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每个人都有同性恋基因吗? – 译学馆
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每个人都有同性恋基因吗?

Does Everybody Have A Gay Gene?

百分之二到六的人认为自己
2-6% percent of people self-identify
有明显的同性恋倾向
as having predominantly homosexual attractions,
有许多社会学和政治学的理论解释了其中的原因
and while there are many social and political theories on why,
科学是怎样解释的呢?
what does science say?
同性恋是由基因决定的吗?
Is being gay genetic?
如果是的 那是否我们都有同性恋基因?
And if so, do we all have a gay gene?
上世纪90年代 两项研究通过人类基因组工程
In the 90s, two studies using the human genome project
发现 与异性恋人群相比
found that gay men have a higher number of homosexual relatives
同性恋人群有更多的同性恋亲戚
compared to heterosexual men.
同性恋的兄弟姐妹们的X染色体上有一段相似的区域
And that gay siblings have similar linkages on their X-chromosome,
表现出更高的遗传性
showing a high level of genetic inheritability.
一项近期的研究 调查了409位同性恋兄弟姐妹们
A more recent study of 409 gay siblings also
也发现了位于X染色体上的相似区域 命名为”Xq28″
found linkages in the specific region of the X-chromosome, labelled “Xq28”,
8号染色体上也出现了相似性区域
and in another region of chromosome 8.
而且 2014年发表的分析报告 针对长达50年的研究
Furthermore, a 2014 analysis, a 50 years of research
发现与直男群体相比 同性恋男性的兄弟更有可能是同性恋
found that gay men are more likely to have gay brothers compared to straight men,
女性性恋的姐妹是同性恋的概率也更大
and lesbian women are more likely to have lesbian sisters,
进一步证明了同性恋的基因连锁性和遗传性
further suggesting the traits are genetically-linked and passed on.
但是 如果同性恋真的是由基因决定的
But if homosexuality is in fact genetic,
这是否构成一个悖论?
doesn’t this create a paradox?
虽然有些同性恋人群会生育孩子
While some gay people still have children,
但总体上看 他(她)们的孩子数量比异性恋要少80%
overall, they have 80% less children than heterosexuals,
那么 同性恋基因为什么不会减少直至消失呢?
so wouldn’t the genes not be passed down and eventually die out?
最近 加州大学洛杉矶分校 运用表观遗传学研究得出
Well, a recent UCLA study used epigenetics to propose
每一个人都有同性恋基因
that everyone has a gay gene.
但它们得靠甲基修饰DNA的特定区域
But it is whether or not the attachment of a methyl group to specific regions of DNA,
来激发和启动
is triggered and turned on.
表观遗传学研究的是环境
Epigenetics is the study of how your environment
如何影响基因的化学结构
can chemically modify your genes.
比如 蚁后所提供的营养和信息素
Like how a queen ant’s nutrition and pheromones can chemically alter
是如何决定一个蚂蚁胚胎分化成军蚁还是工蚁
an ant embryo to either produce a soldier or worker ant
从而满足种群的需要
based on what’s needed for the colony.
该大学通过研究同性恋和非同性恋的男性双胞胎
The UCLA study used gay and straight male twins
发现了一种特殊的甲基化模型
and found that a specific methylation pattern was
与性取向息息相关
closely linked to sexual orientation.
这个模型能够预测男性的性取向 准确率达到百分之七十
The model was able to predict the sexuality of men with 70% accuracy,
但是这个数据来源于小样本
but this data used a small subset of people
这项研究还存在一定的争议
and there is some controversy around the research.
至今 尚未发现一个特定的同性恋基因
Ultimately, a specifix gay gene has not been found.
但是科学证据表明 人类的性取向
But scientific evidence does suggest that human sexual orientation
确实与基因强烈相关
is strongly linked to genetics
在分子层面上存在着精细的调节机制
and tightly regulated at the molecular level.
科学家甚至发现 生下第一个男孩后
It is even been found that giving birth to a son
第二个男孩是同性恋的几率提高了百分之三十三
increases the odds of homosexuality in the next son by 33%,
这个概率与人口基数有关
relative to the baseline population.
但异母兄弟则不受影响
If the older brother is from a different mother, there is no effect seen.
这使一些科学家确信 头胎的男婴
This has led some researchers to believe that male pregnency
触发了一套生理机制从而影响了母亲的下一胎
triggers a biological mechanism that affects the mother’s successive birth.
荟萃分析法同样得出这一统计结论
A meta-analysis also found that statistically,
与直男相比 同性恋男性有哥哥的概率更大
homosexual men have more older brothers than heterosexual men.
另一项研究表明母亲的子宫分泌更多的睾丸素
Another study found that women exposed to high levels of testosterone in uteri
孩子是同性恋的概率就更大
have higher rates of being not straight.
这是为什么呢?
So why does this happen?
“同性恋叔叔”假设解释了
The “gay-uncle” hypothesis suggests that
为什么家族里的同性恋成员就算不生育
gay members of the family that don’t reproduce still increase the prevalence
仍然能增加家族后代中同性恋基因
of their family’s genes in future generations
因为他们能让后代接触到更多同性恋相关事物
by helping to provide resources for offspring that they are related to.
毕竟 适者生存不仅指个体
After all, it is not just survival of the “fittest individual”,
也包括整个家族
but the “fittest family.”
研究还表明 同性恋具有更少的敌意
Studies also showed that there are lower levels of hostility,
更高的情商
and higher levels of emotional intelligence,
更具同情心和合作精神
compassion, and cooperation in gay men,
这些也可以提高人类的利他性和生存能力
which may also increase altruism and survival in human groups.
另一个假设表明同性恋基因
Another hypothesis suggests that the genes for homosexuality
可以提高吸引力
are ultimately coding for attraction.
也就是说 与男同性恋亲戚拥有相同基因的女性
Meaning female relatives of gay men who share the same gene
对男性的吸引力更大
will also have stronger attractions to men,
增加了进化优势
providing an evolutionary advantage.
研究还表明这些女性拥有更多的孩子
And studies have shown that these females have more babies on average.
这也同样适用于女同性恋人群和她们的直男亲戚
The same would be true of lesbians and their straight male relatives.
著名的科学家E.O.威尔逊曾经说
The famous scientist E.O Wilson once said:
同性恋人群能给社会带来好处
“Homosexuality gives advantages to the group.
社会谴责同性恋其是是在谴责自己
A society that condemns homosexuality condemns itself.”
历史上 科学界对同性恋人群不是很友善
Historically, science has not been kind to the queer community.
在过去 人们普遍认为同性恋的大脑和身体
In the past, it was generally accepted that the brains and bodies of homosexuals
更低级 因为人们觉得
were presumed to be of lower status, with a popular belief that
同性恋行为是发育缺陷的结果
homosexual behaviour was a result of defective development.
甚至一些性少数群体害怕这些科学研究可能会改变他(她)们
Even some LGBTQ2S people fear that the scientific research could alter the community
使自己被拿来研究或受到伤害
and be used to exploit or hurt people.
而且已有的研究都是针对
Even from the available research, it is clear most studies
男同性恋人群 忽视了其他群体
only focus on gay men, and neglect other groups.
但是 对同性恋的遗传和表观遗传因素的研究越多
But more research on the genetic and epigenetic factors of homosexuality
就越能减少世界上的”恐同”法律
will decrease homophobic laws around the world
进一步证明同性恋不是可以选的
by further proving that being gay is not a choice.
但是我们可以从基因层面根除同性恋么?
But could we ever genetically get rid of homosexuality?
在第二集 我们将会讨论它的可能性
Watch our second video where we discuss if it’s possible,
以及这个领域的各项研究进展
and the implications of continued study into this field.
每周四我们都会更新科普视频 欢迎订阅
And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.

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视频概述

从基因层面探讨了同性恋的原因,帮助我们正视性少数群体

听录译者

晨曦

翻译译者

研究僧

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k6p1nmOnILA

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