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特权问题|8-bit哲学第一季 – 译学馆
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Does Privilege Matter? – 8-Bit Philosophy

如果你愿意的话 想象一下 有一个名叫Firion的勇士正想方设法为
Imagine, if you will, that a warrior named Firion is seeking vengeance for losses suffered
在一个邪恶君主手中受到的损失而复仇 但他的朋友Leon来自一个比较富有的家庭
at the hands of an evil Emperor. But his friend Leon comes from a much wealthier family, can
能够买得起更好的武器 能够雇佣一支强大的军队来支持他的计划
afford nicer weapons, and can hire out a large army to support his mission.
Firion可能会试着对Leon说“小伙子 注意你的特权”
Firion might be tempted to tell Leon, ‘Dude, check your privilege.’
但是 Leon并不是自己选择出生在富有的家庭 他为什么要为此道歉呢
But, Leon didn’t choose to be born into wealth, why then should he apologize for it?
据存在主义者让•保罗•萨特所言 我们生来
According to existentialist Jean Paul Sartre, we’re thrown into the world
作为某一特定文化 宗教 语言和社会经济地位的组成部分
as part of a particular culture, religion, language, and socio-economic status
没有任何发言权 这些特征被萨特称为人的现实性
without any say in the matter. These are the features of what Sartre calls our facticity—the
individual parts of ourselves that we’re born with.
虽然我们对人的现实性没有控制权 但是我们总是
And although we have no control over our facticity—we are always free to choose our relation to
可以自由选择我们和我们所处世界的关系 这种自由是我们生而为人的一部分
the world that we live in. This freedom is just part of the human condition. We define
我们通过确定我们生活的目标来定义我们的存在 我们让自己的生活变成
our existence by determining our purpose in life—we make our life our own particular
我们的特别计划 事物只有在这个由我们自由创作的计划框架内才有价值
project—things have value only in the frame of the project that we freely create.
In his colossal work Being and Nothingness Sartre uses several examples to illustrate
humanity’s radical freedom.
对于萨特来说 就算是一个囚犯也是绝对自由的 他可以选择尝试越狱 他可以
To Sartre, even a prisoner is radically free. He can choose to attempt an escape, he can
选择重塑导致他入狱的生活目标 又或者他可以选择
choose to restructure his purpose in life given his incarceration, or he can choose
去结束自己的生命 他被限制人身自由的事实并不是真正约束他自由的东西
to end his life—the fact that he’s locked up isn’t what restricts his freedom, rather
it’s his choice to believe, given his situation, that he is un-free.
Because the prisoner’s own created goal in life resides outside the prison
并不是物理意义上的锁链使他烦恼 而是他不愿意承认他的目标和他目前的处境相一致
It’s not the physical bars that cause him anguish. It’s in his unwillingness to conform his goal in life to his current situation
你看 每个特定的人体验自由
You see, freedom is only ever experienced by each particular person in the context of
只根据他们自己的计划 他们的结局 和他们对世界的自我理解的背景下
their own project, their own ends, and their own understanding of the world.
Firion could compare his ragged armor and motley crew to Leon’s disciplined battalion
和华丽的盔甲比较 但是这对Firion来说和他的目标没有任何关系
and shining plate mail but it has nothing to do with Firion’s goal for himself. Each
person is their own free project with their own situation—their own personal quest.
Because Leon has more at his disposal than Firion doesn’t mean that Leon is freer—both
两个人在选择自己的结局上都是自由的 同样地没有所谓的优越的生命
are free to construct their own ends. As such there is no superior life situation because
there is no metric to decide who has the best way to make meaning in their lives. There
isn’t a way to determine who has the best life plan.
对于萨特来说 这意味着现实性或者一个人的物质环境并不能组成特权
For Sartre, it means that facticity, or a person’s material situation doesn’t constitute
我们在创造意义上都是绝对自由的 这就是关键所在
privilege—we are all radically free to create meaning. And that is what matters.
话说回来 我们应该把富有的白人看成特权的权威吗
But then again, should we really look to a rich white man to be an authority on privilege?