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嗜毒鱼类正在帮助科学家解决类鸦片危机 – 译学馆
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嗜毒鱼类正在帮助科学家解决类鸦片危机

Drug-Addicted Fish Are Helping Scientists Solve the Opioid Crisis

科学家们通过使鱼染上阿片类药物的毒瘾
Scientists are hooking fish on opioids,
搞清楚我们的大脑是如何沉迷于事物的
to teach us how our brains get addicted to things.
听起来很疯狂吧 但这实际上只是科学
It sounds crazy, but it’s actually just science.
每天都有超过100个美国人死于用药过量
Over 100 Americans die from overdoses every day.
200万美国人都有某种程度的类阿片药物上瘾症状
Two million Americans have some kind of opioid-related addiction,
现在用药过量已经成为50岁以下美国人的主要死因
and overdoses are now the leading cause of death for Americans under 50.
死于用药过量的人
More people die in the U.S. of drug overdoses
比死于车祸巅峰时期的人还要多
than did from car crashes at their peak!
但是阿片类药物的泛滥
But an epidemic of opioids is
却比车祸更难治理
way more difficult to fix than car crashes.
车祸的数量于1972年达到最高
Car crashes peaked in 1972.
于是我们建立了全国限速 对安全带的要求 酒驾的律法
So, we created national speed limits, seat belt requirements, drunk-driving laws…
于是 车祸数量就降下来了
they didn’t exist.
阿片类药物已受到控制 而我们却仍陷于其中
Opioids are already controlled, and yet, we’re still in trouble.
这是因为我们对毒瘾不够了解
And that’s because we just… don’t understand addiction very well.
所以 为了研究我们的大脑
So, to learn about our own brains,
我们让斑马鱼染上毒瘾
we’re getting zebrafish addicted to drugs.
这使我们学到了很多
and it’s teaching us a lot.
一项新研究 利用行为训练使斑马鱼染上阿片类药物瘾
A new study hooked zebrafish on opioids using behavioral training.
就是 当它们游过探测器时
Basically, when they swam over a detector,
会接触到氢可酮
they got hydrocodone.
一会后 它们会在越来越浅的水域游动
After a while, they swam into shallower and shallower water
以从探测器获得同剂量的药物
to get the same dose from the detector.
这么冒险的寻找药物 就是上瘾行为的特性
That’s risky drug-seeking for a fish, a hallmark of addict behavior.
这令人很兴奋 因为现在他们就可以停止供药
This is exciting. Because now they can put the fish into withdrawal,
在鱼身上测试药物 进行临床治疗
and test drugs and treatments on it.
我知道这看上去很奇怪
I know that seems weird,
鱼类是朋友 而不是人类
fish are friends, not humans.
但是 我们和斑马鱼有70%的相同基因
But we share 70 percent of our DNA with zebrafish,
并且经过设计 它们的大脑可以像人类的大脑一样反应 以供我们研究
and have engineered their brains to act more like ours for studies.
可以说 他们是人类很好的替代物
Suffice it to say, they’re good analogs for humans.
如果我们了解了斑马鱼的成瘾原因
If we understand zebrafish addiction,
有很大希望能将治疗方法用在我们身上
we can hopefully translate that treatment back to us.
这项任务正在进行
And that mission is in progress.
有一则研究表明 让斑马鱼染上吗啡毒瘾会改变其254个基因
One study, hooked zebrafish on morphine and found that altered over 254 genes.
目前比较可观的是 发现了几个受体以及与5个阿片类药物有关的基因
Another optimistically found several receptors and five opioid-related genes so far.
经过研究斑马鱼大脑中的四个受体
Studies into the four opioid receptors in the zebrafish brain
发现其中一个就涉及到开始的实验
found one of them is start of the show.
接下来的研究就是 药物是如何起作用的
Then a follow-up study dug into how it works!
事实上 对于染上毒瘾的鱼的研究 我们正在不断进步
Basically, we’re making progress with the drug-addicted-fish method.
依旧还有很多需要学习 当我们研究这些迷你的大脑时
There’s still tons to learn, but as we study these tiny brains,
我们对于自己也了解了更多
we’re learning more about our own!
终有一天它会帮助我们找到安全的治疗方法
And someday this could help us find safe treatments.
希望斑马鱼的牺牲不会白白浪费
Hopefully, the zebrafish’s sacrifice won’t be in vain
但现在 我们还要继续潜行
but for now, we have to just keep swimming.
有一群科学家利用鱼来了解毒瘾
While some scientists are using fish to learn more about addiction,
同时还有一群研究人员正在研制可以治疗毒瘾的疫苗
there’s a group of researchers developing a vaccine that could cure addiction all together.
我们对此也制作了视频 点击这里观看
We made a video about it, check it out here.
你是怎么看的呢
What do you think about all this?
请在评论区留下你的想法
Let us know down in the comments, please,
欢迎点赞 还请不要忘记订阅我们的视频
like this video, and don’t forget to subscribe.
这样你便不会错过《探索者》的任何一期视频
you never miss an episode of Seeker.
感谢你们的观看
Thank you for your watching.

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视频概述

如何以斑马鱼为样本 研究毒瘾

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收集自网络

翻译译者

茄也

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i23e5sZGELU

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