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德拉古尔:不死的北欧僵尸

Draugr: The Undead Nordic Zombie

When I see G.R.R. Martin’s White Walkers
当我在《权力的游戏》系列中
depicted in the Game of Thrones series
看到乔治·马丁描写的异鬼大军时
I have to tell you I couldn’t help but think
实话说 我情不自禁地觉得
they have a lot in common with the draugr
他们与尸鬼有很多共同点
especially in appearance.
尤其是他们的外观
You obviously know of the draugr
若你大量研究过北欧古代文化
through your numerous studies of Ancient Nordic culture
或者是《天际》游戏的资深玩家
or from playing hours of Skyrim.
肯定知道尸鬼
But in the far-off chance you haven’t done either of those things
但也不排除这两件事你都没做过
let me explain
那就让我告诉你吧
draugr are ancient, Nordic undead,
尸鬼是古代北欧的不死族
humanoid monsters
是一种人形怪物
who rise from their graves to kill, wreak havoc
它们从坟墓里爬出来杀人 搞破坏
and generally disrupt the living
总之扰乱人们的生活
So what can draugr say about vikings
那尸鬼又是如何与维京人
ancient burial ceremonies,
古老的葬礼
and cooking dinner um…naked?
以及赤身裸体做晚饭的传统相关联?
To me, what’s so fascinating about these creatures
对我而言 这些怪物的迷人之处在于
is how they can teach us so much
它们能让我们了解许多
about the lives that people who lived thousands of years ago
关于几千年前的人类生活状况
and that some of the strongest Nordic warriors
在最强壮的北欧战士当中
were actually women.
有一部分其实是女性
I’m Dr. Emily Zarqa.
我是Emily Zarqa博士
And this is Monstrum.
欢迎收看《怪物理论》
We know of draugrs from the Sagas of the Icelanders,
我们从《冰岛人传说》一书中了解到尸鬼
stories that relate the early history and people of Iceland
书中描绘了从九世纪末到“维京时代”末
from the late ninth century to the end of the “Viking era”
关于冰岛早期历史和居民的相关故事
Yes, I am using air quotes
是的 我用了双引号
because the term Viking
因为“维京”这个词
is not a national or ethnic identity
并不代表某个国家或某个种族
but a profession—the act of raiding.
而代表了一种职业 强盗
Two kinds of undead creatures emerge from these sagas
在这些传说中 出现了两种不死生物
the Haugbúi
[这么读?]
Haugbúi
[还是这样读?]
Haugbúi
[还是这样?]
Haugbúi
[这样?]
I don’t know, that thing.
我不知道 反正就是它
who pretty much just hung out in their burial sites
霍格比只在自己墓地附近出没
leaving people alone,
他们不会去害人
and the Draugr, who left their graves to harm the living.
但尸鬼会离开自己的坟墓去害活人
There were very specific reasons why a newly-buried person
为何刚下葬的尸体会变成两种怪物的其中一种
would transform into either one of these monsters.
有以下几种具体的原因
Common, and seemingly random, reasons
一个人变成了其中一种不死怪物
for a person to become either type of undead monster
最普遍 似乎也很随意的原因
included: practicing black magic,
包括:被施了黑魔法
being executed as capital punishment
被行刑处决
dying an accidental death
或者意外死亡
(try avoiding that one),
[可能性极小]
or being buried outside of a churchyard.
或者尸体被埋在墓地外面
Once reanimated
据说 一旦变成了尸鬼
the draugr are said to have been more active at night and in the winter.
这些怪物在夜晚和冬天会更加活跃
Sometimes the appearance of the draugr was foretold
有时 有几个征兆预示尸鬼的出现
by a mist or temporary darkness
比如一股迷雾 或是暂时的黑暗
again, this feels familiar….
这种感觉好熟悉啊
《权利的游戏》第二季
Draugr are scary!
尸鬼很吓人的!
They’ll kill you and your livestock,
他们会把你和牲畜都杀了
and engage in one of their favorite pastimes,
然后开始他们最爱的娱乐活动
“riding roofs.”
“骑屋顶”
Which from what I can gather
据我了解到的信息
pretty much just meant stomping around on the roof at night
大概就是晚上在屋顶上跳来跳去
making noise so people can’t get any sleep.
制造噪音 让屋里的人睡不了觉
which is more annoying than terrifying.
这应该是更烦人 而不是吓人
But let’s not forget, they’ll also kill you.
但别忘了 他们可是要杀人的
These monsters are often described as possessing enormous strength.
他们经常被形容成力大无比的怪物
Like the Ancient Egyptians,
和古埃及人一样
the old Nordic people believed that
北欧先民相信
you could literally take what you were buried with
你能把和你埋在一起的东西
to the next plane of existence.
带到下一个生命轮回
A huge piece of evidence for this is the grave goods
其中有些陪葬品就提供了充分证据
that have been found at burial sites.
这些陪葬品就埋在墓地里
The Nordic people also practiced the “corpse-door” custom.
北欧先民还有“尸体门”的传统
It was believed that the dead
他们相信
could only return the way they left the home.
死人怎么出去 就怎么回来
So to keep the dead from returning,
所以为了避免死人的“回访”
a wall or portion of a house would be removed
他们会推倒一面墙或房子的一部分
to carry the corpse outside for burial.
以便把尸体扛到墓坑掩埋
Then, the corpse-door would be quickly repaired.
然后 “尸体门”很快被修好
This prevented the undead from making any surprise visits.
这阻止了亡灵的突然造访
All of these cultural practices are reflected
所有这些文化习俗都反映在
in the Sagas of the Icelanders
《冰岛人传说》一书中
through encounters with draugrs.
书中描写了与尸鬼的对战
Many of these monsters are a test for the story’s hero or heroine
这些怪物大都是对书中主人公设下的考验
and often reflect power struggles
其中也经常包含不同家族间
between different kinship groups or even within families.
或是一个家族里的权利斗争
Perhaps the most famous draugr story pops up in Grettis saga
或许最出名的尸鬼故事出自《克雷提传说》一书
when the hero Grettir defeats Glámr,
其中的男主人公 克雷提打败了克拉姆赫
a particularly aggressive draugr
他在一次旷日持久的打斗中
in an epic wrestling match.
打败了这个极其好斗的尸鬼
Grettir ends up sending Glamr to a permanent death
克雷提最终彻底杀死了克拉姆赫
by decapitating him then burning his body
砍下他的首级 烧掉他的尸体
and burying the ashes.
最后埋掉他的骨灰
Here we find the only way to successfully “re-kill” a draugr.
从这儿我们能发现 彻底杀死尸鬼唯一办法
It’s a method that pops up in other sagas:
这个方法也出现在其他传说中:
The only way to immobilize a draugr
杀死德拉古尔的唯一方法
is to chop off the head, burn the body,
就是砍下他的头 火化他的尸体
and scatter the ashes.
然后把骨灰撒了
This is actually one thing Skyrim got right
《天际》游戏中尸鬼的设定就很到位
Fire is an EXCELLENT weapon against draugr
火攻是对付尸鬼的绝佳方法
and White Walkers…just saying.
也可以对付异鬼 我只是猜测哦
In “The Saga of the People of Eyri,”
在《艾瑞岛先民传说中》中
a wall is built around a new burial site
人们会在新墓地周围建一堵墙
to prevent a particularly dangerous draugr from returning.
防止一些极危险的尸鬼“回访”
The wall was so high that quote
这堵墙非常高 被描述成
“no one could see over it except a bird in flight.”
“除了高空翱翔的鸟儿 没有谁能越过”
They literally build a wall to try and stop the undead.
他们真的修了面墙来阻止不死怪物
How is this not an influence for Game of Thrones?
《权游》的创作怎会没有它的影响?
But not all draugr are violent monsters.
但并非所有尸鬼都如此残忍暴力
One such example is Thorgunna.
Thorgunna就是其中一个例子
She was so offended by the poor hospitality
扛着她尸体去墓地的那些男人
offered to the men carrying her corpse to her burial
极其粗鲁野蛮地侮辱了她的身体
that she comes back from the dead
那之后她从墓坑里爬了回来
to make dinner for them, naked,
在她被埋入墓地前 这次终于安息了
before being buried (restfully this time) at a church.
竟然还全身赤裸着给他们做晚餐
The best part?
最刺激的部分?
They all eat the food.
他们把晚餐都吃完了
Would you eat zombie food?
你会吃僵尸的食物吗?
Now we have to talk about my favorite Icelandic story,
现在咱来聊聊我最喜欢的冰岛故事
The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise.
《智者海德雷克国王的传奇》
It’s amazing in so many ways,
从多个角度来看 这本书真的超棒
but mostly because of the shieldmaiden Hervör
但更多是因为其中的女战士
who absolutely should become your new favorite literary heroine.
她肯定会成为你心里的女英雄
Hervör, who is “as strong as a man”
她同男人一般强壮
and trained in bow, shield, and sword,
擅射箭 持盾牌 使长剑
decides she wants to retrieve a dwarven magical sword
她决定取回一柄矮人族的魔剑
buried with her father and uncles.
这把剑同她父亲和叔叔们埋在一起
She puts on male clothes,
她换上男人的衣服
changes her name to herself Hervard,
把名字改成了黑尔瓦尔德
and joins up with some vikings.
然后加入维京人的队伍
And because she’s a total boss,
因为她卓越的领导能力
she even becomes captain of her own band of vikings.
她甚至亲率一支维京大军
Hervör travels many miles
长途跋涉之后
to reach her ancestral burial mound.
她才抵达先祖的墓冢
Her father tries to scare her away,
她的父亲试图把她吓走
but Hervör is having none of that.
但她不曾退缩分毫
And she manages to convince him to give her the sword.
终于 她说服了父亲将这把剑给她
After a little more livin’ it up as a viking,
在多年“维京式”的生活后
she grows tired of it all,
她厌倦了一切
hangs up gear and retires
她把兵器挂起来 正式退休
eventually getting married and having children.
最后 结婚生子
A huge part of Ancient Nordic and particularly, Icelandic sagas,
北欧传说 尤其是冰岛传说中 有很大一部分
is the inclusion of undead mosters
都有不死怪物的存在
threatening the lives, and sanity, of the living.
他们威胁生灵 扰乱人类心智
The ancient Nordic people’s proximity to death
古老的北欧先民的寿命都很短
and their religious beliefs made burial
加上他们的宗教信仰观念
a sacred but often imperfect practice
使得他们的葬礼神圣庄严 却稍有不足
and that their kinship with ancestors was so important
他们的宗族观念极其重要
it could literally last beyond the grave.
死亡也不可阻断这层宗族关系
To me what’s so fascinating about these creatures
对我来说 这些怪物的迷人之处在于
is how they can teach us so much about the lives
它们让我们了解许多关于
of the people who lived thousands of years ago
几千年前人们的生活状况
Thanks for watching Monstrum.
谢谢收看《怪物理论》
Do you have a favorite monster or myth
你有没有最喜欢的怪物或者传说
you’d like see on the show?
想在这个节目上看到呢?
Let me know in the comments!
在评论区留言告诉我吧!
And don’t forget to subscribe!
别忘了订阅我们的频道哦!

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视频概述

解密不死北欧僵尸的传说故事

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

刘小贵

审核员

审核员YQ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNM1Y8i8tuI

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