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绘画测量技巧

Drawing Measuring Techniques

The first and most important part of a figure drawing is the layin.
画人体时的第一步 也是最关键的步骤 就是起型
Without a good layin you rarely end up with a good drawing.
起型不好很难画出优秀的作品
《Proko画室》 测量技巧
In the last lesson we learned the average proportions of the body.
上节课我们讲了人体的平均比例
The problem with that is when the body moves out of the static soldier pose, those measurements
问题是当人体不再以军姿形态站立时
change the way they’re are perceived by our eye.
平均比例会在视觉角度的影响下发生变化
Foreshortening changes these relationships.
透视关系改变了尺寸的相关性
If drawing from imagination
画想像出来的人物时
you can remember the proportions
可以记住比例
and do your best to apply perspective to them.
尽量把透视关系画准
If drawing from a reference photo or a model
如果是在临摹或写生
we are given the opportunity to measure.
就有机会用测量的方法
A direct way to transfer the effects of perspective to our drawing.
直接的把透视效果转移到画上
Measuring is exclusive to observational drawing
测量法只在观察式绘画时使用
and you won’t use it so much when drawing from imagination,
自由创作时一般用不上它
but it’s important to practice because
但是练习测量法很重要
it tunes your eye to what’s correct.
它可以训练你观察的准确度
Measure with your Pencil
铅笔测量法
We can use all sorts of measuring tools
有很多测量工具可供选择
like calipers or string.
比如卡尺或弦尺
I like to use the tool already in my hand – the pencil!
我喜欢用已经拿在手里的工具 铅笔
1.Hold your arm straight out, without bending the elbow.
第一步 手臂向前伸直 肘部不要弯曲
Bending the elbow will bring the measurement
肘部弯曲会让测量工具靠近眼睛
closer to your eye and increase the size.
使尺寸相对变大
The measurement will be consistent if the elbow is locked.
固定肘部能保持测量数据的一致性
2.Tilt your head to bring the eyes as close as possible
第二步 将头歪向拿铅笔的那侧
to the pivot point at your shoulder.
尽量贴近肩关节
This is important to keep
这个步骤很重要
the measurements consistent throughout the whole subject.
能让整体测量数据保持一致
If you dont do this. When measuring around the top of the pose,
不然的话 测量对象顶部区域时
the pencil will be closer to your eyes and
铅笔会靠近眼睛
when measuring around the feet it will be farther from your eyes.
而测量脚部区域时就会远离眼睛
This difference in the distance makes the measurements inconsistent.
距离的变化让测量数据不一致
Keep your eye near the shoulder to minimize this.
将眼睛靠近肩膀 能最小化这种误差
3.Close one eye.
第三步 闭上一只眼
4.Use the tip of the pencil as the top point of whatever
第四步 不管测量对象是什么
you’re measuring and put your thumb at the bottom point.
总是用笔尖当顶点 用拇指来决定底边所在
5.Now that you have the unit, you can compare
第五步 这样就有了基本单位
it to another part of the figure.
用基本单位来对比其他区域
For example, it’s very common to count how many head lengths fit in the height of the pose.
比如说 通常会用“几头身”来计算造型的高度
Move your measurement down below the chin
将基本测量单位移到下巴处
and note where your thumb is.
记住拇指边缘的位置
Repeat that down the figure and count the units.
重复这个步骤 数数一共有多少单位
This pose is 7.5 heads tall.
这个造型有7.5个头部高度
You can do this to measure relationship of
除了用头部高度
anything in the pose, not just the head.
也可以用其他位置来做参考
You can say the length of this arm is
你可以说左边的胳膊长度
the same as the length of the lower leg
跟左边小腿部分是一样的
or whatever works for the pose.
怎么方便怎么来
The approach I’m suggesting here does NOT require that the size you measured
我推荐的这个方法并不是说
with the pencil be directly transferred to the paper at the same size.
你一定要画的和铅笔量到的尺寸一模一样
That would be called the sight-size method,
那种方法叫等比例画法
where the drawing is the same size as the subject you are seeing.
就是指眼睛看到的尺寸和画出来的一样
Measuring Relationships
测量对比关系
The approach I’m showing today involves measuring relationships
今天要教的方法跟测量对比关系有关
to make the composition fit on the size surface you’re working on.
让构图跟你的作画空间相匹配
We’ve established that the pose is 7.5 head talls.
现在已经知道 这个造型的整体高度是7.5个头位
The size of our paper allows the pose to be about this big,
画纸的尺寸决定了造型的大小
so mark the top and bottom.
标出最高处和最低处
Then break it up into 7.5 units.
然后均分成7.5个单位
That tells you how big the head should be on the page
这样就知道在画纸上 头部应该画多大
and you have points for all the places
其他基本单位的位置
where the head units lie on the pose.
以及造型与之相对的位置也有了参考
Doing this helps to prevent one of the most common rookie mistakes,
这样做能避免新人最容易犯的错误
progressively drawingthings bigger as you go down the page,
越往下画 画的越大
or smaller as you go down the page.
或者越往下画 画的越小
This happens because we get tunnel-vision.
这种错误是由视野狭窄导致的
We focus on the small portion of the drawing we are currently working on.
在画画时 当我们的注意力只放在细节上
We relate things only to the things near them
就会只留意到它跟近处局部的关系
instead of the whole picture.
而不是跟整体的关系
And if we tend to measure things slightly bigger than they really are,
所以测量时 尺寸但凡偏大了一点点
the drawing will slowly get bigger and bigger
整幅画就会越往下画
as we work our way down the page.
逐渐变得越来越大
Relating the whole thing first is a way to
整体对比的方法
step back and look at the big picture.
首先就是要向后退一步 从整体观察作品
Make sure the foundation works before we add the parts.
在进入细节刻画之前 确保起型是准确的
Already this tells us a lot and it makes
这样已经有了不少参考点
measuring the rest of the figure much easier.
对身体其他部位的测量会容易很多
We can also rotate the head unit horizontally
也可以把头部高度横过来
and do the same thing for the width of the pose.
用它来确定造型的宽度
Notice how in this pose the head is closer to the left side.
这个造型里 头部是偏向左边的
Avoid putting it in the exact center by default,
不要想当然的把头部画到最中间
since that could create an unbalanced composition.
否则会导致画面布局失衡
Think about the placement of the drawing vertically AND horizontally.
要从竖向和横向 整体考虑画面布局
At this point you could also find the center point of the pose
这时候 可以通过均分高度和宽度
by dividing the height and width in half.
找出造型的中心点
Then find where that center point is on the model.
然后找到模特身上的中心点
In this pose the center point is about here in his right glute.
这个造型里 中心点在模特右臀处
Shapes and Angles
造型和角度
With the head units in place, we can start drawing in the shapes.
确定基本位置之后 就可以开始造型了
Start with the largest shapes and use simple lines.
先用简单的线条 勾勒出大体形状
The largest shape we can use is what’s called the Envelope.
可以用“信封”来勾勒外轮廓
Use large angles connecting the outside points of the whole pose.
把整个造型的外缘点 用大角度的线条连接起来
Imagine if the pose was gift wrapped.
就好比造型是用礼品纸包起来的
Doing this allows you to look at the big picture
这样做可以从整体入手
and establish its perimeter.
确定造型的边界线
Everything else should fit inside this shape.
人物的身体都应在这个形状之内
Now start observing the next largest shapes along of the body.
接下来由大到小 观察身体部位的大致形状
Focus on getting the angles right with simple gesture lines.
用简单的姿势线条 画出准确的造型角度
Remember that a gesture line can be
姿势线条可以是直线
either a straight line, C curve or S curve.
也可以是C曲线或者S曲线
It should capture the motion of the form.
通过姿势线条表现造型的动态
This allows you to get the big picture working
这个方法可以在深入细节之前
without committing to any details.
让整体画面更加准确
You can easily make corrections as you go.
在过程中可以随时调整
Once you start adding subtleties in the contours,
一旦开始在轮廓线中增加细节
it’s less likely that you will change things,
就不太需要做什么调整
and if you do, it’s more time consuming
如果角度不准确 就需要花费很多时间修改
because you have to redo all the details.
因为你得重画所有细节
So, “keep it simple stupid” and worry only about the major relationships at first.
所以 记住KISS原则 首先考虑画面的大关系
It’s also a good idea to keep your lines thin and light.
起型下笔要轻一些 画的浅一点
Most of these initial construction lines will need to be erased later,
大多数结构线最后都需要擦掉
so if you draw dark thick lines, you’ll end up with a very messy drawing.
所以画的太深太重 会让画面变得很脏
Though we are drawing gesture lines here,
这里虽然画了姿势走向线
it’s a bit different from the 30 second- 5 minute quicksketches
但这和我们课程最初讲的
we did in the beginning of this course.
30秒-5分钟的速写画法是不一样的
In the quicksketches, we were not too concerned about the proportions.
在速写中 我们表现的重点不在身体比例上
Only the motion and energy.
而是在人物的动作和活力上
It’s hard to get accurate proportions in a 30 seconds sketch.
30秒的速写很难准确画出身体比例
In this lesson we are much more concerned about proportions.
这节课我们要重点研究的是身体比例
As a result we will lose some gesture because
因为今天不会对动作做夸大的处理
we’re not exaggerating as much, or not at all.
就会忽略掉一些动态的细节
It’s a side effect of careful measuring.
这也是细致测量法的副作用
Usually, my goal is to construct accurately
通常我的目标是 在准确起型的同时
while capturing as much gesture as possible.
尽可能的捕捉动态姿势
Plumb Lines
垂线
A plumb line is an exact vertical line that
垂线是一条绝对垂直的线
you can drop to see alignments within the pose.
可以用来校准姿势
If drawing from a model we can
如果是模特写生
actually use a string with a weight at the end
可以用一条尾部挂铅坠的线
to determine a perfect vertical.
做出完美的垂直线
Here we see that the acromion
这里可以看到
process aligns with the inside of the heel.
肩峰和脚跟内侧是在一条垂直线上
Also the armpit aligns with the outside of the knee, and ball of the foot.…
腋窝和膝盖外侧 还有脚掌也在一条垂直线上
We can also use horizontal alignments.
也可以用水平校准线
Horizontal and vertical measurements are more accurate than angles.
水平和垂直校准测量 要比角度测量准确度高
They are much easier to get right
用这个方法更容易画的准确
because you can align them with the edge of the paper
因为你可以用纸的边缘来校准
and we tend to have a pretty clear vision
而且我们对垂直和水平的概念
in our mind of a horizontal and vertical.
会更容易理解
Subtle angle variations can make a big difference.
角度的细微变化对结果影响很大
Such as measuring an angle from the head to the shoulders to find the width of the shoulders.
比如说 要通过头部和肩膀的角度来确定肩膀的宽度
If your angle is slightly off on both sides,
只要两边的角度略有偏差
the shoulders end up being wider or narrower than you intended.
肩膀就会比你想画的更宽或更窄
It’s ok to use angle relationships,
用对比关系角度是没问题的
I do all the time,
我自己也经常用
just keep in mind that there’s more room for error.
只需要记住 用这种方法出错的几率很大
Double check them when possible with verticals and horizontals.
要尽可能利用水平和垂直校准法反复检查
Triangulation
三角测量法
Something that might help to measure angles is triangulation
三角测量法能更好的进行角度测量
measuring angles of 3 points instead of 2.
不同于用两点测量角度 这里用三点
If we’ve determined these 2 points to be correct
如果已知这两点的位置是准确的
and we’re trying to find the placement of a third,
需要确定第三点的位置
we can estimate the angle from one point and then the other.
可以预测一下已知两点与第三点的角度
If these two estimates don’t match,
如果预测的结果和实际不符
well then we have to re-measure them.
那就只能重新测量了
The actual point is probably somewhere in between.
准确的位置可能在之间的某个位置
Then we can look at the triangle shape made
然后可以将这几个点构成的三角形
by these points and compare that.
跟参考图对比
This gives us another chance to catch a mistake
这样除了对比线条角度 还可以对比形状
since we’re looking at a shape not just the angle of a line.
我们又有了一次纠错的机会
Each Pose is Unique
造型不同 测量方法亦不同
Each pose has its own solutions, relationships
每个造型都有适合自己的测量方法
that make the most sense to measure for that particular pose.
以及独有的最合理的对比关系
For example, in this pose the length from
比如说这个造型
the elbow to the fingertips is exactly 2 head units.
肘部到指尖的长度正好是两个头部长度
However in this pose it’s not a nice whole number.
但换个造型 这个对比关系就不是整数了
It’s a little bit less than two.
比两个基本单位略小一些
So, you might need to look for other relationships
所以就得找与其他部位的对比关系
that will help you find that length.
来帮你确定这个长度
A plumb line from the fingertips lines up with the edge of the pinky of the other hand.
比如 手指尖和另一只手的小拇指在一条垂直线上
And the elbow lines up with the point directly in the middle of the chest.
同时手肘和胸部正中心也是一条直线
It’s nice when things relate with whole numbers.
当对比关系是整数的时候非常方便
But, sometimes you’ll need to take your best guess
但有时候 你只能尽可能的去估算
at “a little bit less than 2”.
“比两个单位略少一点”应该画多长
And then check it with other relationships.
然后跟其他关系交叉对比
Negative Shapes
负形法
Another trick to find accurate shapes is to look at the negative shapes.
准确起型的另一个窍门 是寻找负形
A negative shape is the space around or between the subject.
负形是物体之间或周围的空间
It’s the background.
属于背景的一部分
The shape here between the thighs is a triangular shape.
在这里 大腿之间的形状是个三角形
This shape is easier for us judge then the shapes of the thighs themselves
相比大腿的形状 我们更能准确把握这个三角形
because we have less preconceived opinions
因为我们没有多少已知的形状
about what that shape should look like.
能对大腿的形状进行描述
So, we are more likely to make an unbiased evaluation of the negative shapes.
我们对负形的形状能描述的更准确一些
Trust Your Eyes
相信你的眼睛
If something looks wrong, then it’s wrong,
不管你反复量了多少次
no matter how many times you measured it.
如果看上去不对劲 那就是错的
The mistake might be between a relationship you didn’t measure
可能是你忘了测量某个对比关系
or the small margins of error in the measuring
或者测量时有小偏差
compounded to make a significant mistake.
小错误累积变成了大错误
Being a millimeter off while holding the pencil up,
铅笔举起来时偏差1毫米
can add up to inches in your drawing.
到画面上就会变成几英寸的误差
So, measuring will get you close,
测量能帮你画的接近准确
but its much more important to develop your eye
但更重要的是训练你的眼睛
to see relationships without a ruler.
在没有尺子的情况下也能看准对比关系
Your eye can be a much better tool than a ruler.
你的眼睛是比尺子更好的工具
The way to develop this is to do a lot of careful drawings
通过大量人体精准比例的绘画练习
focusing on getting accurate proportions.
训练观察力的准确度
When you practice these exercises,
在进行这些绘画练习时
it’s important to have a feedback loop.
收到反复的反馈意见是非常重要的
Either have someone with a trained eye to check your drawing
要么找专业人士来检查你的作品
or have a method to check it yourself.
要么自己找个办法来验证准确度
In the premium section I introduce two methods of practicing and checking yourself.
在高级课程里 我会讲练习和自查的两个办法
Details
细节
Now that all the major shapes are in place,
现在主要的形状都确定了
it’s safe to focus on the smaller parts
可以放心的增加细节
and add the more subtle plane changes along the contours and within the forms.
细致刻画轮廓边缘和肢体表面的细微变化
What about Gesture?
姿势的表达
This episode has been about capturing accuracy.
这个视频讲的是准确度
But how important is accuracy?
准确度有多重要?
That’s up for debate of course..
这个问题尚无定论
I don’t think the answer is the same for everyone.
我觉得每个人的答案也都不一样
How much do you want to change your reference?
你想对参考图片做多少改动
How important is it that you capture the exact likeness of the subject?
画的和原画一模一样很重要吗?
Or is it more important to capture the feeling in an expressive way?
还是表现出原画的精髓更重要?
There’s a balance to this and that’s partly what determines your style.
这是需要平衡的 也决定了你的画风
In the early stages of your learning process focus on complete accuracy.
在学画的初级阶段 重视准确性
Make it as perfect as possible to tune your eye
尽可能画的一模一样
and to develop the ability to draw accurately.
来训练观察力的准确度
Don’t choose to be more expressive
没有掌握准确度之前
simply because you’re not capable of accuracy yet.
不要着急去表达风格
Expand your abilities so that you have the choice.
只有多面发展你的能力 才有机会选择
Lean towards accuracy when the job requires it
出于工作需要时 倾向准确性
or you lean towards expression when the artwork calls for it.
而在出于艺术需要时 倾向表达
For practice, start by separating the two concepts
练习时 要把这两种理念分开
Do longer careful drawings focusing on getting accurate proportions
花更多时间练习比例精准度的绘画
And do shorter sketches focusing on gesture
用速写练习姿态的表达
Eventually the two will mold together and be part of your thought process.
最终这两种理念会融合在你的思考过程中
Ultimately during each stroke
到最后你画的每一笔
you will be making subconscious decisions considering both accuracy and expression.
都在下意识的考虑准确度和情感表达
In the next video I’ll show you how to use
下一个视频我会教大家
these principles in an actual figure drawing.
如何在真正的人物绘画中运用这些方法
I’ll take you step by step through the whole process.
我会带你分步骤完成整个作品
This video is available in the Premium Section.
在高级课程中可以看到这个视频
I also show you 2 methods of practicing measuring and checking yourself.
同时还会教你两种测量练习和自查的方法
So if you’re interested in seeing that and the rest of the Figure Drawing Fundamentals
如果你对人物绘画基础的其他课程感兴趣
Course, check out proko.com/figure.
请访问proko.com/figure
The Full course has extended versions and a lot of examples from the lessons like, gesture,
整个课程都有升级版 以及大量课程及案例
structure, bean, robo bean, mannequinization, balance,
课程包括姿态 结构 体块造型 机器豆造型 雾化效果
exaggeration, proportion, measuring and shading.
平衡 夸张表达 比例 测量 以及明暗关系
A lot of information and it’s very affordable.
海量信息 价格实惠
Proko.com/figure.
尽在Proko.com/figure
If you like this video, share the wealth, tell your friends.
如果你喜欢这个视频 请分享给你的朋友
Post it on your favorite social network.
发到你喜欢的社交网站上
Click this button here to subscribe to the Proko newsletter
点击订阅Proko新闻
if you want to be updated about new videos.
不要错过新视频更新
bye bye
再见

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怎么才能画的准确 PROKO大神教你实用的方法

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