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《敦刻尔克》——恐惧的艺术 – 译学馆
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《敦刻尔克》——恐惧的艺术

Dunkirk - The Art Of Fear

I think the reason why Dunkirk was for some people a controversial film
我认为《敦刻尔克》之所以备受争议
was because it was incredibly alien in its execution.
是因为其特立独行的处理方式
The vast majority of movies have a focus on character as events happen to that character,
大多数电影重点表现事件中的人物
while Dunkirk does the exact opposite where the focus is on the event as characters experience this.
而《敦刻尔克》正好相反 它关注人物经历的事件
The difference between the two sounds quite subtle,
二者的差别听起来似乎很微妙
but when actually executed,
但拍摄出来的效果
it makes all the difference in the world.
可谓天差地别
In almost every film,
几乎每部电影的导演
the director tries to add character moments.
都会尽量安排能突出人物的剧情
They actively try to make the audience care for their characters,
他们努力让观众注意人物
while with Dunkirk, Nolan intentionally does not.
而诺兰在《敦刻尔克》中刻意避免这么做
I think that right there the intended flaws
我认为这个刻意为之的瑕疵
are not only the most damaging part of this movie,
既是影片最为人诟病的缺点
but also the most redeeming parts as well.
但同时也是最值得称道的妙笔
Hacksaw Ridge was an incredible film,
《血战钢锯岭》是部出色的电影
and it’s great to see Mel Gibson has still got it in him to make great films,
很高兴看到梅尔·吉布森依旧投身创作优秀的影片
but there is an inherent flaw in Hacksaw Ridge:
但《血战钢锯岭》有一个内在的弱点:
The entire film is told from the perspective of one American soldier.
全程围绕一个美国士兵的视角展开
The movie does a fantastic job at telling us that person’s story,
电影在人物故事叙述方面讲述得很精彩
and giving insight into the mind of a conscientious objector,
也让观众了解到善良的反抗者的心理
but it fails in one aspect:
唯有一处做得不好:
Scope.
视角
The approach Nolan took of intentionally insufficient characterization
诺兰有意不刻画人物
allows him to provide a greater number of perspectives of the event,
因此事件拥有更多不同的视角
whether it be from a British soldier to the commander in charge,
无论是从英国士兵还是司令官
to an RAF pilot or a civilian on his boat.
英国皇家空军或应援船中百姓的角度
The evacuation of Dunkirk
《敦刻尔克》的处理特征是
was a massive event with hundreds of perspectives that could have been told,
一个重大事件由多种不同的视角讲述
and take the traditional approach of having a single protagonist
若自始至终采用单一主角视角
who we follow throughout could have been a bad one,
可能无法尽如人意
because while it allows the audience to feel invested in that character,
因为即使这样做能使观众聚焦于主角
it also limits the scope of the film to that one character’s perspective.
但也把电影限制在一个人物身上
Nolan’s approach while making the characters weaker does justice to the event
诺兰的方法虽削弱了人物表现 却突出了事件本身
where it allows a more total understanding for the viewer of what transpired
让观众对事件的变化有更全面的认识
far better than any film from one perspective ever could.
这是任何单一视角的电影无法匹敌的
I think a good way of summarizing this film’s flair
我认为可以这么总结这部电影的天才之处:
is that this film could only be told as a film.
它只能以电影的形式呈现
If you were to take Hacksaw Ridge or Saving Private Ryan and turn them into a novel,
若是将《血战钢锯岭》或《拯救大兵瑞恩》写成小说
they could have been an interesting read,
阅读的趣味性可能很强
but Dunkirk, as Nolan told it,
但正如诺兰所言
would fail if it were to be converted into any other medium.
《敦刻尔克》无法以其它表现形式存在
That is not so much a bad thing but rather a statement about the nature of this work,
这并非是坏事 只是道出了这个作品的本质
because despite the fact this film is incredibly non-traditional in its approach,
因为即便它采用了非传统的处理方式
Dunkirk is visual storytelling at its very best.
《敦刻尔克》仍是故事视觉呈现的典范
And in order to prove that,
为了证明这一点
we need only look at how Nolan expertly creates a constant tension
我们只需了解诺兰如何巧妙地不断制造紧张
that perpetuates almost entirely throughout the movie.
并将其贯穿几乎整部影片
This is not only created by Hans Zimmer’s fantastic score,
这不仅得益于汉斯·季默的精彩配乐
but also in the way Nolan constructs a scene.
也离不开诺兰构建场景的方法
In Dunkirk, Nolan displays an expert level understanding of how tension is created,
诺兰在《敦刻尔克》中展示了他对制造紧张
and understanding of the art of fear.
和恐惧艺术的深刻理解
And before we take a closer look at Dunkirk’s craft,
在对《敦刻尔克》的艺术一探究竟前
we need to first understand the key to creating tension.
我们需要先明白制造紧张的关键
And quite simply when it comes to creating tension,
对此简而言之:
it is all to do with expectation.
这都与期待有关
Now how does Nolan use this key?
那么诺兰如何运用它呢?
Well a great example is this clip.
以这个画面为例:
[Roaring of fighter]
[战机轰鸣]
[Panting]
[喘气]
[Bombing]
[爆炸声]
Using the rule,
这样一来
it’s quite easy to realize why the tension in the shot is so palpable.
不难理解为什么该镜头的紧张氛围如此真切
The bombs start faraway and as part of a pattern
因为炸弹从远处引爆
come closer and closer.
一次次向主角逼近
The viewer after the first few seconds
不久后观众就会发现
realizes that the protagonist is in the way of the bombing,
主角正在炸弹摧毁的目标道路上
and this is further reinforced as the bombs come closer.
这个想法随着爆炸的步步迫近得以强化
And this culminates in the relief when the bombs stop was just one shot of hitting the character.
就在千钧一发之际爆炸戛然而止 给主角造成了不小的惊吓
Now this is a good example of a moment with high tension,
这是个高度紧张的片段
but to find a more complex example,
还有一个略微复杂的画面
we need only look at the evacuation scene once the characters are on board the boats.
主角们在船上等待撤离的场景中
An interesting method Nolan uses in this scene is that every single shot
诺兰运用了一个有趣的手法
is from the perspective of where a soldier could be standing.
每个镜头都像其中一个士兵的视角
When we see the characters walk down the stairs,
当我们看到人物走下楼梯
the camera tracks them as if we the viewer
摄影机就进行俯拍
are standing on top of the stairs looking down on them.
观众就像站在楼梯上俯视他们
When they are walking through the crowd,
当他们穿过人群
the camera follows them as if we the viewer are walking behind them
摄影机跟在其身后
as they make their way through.
观众似乎也紧跟其后
Each shot from the inside the boat in this scene is taken from a place
这场戏中船里的每个镜头
where a soldier could to be standing.
都是从一个士兵的角度拍的
You’ll notice this because most of the the shots are at eye height
这点显而易见 因为大多数镜头在人眼的高度
as if we are a part of the crowd looking on at the main characters.
观众就好似人群中观察主角的一员
If there were to have been a shot from below or above such as this shot,
仰拍或俯拍的镜头 比如这个
it would give a certain detachment from the scene.
提供了局外人的视角
When shots like that are used,
这种镜头的运用
it can make the viewer feel like they are a spectator looking in.
使观众感觉自己像旁观者
But when all the shots are taken in this way
当所有镜头都如此拍摄
from eye height as the camera moves just like a person would,
在人眼高度像人一般移动
it instant makes us subconsciously feel like we are physically there,
则立刻使人潜意识感到身临其境
which only helps to add to the uneasy tension.
加剧紧张效果
In this scene, Nolan simply by choosing carefully where the cameras pointed,
在这场戏中 诺兰仅仅通过对摄影机的角度的谨慎选择
tells us a thought process of the protagonist.
就让我们对主角的所思所感一目了然
We see him look up,
当主角朝上看
it is followed by a shot from his perspective
镜头模拟他的视角
as the door he came through is locked shut.
看到他来时的门上锁了
He turns to the right,
他把头转到右边
we see a number of soldiers relaxing.
看到士兵们泰然自若
It would’ve been easy to have this scene be one of respite to have had no tension in it at all,
这场戏很容易会拍不出紧张的效果
but due to this specific choice and shots,
多亏了诺兰运用的手法和镜头调度
it tells us what is going through the character’s head:
使角色内心的想法显而易见:
“The door has been locked shut, so I can’t get out.
“门锁了 我无法出去
“I’m trapped in a tight space with a hundred strangers.”
我和上百位士兵被关在这个拥挤的地方”
Simply by telling the audience the fact that character is worrying,
只消向观众展示主角的忧虑
that worries us as the audience too.
观众也开始不安了起来
It also serves as foreshadowing where later on his worries are validated
为后文忧虑的应验埋下伏笔:
as the boat is torpedoed and he nearly drowns because he can’t escape.
船被鱼雷击中 他差点溺水丧命
And this idea of the uneasy fear being directly linked to expectation
恐惧与期待的必然联系
is present in many examples throughout this movie,
在这部影片中俯拾皆是
whether it be the pilots fuel gauge that is disabled,
比如空军战机油表坏了
so we has no clue how long he can remain in the air,
他不知道还能飞多久
or the boat scene where the Germans start using the grounded boat the characters are in
德军用搁浅的船做射击练习导致船进水
as target practice and as a result the boat starts to flood.
而船里躲着等待逃生的士兵
Another example of a threat that we know is not at the moment a problem
另一个威胁在蓄势待发
that will be a huge one in the immediate future,
凶兆不久就会应验
is in the climax where the soldiers are drenched in the oil
在士兵落入溢油海域并竭力逃生时
as they desperately try to escape.
威胁达到极点
As a result of this threat that is not immediately a danger but we know it soon will be,
正因为我们知道威胁蓄势待发
it leaves the viewer at the edge of their seat
观众才挺直腰板全神贯注
as they expect that threat to become a reality at any second.
预测威胁可能随时到来
This again creates a strong palpable tension.
这再次制造了高度的紧张氛围
A number of months ago,
几个月前
I made a video called Alien–The Art of Horror.
我做了一个视频叫《异形——惊悚的艺术》
In that essay I asked what makes for a truly great moment of horror,
其中 我问是什么成就了经典的惊悚瞬间
and my conclusion was that great horror comes from the fear of the unknown.
我自己的答案是惊悚源于对未知的恐惧
In Dunkirk when you look or rather don’t look at the German soldiers,
《敦刻尔克》中 当你看到德军或与其说看不到德军的时候
you can see this philosophy being echoed.
你就会明白这个道理
When it came to the German soldiers,
每当提及德军
in only one scene are they actually referred to as the Germans.
只有一个场面真正拍到了德军
For the rest of the film they are only referred to by:
其它场面都从他人口中出现:
“The enemy has something to say about it.”
“敌人对此有话要说”
“Enemy could be right there.”
“敌军可能就在那边”
“But it’s us or the enemy.”
“要么选择我们 要么投靠敌方”
“And the enemy tanks have stopped.”
“敌人已经停用坦克了”
Now the reason Noland approaches the Germans in this way is twofold.
诺兰如此处理德军的原因有二
Firstly the film is not about the Germans.
一为影片主题并非德军
It’s about the Allies and their struggle to survive.
而是死里逃生的英法盟军
Spending any amount of time on the enemy
浪费大量时间拍摄敌方
would have only distracted from the overall purpose of the film,
只会使剧情偏离影片主旨
but primarily I think the reason why Noland did this
但我认为诺兰这么做的根本原因是
was to play with that idea of the fear of the unknown.
利用人们对未知的恐惧
Quite often the scariest things are the things that we don’t fully understand.
通常最恐怖的莫过于我们不了解的事
And when we never see the enemy up close,
因此当我们从未近距离看见敌人
when their individual human parts do not exist,
和他们的人形实体
and instead they are addressed as if they are an ambiguous collective,
而是他人口中模糊的一群人时
they are less tangible and thusly more frightening.
难以捉摸的敌方让恐惧由此而生
I wonder if you notice
不知你是否发现
that in the only close-up shot in the whole film where we actually see German soldiers,
影片对德军使用的唯一近景
they are in the background, not the main subject of the shots,
都将其安排在背景中 而非镜头的主角
and they are out of focus.
并且背景使用了虚化效果
Even in the end,
即便到最后
we are not allowed to see the face of an individual soldier,
我们都没能看清任何一个德军的真面目
because the moment you see that,
因为一旦你看到了
the moment the enemy stops being an ambiguous unpredictable threat,
敌军就不再是模糊不定 无法预测的威胁了
and instead just a group of humans,
而仅仅是一群普通人
in that moment, the enemy becomes tangible and thusly less frightening.
看得见敌人的时候 恐惧会随之削弱
Now I expect the majority of you will disagree with me on what I’m about to say,
大多数人可能会不同意我接下来所说的
but many people have been praising this movie as a truly great war film.
很多人夸赞《敦刻尔克》是一部伟大的战争片
But I want to disagree,
但我不同意
because while this film is great and artistically unique,
虽然这部电影艺术造诣高深独特
Dunkirk is not a war film.
但它并非战争片
When you look at the very best war films,
回顾那些经典的战争片
not the ones that are just action films that just to happen to take place in the middle of a war,
并不是指那些恰巧在战争背景中的动作电影
they always make commentary on the nature of war.
而是对战争的本质有所表态
The truly great war films always address an aspect of what war is like,
真正伟大的战争片揭露战争真实的一面
and to an extent,
并在一定程度上
try to educate the viewer about its reality.
警示观众它带来的现实灾难
And I think a great example of the war scene that embodies this philosophy
在我心目中 包含这一哲理的范例就是
is the scene in Saving Private Ryan where the main characters have
在《拯救大兵瑞恩》里
captured a German soldier who just killed one of their friends,
主角俘虏了一位刚杀死他们战友的德军
and then he begs for his life
这个德军一边挖着墓穴
by reciting American culture as he digs a grave.
一边背诵美国道义来求生
For 60 seconds, we see a German prisoner
整整60秒 我们看着这位德国俘虏
digging a grave, trying to plead for his life
自掘坟墓 屈尊求饶
while the American soldiers just look down at him in silence.
而美军只是默默的看着他
[Panting]
[喘气]
“I say can you see?”
“我说你看到了吗?”
“I say can you see?”
“我说你看到了吗?”
“I…I say…”
“我……我说……”
[Panting]
[喘气]
This scene is powerful.
这个场面很有震撼力
There are thousands of action films that are just brainless action flicks
相比只是肤浅的
where there is no real commentary made,
毫无立场的泛滥的打斗场面
but it is scene like this
这样的情节
scene that portray the true nature of war,
才能展现战争的实质
and how when it comes to deciding who is good and who is bad.
才能体现如何抉择善恶
In real life, it can be extremely trying,
现实中 这个抉择很让人纠结
because sometimes both sides are equally as evil.
因为有时敌我双方都同等罪恶
This scene is a great war scene
这个情景之所以受到认可
because it makes commentary on that fact.
是因为它对这一事实做出了自己的评判
In Hacksaw Ridge, Gibson tackles conscientious objection
吉布森在《血战钢锯岭》运用良知的反抗
and how sometimes those who refuse to kill are in fact more brave than those who do.
展示了有时拒绝杀戮比杀戮更需要勇气
Sicario deals with the idea that when it comes to war,
《边境杀手》则表现出面对战争
the American government can be just as evil as the foes it fights.
美国政府与敌人同样残暴无异
Saving Private Ryan tackles a number of aspects of war
《拯救大兵瑞恩》触及战争的方方面面:
such as how war brings out the very best but also the worst in people
比如当瑞恩骁勇无私
where someone displays selfless bravery such as Private Ryan does
拒绝独善其身 宁死也不丢下战友时
when he refuses to go back home because he would rather risk likely death
我们看到战争如何激发
than abandon his friends,
人性中最美和最丑的一面
or the very worst
又如这个残忍的场景:
when the translator lets his friend die,
翻译任由自己的朋友死去
because he is too terrified to intervene.
因为他丝毫不敢阻止敌人
No matter the director,
无论导演是谁
no matter the critical response,
无论评价如何
in order for a war film to truly be a war film,
战争片之所以成为战争片
it needs to make some kind of commentary on the nature of war.
是因为它对战争本质有所表态
Now that is not a hard and fast rule but rather just my own opinion,
这并不是铁律 仅仅是我的个人想法
but what commentary does Dunkirk make on the nature of war?
《敦刻尔克》没有对战争的实质表态吗?
Yes there are a number of smaller ideas that play a role in the background
的确有很多细节能体现影片的立场
such as Cillian Murphy’s character who has PTSD,
譬如斯里安·墨菲的角色患有创后精神障碍
but really the fact the film is set in a war is secondary to the true focus of the movie,
但战争本身在《敦刻尔克》处于次要地位
because while it has elements of a war movie,
即便《敦刻尔克》有战争片的元素
it is not a film about fighting,
它的焦点不在打斗
it is not a film about war,
不在战争
it is a film about survival.
而关乎生存
Dunkirk shares more in common with The Day After Tomorrow
《末日浩劫》比《拯救大兵瑞恩》
than it does Saving Private Ryan:
更像《敦刻尔克》:
the fact we never actually see the enemy,
看不见的敌人
the fact the question is never addressed.
没有答案的疑问
As to which side has the moral high ground
至于敌我哪方站在道德制高点
was entirely intentional from Noland,
完全取决于诺兰
because that is ultimately irrelevant
因为对于历史上真正的敦刻尔克大撤退
when it came to the factual event of Dunkirk.
这都无足轻重了
If Noland were making a movie about the holocaust or the use of atomic weapons in Japan,
如果诺兰在做一部关于大屠杀或在日本投放原子弹的电影
there is no doubt that the morality of those events would have been front and center,
毫无疑问这些事件的道德会成为影片焦点
because the morality of what those people did at those moments in the war
因为人们在战争中的道德动机
is an integral part of understanding those events.
有助于我们了解历史全貌
But when it came to the evacuation of Dunkirk,
但对于敦刻尔克大撤退
morality did not matter,
道德已经不重要了
because in that moment,
因为在当时
nobody was pondering whether the British were in the right or the wrong,
无人会想英国是否在正义的一方
but rather the only thing going through the heads of the soldiers on that beach
在那危险的孤岛上
was the pure and total fear of an unseen enemy,
他们只有对未知的敌军的惊恐
the pure and total fear of never seeing home again,
对返乡无望的恐惧
the pure and total desire to survive.
对生存极度的渴望
So saying Dunkirk is a survival film is not a negative connotation at all,
所以称《敦刻尔克》为关乎生存的电影并无贬义
because when you look back at history,
因为当我们回顾历史
at the evacuation of Dunkirk,
在敦刻尔克大撤退中
survival is what it was all about.
生存就是一切
And before we go,
在节目结束前
I want to tell you that I’m an aspiring writer,
我想告诉你我是一个有抱负的作者
and I’m always looking to learn a little more about my craft,
总会从自己的艺术品中积累经验
so when I heard that the people at Skillshare were fans of this channel,
所以当我听闻Skillshare里有我节目的粉丝
and were interested in sponsoring my content,
并且想资助我的节目
I decided to check them out.
我决定去Skillshare看看
When I went in,
进去以后
I expected there to be only half a dozen courses on my passion
我以为我感兴趣的内容不多
which is creative writing.
即创意写作
However, my expectations were utterly shattered by the
结果让我很意外
abundance of hundreds of courses they have just for writing alone,
单是关于写作的内容就数不胜数
which I myself have found invaluable.
我觉得那些内容都弥足珍贵
I’ve spent the past two weeks binging out on their courses,
我花了两周浏览里面的课程
and I’ve barely even scratched the surface of what they have to offer,
看到的不过是冰山一角
and that is just for writing.
光是写作课就这么多
Skillshare has thousands of hours worth of content from all sorts of fields
Skillshare有不同领域的课程
from drawing to website creation,
有画画和网站创建课
and they have a wealth of content on filmmaking,
还有一系列电影制作课
which I know is something a lot of you would be interested in.
相信你们会喜欢的
The two most recent courses I watched are one on creative writing habits by Simon Van Boy,
最近我学了两门课 西蒙的《写作习惯》
and one on writing comedy by Mike Locker,
和迈克的《喜剧写作》
so I would recommend those two to be a great place to get started.
我推荐大家从这两门课起步
Skillshare usually costs ten dollars a month,
Skillshare一般每月只要10刀
however I am nothing short of ecstatic to announce that
但我欣喜地宣布
for only this month of January,
今年1月
if you click that link in the description,
如果你登录相关链接
you will have complete access for all of this content
只消0.99刀 你可以连续3个月
for $0.99 for a total of three months.
学习里头的所有课程
That’s three months of unlimited access for less than a dollar,
只消不到1刀 连续3个月无限制学习
which trust me is an absolute bargain.
相信我 绝对划算
But let me stress that after the 31st of January,
1月31日后活动就会结束
that link will expire and you won’t see this offer again,
链接就会失效 仅这一次机会
so please be sure to click that link in the description
请登录相关链接
while the offer still stands.
机不可失
Anyway, thanks for watching,
感谢收看
and I will see you guys next time on the Closer Look.
下期节目再见

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译制信息
视频概述

《敦刻尔克》制造紧张和恐惧的艺术值得学习,多视角纪念敦刻尔克大撤退,重新反思战争。

听录译者

Seline

翻译译者

Seline

审核员

审核员KM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D25LlVgUR-s

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