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德古拉:第一个现代吸血鬼 – 译学馆
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德古拉:第一个现代吸血鬼

Dracula: The First Modern Vampire

Vampire.
吸血鬼
Stories of blood-sucking monsters are universal
有关吸血怪物的故事并不少见
and have been around for centuries.
而且已经流传了好几个世纪
There’s the Greek lamiae,
比如希腊拉米亚
the Chinese jiangshi,
中国僵尸
and the African asanbosam, to name a few.
非洲亚斯安伯沙
But let’s focus on the one who has outlived them all,
但咱们重点来说说比这些怪物活得更久
whose monstrous legend lives among us even today—Count Dracula.
他的惊悚传说至今仍在流传的 德古拉伯爵
I’m Dr Emily Zarka
我是Emily Zarka博士
and this is Monstrum.
这里是《怪物理论》
The stories of blood-sucking monsters constantly
关于吸血怪物的故事会不断被改动
shifts to reflect the culture and issues of its time.
以反映不同时代的文化与问题
For instance, there are real-life diseases
比如说 现实生活中一些疾病的症状
with symptoms similar to the traits found in some vampires:
跟有些吸血鬼的特征很像:
sensitivity to light, a sudden decline in health,
对光很敏感 身体突然变差
even the desire to bite other people.
甚至还包括想咬人的欲望
So, before we understood concepts like viruses and germs,
所以 在了解类似病毒和细菌这些概念之前
creating a fictional explanation makes a lot of sense.
虚构一些解释还是完全可以理解的
Also, if you look at the sharp teeth and long fingernails
还有 当你看到典型的西方吸血鬼
of the typical western vampire,
用尖牙和长指甲
and how they use these to attack their prey,
攻击猎物时
the vampire becomes a metaphor
你会发现 吸血鬼可以看作是
for a human’s capacity for great violence.
人类可以变得无比暴力的隐喻
Vampires often appear humanoid
吸血鬼通常跟人长得很像
and primarily attack humans,
而且主要攻击人类
so associating their violent attacks with
所以我们很容易把他们的残暴攻击
the violence we see in the real world is easy
跟我们在现实生活中看到的暴力联系起来
because both predator and prey look like us.
因为捕食者和猎物都和我们长得很像
We can find this monster in
在“吸血鬼”这个词
folklore, legends, and literature
于1730年左右出现在英文里之前
long before the word “vampire” appears
这个怪物已经出现在民间传说
for the first time in English around 1730.
传奇故事和文学作品里了
However, it wasn’t until the Irish author
然而 直到爱尔兰作家
Abraham ‘Bram’ Stoker wrote
亚伯拉罕·布莱姆·斯托克的小说
his 1897 novel Dracula,
《德古拉》在1897年出版
that the characteristics of this creature became widely recognizable in the modern world.
这种生物的特征才开始被现代人所熟知
Stoker actually started outlining the novel in 1890,
斯托克其实在1890年就开始写大纲了
years before he even encountered the name ‘Dracula.’
那时候他还没见过“德古拉”这个名字
We know this because he wrote notes,
我们能够知道这些是因为他写了很多笔记
a lot of notes.
很多很多笔记
Emily Gerard’s book of Transylvanian superstitions
艾米丽·杰拉德有关特兰西尔文尼亚迷信的
The Land Beyond the Forest
《比森林更远的地方》
and Reverend Sabine Baring Gould’s The Book of Were-Wolves
萨宾·巴林·古尔德牧师的《狼人传说》
were two books which clearly inspired him.
明显是他的灵感来源
He clipped newspaper articles,
他剪下报纸上的文章
recorded tombstone inscriptions,
记下墓碑上的碑文
and transcribed ship captain’s logbooks
并转录船长的航海日志
to make his narrative more realistic.
使自己的叙述更真实
He was also influenced by Victorian theatre,
他还受到了维多利亚时代戏剧
including his friend and employer –
包括他的朋友兼老板
the actor Henry Irving.
演员亨利·艾文的影响
It is most likely that he read
很有可能他第一次
the name “Dracula” for the first time
读到的“德古拉”这个名字
in William Wilkinson’s book
来自威廉·威尔金森的
An Account of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia
《瓦拉几亚与摩尔达维亚封邑报告》
while on vacation with his family,
而那时他在和家人度假
after he had already started writing the story.
在那之前他已经开始动笔写这个故事了
In tradition with a lot of Gothic literature,
在很多哥特文学传统中
Dracula is a member of the aristocracy,
德古拉是个贵族
which also explains the dramatic castle setting,
这也就解释了夸张的城堡设定
and the Count’s great wealth of “old gold.”
以及伯爵为什么有很多“老黄金”了
In his memos, Stoker combined many existing
在他的笔记里 斯托克将许多现存的
literary and folklore traits that we now see
文学和民间传中吸血怪物的特征相结合
as typical vampire characteristics:
塑造了我们现在看到的典型吸血鬼特征:
no reflection in mirrors,
镜子照不出来
never eats or drinks,
不吃不喝
has enormous strength,
力气很大
and the ability to see in the dark.
而且有夜视的能力
It was already accepted that
大家已经默认
vampires could turn others into the undead,
吸血鬼能够让别人成为不死身
have large canine teeth and pointed nails,
有很夸张的犬齿 指甲很尖
and be vulnerable to garlic and wooden stakes.
而且木桩和大蒜能伤到他们
But Count Dracula was the first vampire
但德古拉伯爵是第一个
to have all of these traits.
拥有所有这些特征的吸血鬼
And influenced by werewolf legends,
斯托克受到狼人传说的影响
Stoker gives Dracula the ability to shapeshift
赋予了德古拉变身的能力
into a bat, a wolf, or mist,
他能变成蝙蝠 狼 或是一团雾
a first for vampires!
第一个会变身的吸血鬼!
Seven years of making vampire notes paid off,
记了7年有关吸血鬼的笔记 还是有回报的
and when the book was finally published,
这本书最后出版的时候
it was a critical and popular success.
大众和批评家们都很喜欢
The 1922 movie Nosferatu,
1922年的电影《诺斯费拉图》
which tells the Dracula story
虽然改动了几个名字
with a few names changes,
但讲述的是德古拉的故事
was not authorized by Stoker
而且没有得到斯托克的授权
and came dangerously close to copyright infringement.
于是就在侵权的危险边缘游走
Stoker’s widow even tried to have the film removed from public circulation.
斯托克的遗孀还试图让这部电影下架
The controversy surrounding the film
围绕着这部电影的争议
increased the popularity of both the book and the Count himself.
让原著和德古拉本人都变得更受欢迎了
The prevelance of Dracula movies in the 40’s,
流行于40年代的德古拉电影
inspired a 16-year-old Richard Matheson,
启发了16岁的理查德·马特森
to contemplate his own version of a vampire tale:
他开始构思属于自己的吸血鬼故事:
he wondered quote
他寻思着
“if one vampire was scary,
“如果一个吸血鬼就很恐怖了
a world filled with vampires
那一个充满吸血鬼的世界
would be really scary.”
肯定超级恐怖”
Matheson published I am Legend, in 1954,
马特森在1954年出版的《我是传奇》
telling the story of the only apparent human survivor in New York City
讲述了人们感染吸血鬼瘟疫后
after a vampire plague infects the population.
纽约唯一一个人类幸存者的故事
Matheson’s vampires becomes monsters
马特森笔下的吸血鬼不是因为
not from a bite or curse,
被咬或者被下咒而变成怪物
but because of the Vampiris virus.
而是因为吸血鬼病毒
This is one of the first times
这是把吸血行为
the metaphor of vampirism as a disease is explicitly stated.
明确比喻成疾病的早期作品之一
Urbanism, immigration, sexual transmitted disease,
现代主义 移民 性传播疾病
politics, corporate greed, capitalism,
政治 贪婪的企业 资本主义
racism, sexism,
种族主义 性别歧视
the fetishization of youth—
对年轻时候的迷恋
these are only a few of the things vampires have represented.
吸血鬼象征着很多东西 这只是其中一些
In 1975, Stephen King’s Salem’s Lot
1975年 斯蒂芬·金的《撒冷镇》
modernizes Stoker’s original story.
将斯托克的原创故事现代化
King admits he was inspired by Dracula,
金承认他的灵感源自德古拉
as well as the divisive political atmosphere at that time in the United States
除此之外 当时美国分裂的政治氛围
that in King’s own words gave him
用金自己的话来说
a quote “fear of the future.”
让他“对未来感到恐惧”
Fun fact: thanks to the window-scratching scene
有趣的是:“多亏了”电视电影版《撒冷镇》中
in the tv-movie version of Salem’s Lot,
那一场吸血鬼敲刮玻璃的戏
Let me in.
让我进来
the first monsters I remember being really scared of were vampires.
我印象中第一次吓到我的怪物 就是吸血鬼
Which, given that I am now an expert in the undead,
鉴于不死怪物是我的专业领域
is so perfectly ironic I could die.
很讽刺的是 我可能会死
And then reanimate.
然后复活
It wouldn’t be a post-Dracula vampire episode
如果不提到让现代吸血鬼变得“性感”的
if I didn’t mention the two names
那两个名字的话
that made the modern vampire “sexy”…
就不算是进入了后德古拉吸血鬼时代
Anne Rice’s Vampire Chronicles
也就是安妮·莱斯的《夜访吸血鬼》
and Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight series.
以及斯蒂芬妮·梅耶的《暮光之城》系列
In 1976,
1976年
the publication of Interview with a Vampire
《夜访吸血鬼》出版
introduced the world to the beautiful, soulful Louis,
将英俊深情的路易带到了这个世界
whose cold dead heart is still capable of love and regret.
他那颗死了凉了的心脏还是会去爱会后悔
Rice gave us the first
莱斯带给了我们第一个
reluctant vampires in literature,
不想做吸血鬼的吸血鬼文学形象
those who were more concerned with self-identity
比起以前的吸血鬼形象
and morality than any previously portrayed.
这样的吸血鬼更在乎自我认同与道德准则
Kill them swiftly if you will, but do it!
实在不行你就杀得快一点 但是下手吧
For do not doubt you are a killer, Louis!
别再动摇了 因为你是个杀手 路易!
Then in 2005,
之后在2005年
we were given the brooding, abstinent,
《暮光之城》里出现了幽深禁欲系的
“vegetarian” Edward Cullen in Twilight.
“素食者”爱德华·卡伦
Meyer makes turning someone into a vampire
梅耶使得将一个人变成吸血鬼
the most romantic thing you can do
成为你能做的最浪漫的事
because it ensures you and your true love
因为这样的话你和你的真爱
will be together forever.
就可以永远在一起了
Also, vampires now sparkle.
还有 多亏了梅耶
Thanks for that.
吸血鬼的形象现在变光辉了
Other vampire stories reframe
其他吸血鬼故事
the undead monster in exciting ways.
用许多刺激的设定重塑了不死怪物
Jewelle Gomez’s The Gilda Stories
杰维尔·戈麦兹《吉尔达传说》中
features a black, feminist vampire heroine
吸血鬼女主人公是黑人女权主义者
who uses her undead life to explore
她利用永生的生命
her education and her sexuality
来延展她的教育 探索她的性别
while helping to create progressive change in society.
同时为社会渐进的变革出了一份力
Octavia Butler’s Fledgling features vampires
奥克塔维亚·巴特勒《雏鸟》中的吸血鬼
who actually engage in symbiotic relationships with those they feed from.
跟自己的猎物建立起了真正的共生关系
The narrative addresses themes of polyamory,
这种叙述透过黑人女性主角的视角
intimacy, race, and genetic experimentation
阐明了多情恋 亲密关系 种族
through the eyes of a black female protagonist.
以及基因实验这些主题
In contrast, Guillermo del Toro’s The Strain trilogy
相反 乔勒蒙·迪·多罗的《血族》三部曲
gives us parasitic worms who inhabit living human bodies,
呈现给我们的是寄居在人身上的寄生虫
and whose failure to value human life
这些寄生虫并不觉得人的生命有意义
makes them monstrous even without their need for human blood.
使得他们在不吸血的时候也很恐怖
Even though all modern vampire stories
虽说所有的现代吸血鬼传说
have their roots in Stoker’s original Dracula,
都可以回溯到斯托克的《德古拉》
each one is unique in its interpretation.
但各自都对吸血鬼的诠释都是独一无二的
As times change, so do vampires.
时代在变 吸血鬼也在变
The vampire reflects the culture and time of its creation.
吸血鬼反映了其所处的时代和文化
I wonder what form they’ll take next?
我在想 他们接下来会呈现出什么样子呢?
Who is your favorite literary vampire?
谁是你最喜欢的吸血鬼文学形象?
Let me know in the comments.
在评论区里告诉我吧
I’m partial to Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s Carmilla
我喜欢乔瑟夫·雪利登·拉·芬努的《卡米拉》
and Eli from Let the Right One In.
还有《血色童话》里的伊莱

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视频概述

介绍了吸血鬼文学形象的变化

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qc93hC9WAfo

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