue to resist in general was an uphill battle-
战争难打的主要原因是 比利时人不能挖战壕来庇护
and one big reason is that the Belgians could not dig trenches for protection,
堡垒和城市之间的地面被雨水淹没 挖战壕是不可能的
the ground between the forts and the city had been deliberately flooded and digging trenches was impossible.
再一次 我们看到10月的泥浆决定了战争的方向
Once again, we see the mud of October determining the direction of the war.
这确实让安特卫普处在水深火热中
It was dire straits in Antwerp indeed.
想象一下1914年的比利时
Imagine being Belgian in 1914.
这个小国家 这个中立国已被蹂躏 变成战区 城市被轰炸 甚至被烧毁
Your little country, your neutral country had been overrun and turned into a war zone and your cities bombed and in some cases burned,
你无处可逃
and you had nowhere to run.
其它战乱国的状态可能没那么危急 但此处的确动荡不安
While the war at home in the other warring countries might not have been in such a state of crisis, it was very much in a state of flux.
想一下——你的生活中突然有了各种新的规章制度
Think about it- you suddenly have all sorts of new rules and regulations on your life,
而这些规则将伴随你四年以上
rules which would continue for over four years.
例如 德国禁止在公众场所说英语 而俄罗斯则禁止使用德语
Germany, for example, banned speaking English in public while Russia banned the German language.
即使在电话中说德语也要罚款3000卢布 并且说德语的人可能被流放到西伯利亚
Even speaking German on the phone was a 3,000 ruble fine and you were liable to be sent to Siberia for speaking German in person.
是的 流放到西伯利亚
Yep, Siberia.
欧洲各地的城镇都设立了救济厨房 为那些突然失去收入来源的家庭提供帮助
Soup kitchens were established in towns throughout Europe to provide for families who’d suddenly lost their source of income.
法国在这方面做得很好:他们强行暂停房东收取租金
France did a good thing here: they imposed a moratorium on rents,
并向军人家属支付津贴
and paid an allowance to the families whose breadwinner had gone to the army
对许多家庭来说 这笔钱比战前收入还多
that was in many cases more money than the family had made before the war.
法国政府认为津贴能鼓舞士气 花得很值
The French government considered the price worth paying to sustain morale.
但如果你很穷 依靠某种形式的消费交易为生 你就倒霉了
But if you were fairly poor and relied on some form of consumer trade for a living, you were out of luck,
当铺可能就是你的新好友
and the pawnshop was probably your new best friend.
你也可以看到真正的社会分裂 例如 英国的劳工问题
You can also really see the social divisions in, for example, Britain in labor issues.
在战争爆发时与雇主停战的工会会员
Trade unionists who had made truces with employers when the war broke out
现在看到许多雇主赚取大量的利润 对自己没能分一杯羹而愤愤不平
were now seeing many of those same employers making tons of new profits and wondered why they weren’t getting a share.
由此产生的摩擦会导致规模空前的罢工
The friction that arose from this would lead to dramatic work stoppages,
1915年 由于劳资纠纷 英国失去了300万工作日的国民收入
and by 1915, three million working days would be lost in Britain because of industrial disputes.
新产业如雨后春笋般涌现 许多人大发战争横财
New industries sprang up like lightning to create nouveaux war rich:
铁锹 贝壳 帆布 皮革 炸药 罐头食品 笔和纸
spades, shells, canvas, leather, explosives, canned food and… pencils and paper.
1914年大多数欧洲人都已有读写能力 因此战争中产生了大量的书信往来
See, most Europeans were literate by 1914 and the war produced a colossal amount of correspondence.
如果你回顾40年前的普法战争
If you look back at the Franco-Prussian war 40 years earlier,
整个战争期间 普鲁士军队接到了大约50万份邮件
during the entire war the Prussian army received about 500,000 pieces of mail.
1914年 德国军队每天收到990万份邮件
In 1914, the German army received 9.9 million pieces of mail EVERY DAY.
有这样一个奇怪的事实 是我从马克思·哈斯丁的《大灾难》里了解到的
Here’s a weird fact that I got from the pages of Max Hastings’ book “Catastrophe”
关于基钦纳勋爵的:
about Lord Kitchener:
战时你不指望会繁荣的产业是 饲羊业
There’s an industry that you might not expect to boom during wartime, goat farming.
战时每个人都各司其职 在家里 在工作中 在战场上
Everybody was playing some part in the war effort, at home, at work, or on the battlefield,
帝国的殖民地也不例外
and in the colonies of the empires things were no different.
德国的殖民地 也就是现在的纳米比亚 可能是最有利可图的了 不是吗?
The German colony in what is now Namibia was probably their most profitable colony, right?
那里有金刚石和铜矿 这个星期那里发生了桑德方丹战役(开始于1914年9月26日)
With both diamond and copper mines. Well, this week saw the Battle of Sandfontein.
德国将军Heyderbreck才华横溢 他的1700人的军队主要由当地的火枪手组成
The brilliant German general Heyderbreck, with a force of 1700 mostly native riflemen,
他设陷包围了近两倍于自己人数的南非军
sprung a trap on the South African forces, surrounding and overwhelming nearly twice his number of men,
他早就切断了电话线 所以对方的援军不能收到呼救
after cutting the phone lines so that backup could not be called in.
有趣的是 南非投降后
Funnily enough, after the South Africans surrendered,
双方都冰释前嫌 Heyderbreck 格兰特上校 还有南非的领导人
both sides all hung out together, and Heyderbreck and Colonel Grant, the leader of the South Africans,
互相祝贺 还在一起谈论战争
Congratulated to each other and discussed the battle.
1915年 德国人在非洲西南部被迫投降
By 1915 the Germans would be forced to surrender in southwest Africa,
但他们在1914年赢得了一连串的胜利 有效牵制了南非军队
but they won a string of victories in 1914 that were really important in tying down South African troops
并阻止南非军队前往欧洲 在秋天的重大战役中帮助协约国盟军
and preventing them from heading to Europe to help the allies in the major battles that fall.
因此在本周末 俄罗斯人在波兰的泥浆周围徘徊 并在奥地利的泥浆中围攻奥地利人
So at the end of the week, the Russians were wandering around the Polish mud and laying siege to the Austrians in the Austrian mud.
在埃纳战役中 法国人和德国人仍在战壕中互相攻击对方
The French and Germans were still shelling each other in the trenches at the ongoing battle of the Aisne,
德国正开往比利时的最后一个自由城市 安特卫普
but the Germans were now pushing to take Antwerp, the last free city in Belgium,
而英国正赶去阻止德国
and the British were rushing to defend it,
而在非洲西南部 德国人出其不意地牵制了南非军队
while in Southwest Africa the Germans were being exceptional and tying down the South African troops.
1914年9月 速战速决的想法破灭了 因为持续战争打响了
In September 1914, the war of rapid victories ended as the war of continuous battles in the trenches began.
10月的秋雨 把欧洲东西方的战场都变成了一片泥泞
And as October began the autumn rains turned the battlefields of Europe to mud in both the east and the west,
让行军备受煎熬 让战壕里的生命备受折磨
making marching excruciating and making life in the trenches torture.
接下来的四年 数百万军人会死在欧洲肮脏的泥泞里
Over the next four years, millions of men would die in the filthy mud of Europe,
其中许多无名无姓 默默无闻 归于沉寂
many of them nameless, faceless, and unsung.
下周见
See you next week.
如果你想了解一战的前几周 请观看我们从7月28日开始的最早系列的视频
If you want to know more about the early weeks of war, check out our first episodes from July 28 right here.
请把我们的节目推荐给你的朋友 甚至历史老师
Please recommend our show to your friends or even to your history teacher
欢迎在评论中发表自己的见解
and let us know what you think in the comments.

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秋雨对一战的进程有什么影响呢?一起来看看吧!

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