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《敦刻尔克》——恐惧的艺术 – 译学馆
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《敦刻尔克》——恐惧的艺术

Dunkirk - The Art Of Fear

我认为《敦刻尔克》之所以备受争议
I think the reason why Dunkirk was for some people a controversial film
是因为其特立独行的处理方式
was because it was incredibly alien in its execution.
大多数电影重点表现事件中的人物
The vast majority of movies have a focus on character as events happen to that character,
而《敦刻尔克》正好相反 它关注人物经历的事件
while Dunkirk does the exact opposite where the focus is on the event as characters experience this.
二者的差别听起来似乎很微妙
The difference between the two sounds quite subtle,
但拍摄出来的效果
but when actually executed,
可谓天差地别
it makes all the difference in the world.
几乎每部电影的导演
In almost every film,
都会尽量安排能突出人物的剧情
the director tries to add character moments.
他们努力让观众注意人物
They actively try to make the audience care for their characters,
而诺兰在《敦刻尔克》中刻意避免这么做
while with Dunkirk, Nolan intentionally does not.
我认为这个刻意为之的瑕疵
I think that right there the intended flaws
既是影片最为人诟病的缺点
are not only the most damaging part of this movie,
但同时也是最值得称道的妙笔
but also the most redeeming parts as well.
《血战钢锯岭》是部出色的电影
Hacksaw Ridge was an incredible film,
很高兴看到梅尔·吉布森依旧投身创作优秀的影片
and it’s great to see Mel Gibson has still got it in him to make great films,
但《血战钢锯岭》有一个内在的弱点:
but there is an inherent flaw in Hacksaw Ridge:
全程围绕一个美国士兵的视角展开
The entire film is told from the perspective of one American soldier.
电影在人物故事叙述方面讲述得很精彩
The movie does a fantastic job at telling us that person’s story,
也让观众了解到善良的反抗者的心理
and giving insight into the mind of a conscientious objector,
唯有一处做得不好:
but it fails in one aspect:
视角
Scope.
诺兰有意不刻画人物
The approach Nolan took of intentionally insufficient characterization
因此事件拥有更多不同的视角
allows him to provide a greater number of perspectives of the event,
无论是从英国士兵还是司令官
whether it be from a British soldier to the commander in charge,
英国皇家空军或应援船中百姓的角度
to an RAF pilot or a civilian on his boat.
《敦刻尔克》的处理特征是
The evacuation of Dunkirk
一个重大事件由多种不同的视角讲述
was a massive event with hundreds of perspectives that could have been told,
若自始至终采用单一主角视角
and take the traditional approach of having a single protagonist
可能无法尽如人意
who we follow throughout could have been a bad one,
因为即使这样做能使观众聚焦于主角
because while it allows the audience to feel invested in that character,
但也把电影限制在一个人物身上
it also limits the scope of the filmto that one character’s perspective.
诺兰的方法虽削弱了人物表现 却突出了事件本身
Nolan’s approach while making the characters weaker does justice to the event
让观众对事件的变化有更全面的认识
where it allows a more total understanding for the viewer of what transpired
这是任何单一视角的电影无法匹敌的
far better than any film from one perspective ever could.
我认为可以这么总结这部电影的天才之处:
I think a good way of summarizing this film’s flair
它只能以电影的形式呈现
is that this film could only be told as a film.
若是将《血战钢锯岭》或《拯救大兵瑞恩》写成小说
If you were to take Hacksaw Ridge or Saving Private Ryan and turn them into a novel,
阅读的趣味性可能很强
they could have been an interesting read,
但正如诺兰所言
but Dunkirk, as Nolan told it,
《敦刻尔克》无法以其它表现形式存在
would fail if it were to be converted into any other medium.
这并非是坏事 只是道出了这个作品的本质
That is not so much a bad thing but rather a statement about the nature of this work,
因为即便它采用了非传统的处理方式
because despite the fact this film is incredibly non-traditional in its approach,
《敦刻尔克》仍是故事视觉呈现的典范
Dunkirk is visual storytelling at its very best.
为了证明这一点
And in order to prove that,
我们只需了解诺兰如何巧妙地不断制造紧张
we need only look at how Nolan expertly creates a constant tension
并将其贯穿几乎整部影片
that perpetuates almost entirely throughout the movie.
这不仅得益于汉斯·季默的精彩配乐
This is not only created by Hans Zimmer’s fantastic score,
也离不开诺兰构建场景的方法
but also in the way Nolan constructs a scene.
诺兰在《敦刻尔克》中展示了他对制造紧张
In Dunkirk, Nolan displays an expert level understanding of how tension is created,
和恐惧艺术的深刻理解
and understanding of the art of fear.
在对《敦刻尔克》的艺术一探究竟前
And before we take a closer look at Dunkirk’s craft,
我们需要先明白制造紧张的关键
we need to first understand the key to creating tension.
对此简而言之:
And quite simply when it comes to creating tension,
这都与期待有关
it is all to do with expectation.
那么诺兰如何运用它呢?
Now how does Nolan use this key?
以这个画面为例:
Well a great example is this clip.
[战机轰鸣]
[Roaring of fighter]
[喘气]
[Panting]
[爆炸声]
[Bombing]
这样一来
Using the rule,
不难理解为什么该镜头的紧张氛围如此真切
it’s quite easy to realize why the tension in the shot is so palpable.
因为炸弹从远处引爆
The bombs start faraway and as part of a pattern
一次次向主角逼近
come closer and closer.
不久后观众就会发现
The viewer after the first few seconds
主角正在炸弹摧毁的目标道路上
realizes that the protagonist is in the way of the bombing,
这个想法随着爆炸的步步迫近得以强化
and this is further reinforced as the bombs come closer.
就在千钧一发之际爆炸戛然而止 给主角造成了不小的惊吓
And this culminates in the relief when the bombs stop was just one shot of hitting the character.
这是个高度紧张的片段
Now this is a good example of a moment with high tension,
还有一个略微复杂的画面
but to find a more complex example,
主角们在船上等待撤离的场景中
we need only look at the evacuation scene once the characters are on board the boats.
诺兰运用了一个有趣的手法
An interesting method Nolan uses in this scene is that every single shot
每个镜头都像其中一个士兵的视角
is from the perspective ofwhere a soldier could be standing.
当我们看到人物走下楼梯
When we see the characters walk down the stairs,
摄影机就进行俯拍
the camera tracks them as if we the viewer
观众就像站在楼梯上俯视他们
are standing on top of the stairs looking down on them.
当他们穿过人群
When they are walking through the crowd,
摄影机跟在其身后
the camera follows them as if we the viewer are walking behind them
观众似乎也紧跟其后
as they make their way through.
这场戏中船里的每个镜头
Each shot from the inside the boat in this scene is taken from a place
都是从一个士兵的角度拍的
where a soldier could to be standing.
这点显而易见 因为大多数镜头在人眼的高度
You’ll notice this because most of the the shots are at eye height
观众就好似人群中观察主角的一员
as if we are a part of the crowd looking on at the main characters.
仰拍或俯拍的镜头 比如这个
If there were to have been a shot from below or above such as this shot,
提供了局外人的视角
it would give a certain detachment from the scene.
这种镜头的运用
When shots like that are used,
使观众感觉自己像旁观者
it can make the viewer feel like they are a spectator looking in.
当所有镜头都如此拍摄
But when all the shots are taken in this way
在人眼高度像人一般移动
from eye height as the camera moves just like a person would,
则立刻使人潜意识感到身临其境
it instant makes us subconsciously feel like we are physically there,
加剧紧张效果
which only helps to add to the uneasy tension.
在这场戏中 诺兰仅仅通过对摄影机的角度的谨慎选择
In this scene, Nolan simply by choosing carefully where the cameras pointed,
就让我们对主角的所思所感一目了然
tells us a thought process of the protagonist.
当主角朝上看
We see him look up,
镜头模拟他的视角
it is followed by a shot from his perspective
看到他来时的门上锁了
as the door he came through is locked shut.
他把头转到右边
He turns to the right,
看到士兵们泰然自若
we see a number of soldiers relaxing.
这场戏很容易会拍不出紧张的效果
It would’ve been easy to have this scene be one of respite to have had no tension in it at all,
多亏了诺兰运用的手法和镜头调度
but due to this specific choice and shots,
使角色内心的想法显而易见:
it tells us what is going through the character’s head:
“门锁了 我无法出去
“The door has been locked shut, so I can’t get out.
我和上百位士兵被关在这个拥挤的地方”
“I’m trapped in a tight space with a hundred strangers.”
只消向观众展示主角的忧虑
Simply by telling the audience the fact that character is worrying,
观众也开始不安了起来
that worries us as the audience too.
为后文忧虑的应验埋下伏笔:
It also serves as foreshadowing where later on his worries are validated
船被鱼雷击中 他差点溺水丧命
as the boat is torpedoed and he nearly drowns because he can’t escape.
恐惧与期待的必然联系
And this idea of the uneasy fear being directly linked to expectation
在这部影片中俯拾皆是
is present in many examples throughout this movie,
比如空军战机油表坏了
whether it be the pilots fuel gauge that is disabled,
他不知道还能飞多久
so we has no clue how long he can remain in the air,
德军用搁浅的船做射击练习导致船进水
or the boat scene where the Germans start using the grounded boat the characters are in
而船里躲着等待逃生的士兵
as target practice and as a result the boat starts to flood.
另一个威胁在蓄势待发
Another example of a threat that we know is not at the moment a problem
凶兆不久就会应验
that will be a huge one in the immediate future,
在士兵落入溢油海域并竭力逃生时
is in the climax where the soldiers are drenched in the oil
威胁达到极点
as they desperately try to escape.
正因为我们知道威胁蓄势待发
As a result of this threat that is not immediately a danger but we know it soon will be,
观众才挺直腰板全神贯注
it leaves the viewer at the edge of their seat
预测威胁可能随时到来
as they expect that threat to become a reality at any second.
这再次制造了高度的紧张氛围
This again creates a strong palpable tension.
几个月前
A number of months ago,
我做了一个视频叫《异形——惊悚的艺术》
I made a video called Alien–The Art of Horror.
其中 我问是什么成就了经典的惊悚瞬间
In that essay I asked what makes for a truly great moment of horror,
我自己的答案是惊悚源于对未知的恐惧
and my conclusion was that great horror comes from the fear of the unknown.
《敦刻尔克》中 当你看到德军或与其说看不到德军的时候
In Dunkirk when you look or rather don’t look at the German soldiers,
你就会明白这个道理
you can see this philosophy being echoed.
每当提及德军
When it came to the German soldiers,
只有一个场面真正拍到了德军
in only one scene are they actually referred to as the Germans.
其它场面都从他人口中出现:
For the rest of the film they are only referred to by:
“敌人对此有话要说”
“The enemy has something to say about it.”
“敌军可能就在那边”
“Enemy could be right there.”
“要么选择我们 要么投靠敌方”
“But it’s us or the enemy.”
“敌人已经停用坦克了”
“And the enemy tanks have stopped.”
诺兰如此处理德军的原因有二
Now the reason Noland approaches the Germans in this way is twofold.
一为影片主题并非德军
Firstly the film is not about the Germans.
而是死里逃生的英法盟军
It’s about the Allies and their struggle to survive.
浪费大量时间拍摄敌方
Spending any amount of time on the enemy
只会使剧情偏离影片主旨
would have only distracted from the overall purpose of the film,
但我认为诺兰这么做的根本原因是
but primarily I think the reason why Noland did this
利用人们对未知的恐惧
was to play with that idea of the fear of the unknown.
通常最恐怖的莫过于我们不了解的事
Quite often the scariest things are the things that we don’t fully understand.
因此当我们从未近距离看见敌人
And when we never see the enemy up close,
和他们的人形实体
when their individual human parts do not exist,
而是他人口中模糊的一群人时
and instead they are addressed as if they are an ambiguous collective,
难以捉摸的敌方让恐惧由此而生
they are less tangible and thusly more frightening.
不知你是否发现
I wonder if you notice
影片对德军使用的唯一近景
that in the only close-up shot in the whole film where we actually see German soldiers,
都将其安排在背景中 而非镜头的主角
they are in the background, not the main subject of the shots,
并且背景使用了虚化效果
and they are out of focus.
即便到最后
Even in the end,
我们都没能看清任何一个德军的真面目
we are not allowed to see the face of an individual soldier,
因为一旦你看到了
because the moment you see that,
敌军就不再是模糊不定 无法预测的威胁了
the moment the enemy stops being an ambiguous unpredictable threat,
而仅仅是一群普通人
and instead just a group of humans,
看得见敌人的时候 恐惧会随之削弱
in that moment, the enemy becomes tangible and thusly less frightening.
大多数人可能会不同意我接下来所说的
Now I expect the majority of you will disagree with me on what I’m about to say,
很多人夸赞《敦刻尔克》是一部伟大的战争片
but many people have been praising this movie as a truly great war film.
但我不同意
But I want to disagree,
虽然这部电影艺术造诣高深独特
because while this film is great and artistically unique,
但它并非战争片
Dunkirk is not a war film.
回顾那些经典的战争片
When you look at the very best war films,
并不是指那些恰巧在战争背景中的动作电影
not the ones that are just action films that justto happen to take place in the middle of a war,
而是对战争的本质有所表态
they always make commentary on the nature of war.
真正伟大的战争片揭露战争真实的一面
The truly great war films always address an aspect of what war is like,
并在一定程度上
and to an extent,
警示观众它带来的现实灾难
try to educate the viewer about its reality.
在我心目中 包含这一哲理的范例就是
And I think a great example of the war scene that embodies this philosophy
在《拯救大兵瑞恩》里
is the scene in Saving Private Ryan where the main characters have
主角俘虏了一位刚杀死他们战友的德军
captured a German soldier who just killed one of their friends,
这个德军一边挖着墓穴
and then he begs for his life
一边背诵美国道义来求生
by reciting American culture as he digs a grave.
整整60秒 我们看着这位德国俘虏
For 60 seconds, we see a German prisoner
自掘坟墓 屈尊求饶
digging a grave, trying to plead for his life
而美军只是默默的看着他
while the American soldiers just look down at him in silence.
[喘气]
[Panting]
“我说你看到了吗?”
“I say can you see?”
“我说你看到了吗?”
“I say can you see?”
“我……我说……”
“I…I say…”
[喘气]
[Panting]
这个场面很有震撼力
This scene is powerful.
相比只是肤浅的
There are thousands of action films that are just brainless action flicks
毫无立场的泛滥的打斗场面
where there is no real commentary made,
这样的情节
but it is scene like this
才能展现战争的实质
scene that portray the true nature of war,
才能体现如何抉择善恶
and how when it comes to deciding who is good and who is bad.
现实中 这个抉择很让人纠结
In real life, it can be extremely trying,
因为有时敌我双方都同等罪恶
because sometimes both sides are equally as evil.
这个情景之所以受到认可
This scene is a great war scene
是因为它对这一事实做出了自己的评判
because it makes commentary on that fact.
吉布森在《血战钢锯岭》运用良知的反抗
In Hacksaw Ridge, Gibson tackles conscientious objection
展示了有时拒绝杀戮比杀戮更需要勇气
and how sometimes those who refuse to kill are in fact more brave than those who do.
《边境杀手》则表现出面对战争
Sicario deals with the idea that when it comes to war,
美国政府与敌人同样残暴无异
the American government can be just as evil as the foes it fights.
《拯救大兵瑞恩》触及战争的方方面面:
Saving Private Ryan tackles a number of aspects of war
比如当瑞恩骁勇无私
such as how war brings out the very best but also the worst in people
拒绝独善其身 宁死也不丢下战友时
where someone displays selfless bravery such as Private Ryan does
我们看到战争如何激发
when he refuses to go back home because he would rather risk likely death
人性中最美和最丑的一面
than abandon his friends,
又如这个残忍的场景:
or the very worst
翻译任由自己的朋友死去
when the translator lets his friend die,
因为他丝毫不敢阻止敌人
because he is too terrified to intervene.
无论导演是谁
No matter the director,
无论评价如何
no matter the critical response,
战争片之所以成为战争片
in order for a war film to truly be a war film,
是因为它对战争本质有所表态
it needs to make some kind of commentary on the nature of war.
这并不是铁律 仅仅是我的个人想法
Now that is not a hard and fast rule but rather just my own opinion,
《敦刻尔克》没有对战争的实质表态吗?
but what commentary does Dunkirk make on the nature of war?
的确有很多细节能体现影片的立场
Yes there are a number of smaller ideas that play a role in the background
譬如斯里安·墨菲的角色患有创后精神障碍
such as Cillian Murphy’s character who has PTSD,
但战争本身在《敦刻尔克》处于次要地位
but really the fact the film is set in a war is secondary to the true focus of the movie,
即便《敦刻尔克》有战争片的元素
because while it has elements of a war movie,
它的焦点不在打斗
it is not a film about fighting,
不在战争
it is not a film about war,
而关乎生存
it is a film about survival.
《末日浩劫》比《拯救大兵瑞恩》
Dunkirk shares more in common with The Day After Tomorrow
更像《敦刻尔克》:
than it does Saving Private Ryan:
看不见的敌人
the fact we never actually see the enemy,
没有答案的疑问
the fact the question is never addressed.
至于敌我哪方站在道德制高点
As to which side has the moral high ground
完全取决于诺兰
was entirely intentional from Noland,
因为对于历史上真正的敦刻尔克大撤退
because that is ultimately irrelevant
这都无足轻重了
when it came to the factual event of Dunkirk.
如果诺兰在做一部关于大屠杀或在日本投放原子弹的电影
If Noland were making a movie about the holocaust or the use of atomic weapons in Japan,
毫无疑问这些事件的道德会成为影片焦点
there is no doubt that the morality of those events would have been front and center,
因为人们在战争中的道德动机
because the morality of what those people did at those moments in the war
有助于我们了解历史全貌
is an integral part of understanding those events.
但对于敦刻尔克大撤退
But when it came to the evacuation of Dunkirk,
道德已经不重要了
morality did not matter,
因为在当时
because in that moment,
无人会想英国是否在正义的一方
nobody was pondering whether the British were in the right or the wrong,
在那危险的孤岛上
but rather the only thing going through the heads of the soldiers on that beach
他们只有对未知的敌军的惊恐
was the pure and total fear of an unseen enemy,
对返乡无望的恐惧
the pure and total fear of never seeing home again,
对生存极度的渴望
the pure and total desire to survive.
所以称《敦刻尔克》为关乎生存的电影并无贬义
So saying Dunkirk is a survival film is not a negative connotation at all,
因为当我们回顾历史
because when you look back at history,
在敦刻尔克大撤退中
at the evacuation of Dunkirk,
生存就是一切
survival is what it was all about.
在节目结束前
And before we go,
我想告诉你我是一个有抱负的作者
I want to tell you that I’m an aspiring writer,
总会从自己的艺术品中积累经验
and I’m always looking to learn a little more about my craft,
所以当我听闻Skillshare里有我节目的粉丝
so when I heard that the people at Skillshare were fans of this channel,
并且想资助我的节目
and were interested in sponsoring my content,
我决定去Skillshare看看
I decided to check them out.
进去以后
When I went in,
我以为我感兴趣的内容不多
I expected there to be only half a dozen courses on my passion
即创意写作
which is creative writing.
结果让我很意外
However, my expectations were utterly shattered by the
单是关于写作的内容就数不胜数
abundance of hundreds of courses they have just for writing alone,
我觉得那些内容都弥足珍贵
which I myself have found invaluable.
我花了两周浏览里面的课程
I’ve spent the past two weeks binging out on their courses,
看到的不过是冰山一角
and I’ve barely even scratched the surface of what they have to offer,
光是写作课就这么多
and that is just for writing.
Skillshare有不同领域的课程
Skillshare has thousands of hours worth of content from all sorts of fields
有画画和网站创建课
from drawing to website creation,
还有一系列电影制作课
and they have a wealth of content on filmmaking,
相信你们会喜欢的
which I know is something a lot of you would be interested in.
最近我学了两门课 西蒙的《写作习惯》
The two most recent courses I watched are one on creative writing habits by Simon Van Boy,
和迈克的《喜剧写作》
and one on writing comedy by Mike Locker,
我推荐大家从这两门课起步
so I would recommend those two to be a great place to get started.
Skillshare一般每月只要10刀
Skillshare usually costs ten dollars a month,
但我欣喜地宣布
however I am nothing short of ecstatic to announce that
今年1月
for only this month of January,
如果你登录相关链接
if you click that link in the description,
只消0.99刀 你可以连续3个月
you will have complete access for all of this content
学习里头的所有课程
for $0.99 for a total of three months.
只消不到1刀 连续3个月无限制学习
That’s three months of unlimited access for less than a dollar,
相信我 绝对划算
which trust me is an absolute bargain.
1月31日后活动就会结束
But let me stress that after the 31st of January,
链接就会失效 仅这一次机会
that link will expire and you won’t see this offer again,
请登录相关链接
so please be sure to click that link in the description
机不可失
while the offer still stands.
感谢收看
Anyway, thanks for watching,
下期节目再见
and I will see you guys next time on the Closer Look.

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译制信息
视频概述

《敦刻尔克》制造紧张和恐惧的艺术值得学习,多视角纪念敦刻尔克大撤退,重新反思战争。

听录译者

Seline

翻译译者

Seline

审核员

审核员KM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D25LlVgUR-s

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