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你的选票有用吗?选举团的解释

Does your vote count? The Electoral College explained - Christina Greer

大多数人一定在美国大选期间听说过总统选举团
Most people have heard of the Electoral College during presidential election years.
但是,总统选举团到底是什么呢?
But what exactly is the Electoral College?
简单来说 就是一个由每州选民委托的选举人组成的选举团
Simply said, it is a group of people appointed by each state
来最终选出美国的总统和副总统
who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States.
为了弄清楚这个过程是怎样开始运行的 以及今天是怎样在延续的
To understand how this process began and how it continues today,
我们可以看看联邦法案的第二章 第一节中的第二条
we can look at the Constitution of the United States: article two, section one, clause two of the constitution.
它具体阐述了每个州可以拥有选举人的数额
It specifies how many electors each state is entitled to have.
自从1964年开始 每次总统选举就有538名选举人参与
Since 1964, there have been 538 electors in each presidential election.
他们是怎么决定538这个数字的呢
How do they decide on the number 538?
嗯 就是选举人的数量等同于美国国会议员的总人数
Well, the number of electors is equal to the total voting membership of the United States Congress.
435名众议员 100名参议员和3名来自首都华盛顿哥伦比亚特区的选举人
435 representatives, plus 100 senators, and 3 electors from the District of Columbia.
说实话 民主党候选人和共和党候选人
Essentially, the Democratic candidate and Republican candidate
都想增加每个州选举人数量来得到超过270份的选票数
are each trying to add up the electors in every state so that they surpass 270 electoral votes,
或者得到269份以上的票数 然后他就可以就任总统了
or just over half the 538 votes, and win the presidency.
那么 每个州的选票数是怎么分配的呢
So how do states even get electoral votes?
每个州会得到一个特定的基于人口基数的选举人数
Each state receives a particular number of electors based on population size.
每10年会进行一次人口调查 所以每次人口普查之后
The census is conducted every 10 years, so every time the census happens,
每个州会得到或失去一些选举人票数
states might gain or lose a few electoral votes.
假设你是加利福尼亚州55个投票者中的一个
Let’s say you’re a voter in California, a state with 55 electoral votes.
如果你支持的候选者在加利福尼亚州胜出那么这个州所持有的55票都会是他的
If your candidate wins in California, they get all 55 of the state’s electoral votes.
如果落败 那么他可就什么都得不到了
If your candidate loses, they get none.
这就是为什么许多总统候选人想要得到像德克萨斯州 弗罗里达州和纽约州的选票的原因
This is why many presidential candidates want to win states like Texas, Florida, and New York.
如果你把这三个州的选票加起来
If you currently add up the electoral votes of those three states,
你得到的数字是96票
you would have 96 electoral votes.
即使一个赢得北达科他州 南达科塔 蒙大纳 怀俄明州
Even if a candidate won North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming,
佛蒙特州 新罕布什州 康乃迪科州和西佛吉尼亚州所有选票的候选者
Vermont, New Hampshire. Connecticut and West Virginia,
他也只获得了这八个州加起来的31票
they would only gain 31 electoral votes total from those eight states.
这就是有些戏剧性的地方
Here is where it can get a little tricky.
就像2000年那次大选
On a rare occasion, like in the year 2000,
有个人的全国普选票数遥遥领先却没有得到选举人票数中的270票
someone can win the popular vote but fail to gain 270 electoral votes.
这就意味着胜者获胜可能是凭借微小的选票差
This means that the winner may have won and collected their electoral votes by small margins,
赢得一定数量的有着足够选举人票数的州的支持
winning just enough states with just enough electoral votes,
即便失败的候选人也许在剩下的州里抓住了较大的选票差
but the losing candidate may have captured large voter margins in the remaining states.
如果是这种情况 失败候选人在其它州的选票差
If this is the case, the very large margins secured by the losing candidate in the other states
需要在普选时超过50%才够安全
would add up to over 50% of the ballots cast nationally.
因此 落选的人可能获得了超过50%的普选票
Therefore, the losing candidate may have gained more than 50% of the ballots cast by voters,
但没有得到270票的选举人票
but failed to gain 270 of the electoral votes.
有些对于选举团制度批判的人认为这个体制对于拥有大量选举人票数的州
来说是个不公平的优势
Some critics of the electoral college argue the system gives an unfair advantage to states with large numbers of electoral votes.
比如这样想
Think of it this way.
对于候选人有可能他一票也没有获得 –
It is possible for a candidate to not get a single person’s vote — not one vote —
39个州的任何一票 甚至包括华盛顿特区 他只要赢下这12个州里的11个就行:
in 39 states, or the District of Columbia, yet be elected president by winning the popular vote in just 11 of these 12 states:
加利福尼亚州 纽约州 德克萨斯州 弗罗里达州 宾西法尼亚州 伊利诺斯州 俄亥俄州
California, New York, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio,
密歇根州 新泽西州 北卡罗南亚洲 乔治亚州和弗吉尼亚州
Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Georgia or Virginia.
这就是为什么两党会这么关注这些州
This is why both parties pay attention to these states.
然而 有些人认为选举团制度保护了一些像
However, others argue that the electoral college protects small states
罗德岛州 佛蒙特州和新罕布什尔州的小州
such as Rhode Island, Vermont and New Hampshire,
甚至是地域辽阔却人口稀少的州
and even geographically large states with small populations
像阿拉斯加州 怀俄明州和整个达科他州
like Alaska, Wyoming and the Dakotas.
因此候选人不能完全不顾虑这些小州
That’s because a candidate can’t completely ignore small states,
因为在一场票数势均力敌的大选中 每一票都是极为关键的
because in a close election, every electoral vote counts.
也有一些固定的州长期以来把票投给固定的政党
There are certain states that have a long history of voting for a particular party.
这些州被称为”安全州”
These are known as ‘safe states.’
在过去的四次大选中––分别是1996年 2000年 2004年 2008年
For the past four election cycles — in 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008 —
民主党人依靠于俄勒冈州 马里兰州 密歇根州 马萨诸赛州
Democrats could count on states like Oregon, Maryland, Michigan and Massachusetts,
然而共和党人依靠于密西西比州 阿拉巴马州 堪萨斯州 爱达荷州
whereas the Republicans could count on states like Mississippi, Alabama, Kansas and Idaho.
一些在不同政党间徘徊的州被称为”摇摆州”
States that are teetering between between parties are called ‘swing states.’
在过去的四次大选中 俄亥俄州和弗罗里达州就算是摇摆州
In the past four election cycles, Ohio and Florida have been swing states,
两次投票给民主党候选人
twice providing electoral votes for a Democratic candidate,
两次投票给共和党候选人
and twice providing electoral votes for a Republican candidate.
想想 你所在的州是安全州吗
Think about it. Do you live in a safe state?
如果是 那么你所在的州倾向于共和党还是民主党呢
If so, is it a Democratic or Republican safe state?
你所在的州是摇摆州吗
Do you live in a swing state?
你的邻州是摇摆州还是安全州
Are your neighboring states swing or safe?
你所在州的人数是增加还是减少了
Is the population in your state increasing or decreasing?
当你在看每四年一次的选举之夜直播时
And do not forget, when you are watching the electoral returns on election night every four years
看着屏幕上的大型美国地图时 别忘了那个神奇的数字270 开始计算吧
and the big map of the United States is on the screen,know that the magic number is 270 and start adding.

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