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解剖结构透视绘画演示

Drawing Anatomy in Perspective - Leg Bone Critiques

腿骨绘画作业评价
Leg Bone Critiques
大家好 今天我给大家带来的
What’s going on, guys?I got another
又是一节点评课
critique episode for you.
今天我打算细讲一下腿骨解剖
Today I’m gonna be doing leg bone anatomy.
可以看出大家对这个很感兴趣
And you guys went pretty crazy with these,
因为我们收到了大约50份绘画提交
we got about 50 submissions.
这些作品我没法逐一点评
I’m not gonna able to go through all of them,
尤其是你们中很多人都
especially because a lot of you guys…
犯了相似的错误
you know, there are similar things that people do wrong or
而我能给你们的意见也大同小异
advice that I have for you guys.
我指 如果你看的是免费视频的话
So… If you’re watching the free video,
而在付费视频中 我将对28个人的作品
the premium video has like 28 people
进行细致点评
who I’m going to critique, so
相比免费版 会包含更多的信息
much more in depth information.
本次腿骨解剖作业分为两部分
The assignment for the leg bone anatomy was a two-parter.
第一部分是 我给了三张模型照片
I gave you three model photos,
要求你们简单描绘出照片上的骨骼
and you had to trace the bones on top of the photo with simple forms
不用描绘出实际骨骼形态 只用简化形式就好
not the actual bone forms, but simplified forms.
当你创作或画人体时 你们能记得这些几何形状
Things that you can remember when you’re inventing or when you’re doing a figure drawing because
因为记骨骼的原型要更困难 对吧
because it’s a lot harder to remember the organic forms of the bones, right
这些简易形式记起来要容易得多
It’s a lot easier to remember simple forms
第二部分是 我给出Skelly软件上的骨骼渲染图
And the other one was I gave you Skelly renderings of bones,
让你画出相同的简化骨骼
and you had to just draw the same bones simplified.
第一部分要更难些
So the first one is a lot harder
因为你无法看到骨头
because you can’t see the bones,
因为它是真实的模型
it’s real-life models,
骨骼上覆盖着皮肤 肌肉
people’s skin and muscles covering the bones,
你要想象藏在下方的骨骼是什么样的
and you have to imagine what the bones look like underneath
要想象骨骼形态很难 但很有用
that’s harder. but it’s very valuable
因为这正是你现实生活中要做的
because that’s what you’ll actually be doing in real life,
通常在你面前有一个模特
you’ll have a model in front of you,
你必须要搞清楚骨骼的位置
you have to know where the bones are.
也不是必须 但搞清楚骨骼位置对画模特很有帮助
I mean, you don’t have to but it’s helpful
这也是我们学习骨骼解剖的原因
that’s why we’re studying the bones
因为我们需要这些骨骼相关知识给我们提供更多信息
it’s because we want that information to inform us
由此提高绘画水平
and to improve our drawings.
所以这是个困难却有用的训练方法
So it’s hard but that’s a very useful exercise.
那么 我首先讲解的是Hyun Bin Lim的作品
So the first critique is for a Hyun Bin Lim,
实际上 作品完成得非常好
actually really good
真是开了个好头
I’m starting with a really good one here.
作品问题不是很多
There’s not too many issues.
我也看到一些问题 接下来会逐一讲解
I do see some things and I’ll talk about them,
但你大部分的骨骼剖析都非常精确
but most of your anatomy is very accurate,
你把握得恰到好处
you’ve got them in the right spot,
基本上所有透视部分很棒
perspective is pretty good generally everywhere.
在下方 你画了圆锥表示胫骨
Down here you made a cone for the tibia,
我觉得也还可以
I don’t mind that too much
但就个人习惯而言
even though, personally
我更喜欢用立方体 尤其是关节部分
I prefer boxes especially in the joints,
像骨轴 股骨 还有胫骨等
for like the shaft of the bone, the femur, and the tibia
你也可以用圆柱 都可以的
you can use a cylinder, that’s fine.
但是关节部位
But for the joint areas,
是能很好展现内部结构的部分
those areas are really good to show structure,
而圆柱在展现结构方面并不是最好选择
and cylinders aren’t the best at showing structure,
因为立方体可以呈现很多平面所以展现结构更有优势
boxes are much better at that because you can see the different plans.
所以你能分辨物体远离你还是朝向你
So you can see if something is facing a little bit away from you or towards you.
但圆柱体就不能给你这样的感受
With a cylinder you can’t,
无论你怎么转动方向 情况都是一样的
you rotate a cylinder and it’s the same,
无法分清它的朝向
it doesn’t show you which way it’s facing,
只有圆柱体的倾斜方向能表明物体的朝向
only the tilt of the cylinder shows you its direction.
所以立方体在展现结构方面更实用
So boxes are much more useful for that,
正如前面所说 尤其是关节的结构展示上
like I said, especially in the joints, like
像脚踝是关节 膝盖也是关节
the ankle is a joint, the knee is a joint.
比如在这里
So like right here,
看一下你是如何画胫骨前上方的平面的
see how you kinda made this front plane of the top of the tibia,
你用了曲面表示
you rounded that out.
换我可能会用立方体来表示整个关节
I would have made that into a box, the whole thing,
因为它呈现的透视感会帮到我
because it would help me with the perspective.
你在这儿画的这个膝盖
And this knee that you drew here
这是我要着重讲解的部分
is actually one that I’m gonna focus on a little bit
讲解同时也会告诉你正确的画法是怎样的
and show you how to do it correctly
因为整个关节结构是被破坏掉的
because this whole thing is a little broken.
你画的胫骨略微朝向观众
The tibia is pointing a little bit towards us,
我画得不太对 更像这个方向
not as much as I drew here but more like this.
而股骨朝向却过于向前(相对于股骨)
And then the femur is pointing a lot more forward
也就是朝向侧边(相对于观众)
towards the side
两者看起来方向是错开的
they’re kind of twisted
但事实上股骨和胫骨角度不会错开那么多
and you’re not gonna get that much twisting between the femur and the tibia.
它们角度可能错开一点点 但不会到这个程度
There’s a little bit but not that much,
角度错开太多就断了 这是个坏了的膝盖
that’s broken, that’s a broken knee.
我猜你只是没有考虑到这些盒子的角度
And I feel like that’s just because you weren’t thinking of the angles of the boxes
如果角度拿捏好 对你帮助会很大
and that will help you.
在开始小样本修改展示之前
Before I go on to that little demo that I’m gonna do,
我想提一下 在这里 这个圆柱体的地方
I wanna mention, in here, this little cylinder
你在这里画了个小圆圈用来表示髁的形状
this little the circle that you put in here for the condyle shape
但画得过于小了
it’s a little bit too small
总的来说 这整个结构
Overall, this whole form
靠近膝关节的股骨头应该更大些
the head of the femur should be larger
只用再画大一点点
just maybe a little bit larger.
这里的圆也应该更大一点
And then the ball would be like that much bigger,
这里走形有点像S形曲线
that’s kind of an S-curve through there.
这里还有一点需要注意
And the other thing with this one is that
你画的髌骨指向稍稍偏上
you’re kinda pointing the patellas up a little bit,
这不符合事实
and they wouldn’t do that.
这里有韧带将髌骨连接到胫骨
There’s a ligament connecting the patella to the tibia in here
韧带会将髌骨限制在原位
which keeps it in place,
然后固定在胫骨上
it’s fixed to the tibia.
大家对髌骨的位置普遍存在误解
Now this is a common misconception about the placement of the patella
认为它会跟着股骨一起运动 但其实不是
is that they kinda move up with the femur, but they really don’t.
它可以适当内外移动
It can kinda go in and out,
但它不会倾斜那么多
but it’s not gonna tilt that much.
如果稍微放大来看
So if I zoom in a little bit
我会把髌骨画在这里
I would keep this patella right there
指向前方
pointing straight
固定在这块骨头上
fixed to this bone here.
所以我现在准备对这画放大细节做些修改
Okay so I’m gonna zoom into this drawing now
顺便告诉你们我为什么那么喜欢立方体
and show you why I like boxes so much.
立方体可以帮你正确透视
It’s gonna help you keep all your perspective in place.
最关键的是
And the thing about boxes is it’s
在你学透视时 立方体可能是最先要学的东西 对吧
the first thing you probably learn when you’re learning perspective,right
比如透视101
It’s like perspective 101,
画立方体也是学习透视最简单的方法之一
and it’s one of the easiest things to learn about perspective.
所以一旦你学会怎么画好立方体
And so once you know how to draw a box,
将会十分有用
it becomes very powerful
你可以用它们检查图像的立体视觉
you can check so much of your stuff with just boxes,
可以利用它们让绘画作品保持透视
you can keep a lot of your drawing in perspective
让画中物体保持一致
keep things aligned.
我将向大家展示立方体的几种不同用法
And I’m gonna show you a few different applications of it here.
我画关节时喜欢做的一件事是
So one thing that I like to do when I’m drawing joints
从能够简化成立方体的地方着手
is start with an area that can be simplified to a box, right.
以此为例
With this one,
我猜最困扰大家的是
the thing I think you guys are struggling with the most was
胫骨的上平台
the top platform of the tibia.
所以我打算先从立方体的上表面画起
So I’m starting with the top plane of that box.
微微俯视
We’re looking down at it quite a bit.
然后给它增添一些厚度
And then it’s got some depth.
注意看我是如何给这些线条分组的
Notice how I’m grouping my lines
这样一来 这组垂直线就是互相平行的
so these vertical lines are all parallel.
而这三条线为一组 也是平行的
And then you’ve got these three lines, they’re parallel
同理 这三条线也是如此
and then you got these three lines, they’re parallel.
也就是说 一共有三组线条
So you’ve got three groups of three lines
会归于一个没影点
going to a vanishing point.
我画好的这个立方体
This box that I have established,
有助于接下来画膝盖其余部分的透视
will now help me keep the rest of this knee in perspective
因为在这个平台上方添加股骨时
because when I put the femur on top of this platform,
透视角度应该跟之前保持一致
it should be in the same perspective,
这幅的透视角度就没有保持一致
yours is not.
因为 看这里
Because look at…
胫骨的这条后缘
you see this back edge of the tibia,
你已经看到它了
that’s what you’ve identified here with that edge.
但再看这条股骨的前缘
But then the front edge of the femur,
它们应该互相平行 对吧?
it should be parallel, right?
我的意思是 股骨坐落在胫骨平台的正上方
I mean, it’s kinda just sitting right on top of it,
就应该和它的前缘平行
should be parallel to this front edge,
但是这里没有
but it’s not.
它们的没影点不同
You’re tracking them into very different vanishing points,
所以整体看起来是扭曲折断的
which makes them look like they’re twisted and broken.
如果我事先在这里画好一个立方体
If I had established a box somewhere in there,
随后周围添加的东西自然就有了一个参考物
I would naturally just have a guide for myself for everything I put around it.
我想在立方体上方放一个圆柱体
So let’s say I wanna put a cylinder on top of that box
因为它形状有点像骨节
which is kind of like the condyles.
我已经知道圆柱体轴线所在
I have the axis of that cylinder,
需要画一个与这条轴线垂直的椭圆形
I know the ellipse is gonna be perpendicular to that.
差不多就是这样
It looks about right,
圆柱体的前缘要跟之前的立方体来自同一个没影点
and then the front edge of that cylinder goes to the same vanishing points,
这样它就能跟该立方体平行
can be parallel to that box
上面这条边也一样
same thing on the top
接下来我把圆柱体另一头也补上
and then I can cap it off,on the other side.
好的 这就是我用圆柱体画的骨节
So there’s my cylinder for the condyles.
然后 因为骨节的真实形状应该是稍微……
And then I know that the form of the condyle is a little bit…
向椭圆外延伸出来的微弧形
it’s got like another little arc coming off of it
这就涉及更多解剖学的东西了
and that’s a more, you know, anatomical thing here
我们曾在下肢骨骼绘画课程中学到过
that we learned in the leg bones lesson.
所以我准备把形状勾勒出来
So I’m gonna bring that out,
接下来就是剩下的大腿骨部分了
and then that is the rest of the femur
关节与股骨柄相连
that connects to the shaft of the femur.
一直延伸至髋关节
And that just keeps going all the way to the hip
注意一下我是怎么画出这些形状的
Also,notice how I’m drawing through the forms,
就像有x光透视一样
it’s like there’s X-ray vision here
所有结构都是透明的 我可以看穿它
everything is transparent and I can see through it.
你的画不是这样
You’re not doing that,
因为你只是在画肉眼所见的边缘轮廓
and so because you’re drawing only the edges that you’re seeing,
没有把这些边缘轮廓有效连接组合起来
you’re not connecting all the edges.
如果你利用透视 那你画的才是全部的它
If you draw through the form and you draw the entire form,
这样一来 保持结构密切联系
it’s a lot easier to keep everything connected,
所有结构都在该在的位置上就容易多了
everything where it needs to be.
比如
For example
当我在画圆柱体的另一面时
when I drew the end of that cylinder on the other side
要确保它与胫骨上端的没影点是相同的
I made sure it ends right where the box of the top of the tibia ends.
但如果连后缘的线条都没画出来
But if you didn’t even define that back edge,
你不可能确定另一面该画在哪里
you wouldn’t know where to put that end cap.
当然了这些都是数字化的
This is all digital,
所以如果你已经画好这些结构线
so if you’ve got all these construction lines
准备继续深入创作
and then you are doing, you know, a longer illustration
那可以在上面继续叠加 然后把之前的痕迹擦掉
you can put another layer on top,clean it up
在之前的画上继续完善线条是可以的
put a good line quality on top of it and you’re fine.
但在你学习这些解剖课程时
But when you’re doing these anatomy studies,
不要总想着把一切画得很完美
don’t worry about keeping everything so perfect
但是要干净利落
or not perfect but clean.
你其实可以把所有结构线都展现出来
You can have all your construction lines show through,
这样会更方便老师了解你在
and it’s actually more useful for the instructor to see
作品背后具体的创作过程
how you’re constructing that stuff in the back.
这步就完成了 接下来是上方的髌骨
So there’s that, and then the patella that I put on top,
你没有把它画在对的位置
you didn’t put it on there.
但其实髌骨在……
But there’s a patella that
正如我前面提到的
like I just mentioned earlier
髌骨坐落于或者说被固定在胫骨上
rests or is fixed to the tibia.
所以 假设这个点正好位于这条边的中点
And so if the point sits right in the middle in here,
你要画一个小三角
you got a little triangle
于是就有了前平面
and then there’s the front plane.
注意 我画的前平面是朝这个方向的
And notice the front plane I’m going in this direction,
因为我预先设定好了这些角度
that’s because I’ve already established these angles
那些是上平面
those are the top planes.
如果我没有事先明确角度
If I wasn’t specific about that,
如果我没画立方体
if I didn’t have a box
那要把髌骨位置画对就要困难很多
it’d be a lot harder for me to put that patella in the right spot.
接下来画上缘
And then the top edge
别忘了髌骨有厚度
and then you got your depth.
我事先也把这一线条角度确定了
And I also have the depth lines figured out
以确保它们是平行的
so I make sure that they’re parallel.
极简版本的髌骨完成了
And there’s kind of a very simplified form of the patella.
这样有点凌乱 如果想看起来整洁
If I wanted to clean that up because it’s getting a little messy,
可以在上面再画一层
I could put a layer on top.
通常 如果你仔细看我的……
Usually,if you look at my
我针对示例作品画的这些图
the drawings that I was doing for the assignment examples
后面的线条
the lines in the back,
有点像通过X线透视看到的那些线条
the ones you kind of see through X-ray vision,
我通常会画浅一点
I usually do those a lot lighter.
这样它们就不会妨碍后续作图
So they don’t get in the way,
同时又足以被看到
but I can still see them
为画其他线条做参照
in order to help me construct everything.
我在这里把每条线都画得全黑
I just went full dark on every line here
是为了能让大家看清楚细节
just to kinda show you guys every line.
即使这样 我画这些的时候
But when I’m drawing these,
仍然把后面的线条自动淡化
I am keeping them… faded back
它们没必要那么凸显
they don’t have to pop out.
我们尽快把这部分画好吧
But let’s clean this up real quick.
你也看到了 我只是把这些线条调淡了一点点
So you see how just fading those lines back a little bit,
我指这些红线条
those red lines
然后把可见的平面颜色描深
and then having the visible planes a little bit darker.
现在 绘画细节就更清楚了
Now it’s a little bit more clear of what’s happening,
但我还是保留了图下方我想展现的构图线条
but I still have my construction lines underneath that I wanna show
当提交作品供人们评价 鉴赏时
when I’m submitting my assignment for people to critique, to look at.
如果能让他们看到你的创作过程
It’s a lot easier for people to critique your stuff
更有助于他们对作品做出客观评价
if they could see your entire thought process.
实话说 我认为你一开始就没有画这些结构线
But honestly, I don’t think you constructed them in the first place
因为如果你画了结构线
because if you did,
你会参照它调整好所有角度
you would have these guides and all your angles would be in check.
会看到所有细节 会保持好平行关系
You’d be able to see everything, keep everything parallel.
所以这就是立方体的强大作用所在
So that’s really the power of boxes,
在这儿我不仅仅画了立方体
not everything I drew here is a box,
但却是立方体协助我完成其余各部分
but the box helped me draw everything else
因为当物体平行时 线条必须延伸
because there’s lines that have to converge to
到同一个没影点
the same vanishing point when things are parallel.
好的 感谢大家提交自己的作品
Well thank you, guys, for submitting yourassignments.
有很多人…
There was a lot,
很高兴有这么多人参与进来
I’m so glad there’s so many of you guys participating
并且从这些课程中有所收获
and finding use in lessons.
如果你正在看的是免费课程
If you’re watching the free version,
那么付费版里可以看到更多
there’s a lot more in premium.
去订阅体验吧
Go check it out.
我相信你们已经听了很多次这个广告
I’m sure you’ve heard that ad several times,
但付费版里确实有更多干货
but there really is a lot more stuff.
非常感谢订阅付费版的各位
For you premium people, thank you so much!
感谢你们的支持
Thank you for the support.
让我们下期臀部绘画课程再会
Next up is butt so I’ll see you in the butt!
再见
See you guys.

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视频概述

本视频为《Proko》系列绘画教程之一,关于腿骨绘画作业的评价反馈,其中Stan Prokopenko点评修正了关于腿骨作品中常出现的错误之处,需要更深层次的讲解内容请移步到Proko.com或微博搜索Proko

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收集自网络

翻译译者

大狼

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审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-h_JenFumY

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