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寒冷会使你生病么? – 译学馆
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寒冷会使你生病么?

Does Being Cold Make You Sick?

冬天快来了 别人都让我们多穿衣服 不然就会感冒
Winter is coming – and we’ve all been told to put on a jacket outside, or you’ll catch
当然 现在最常见的回答是’别傻了 冻着并不会
a cold! Of course, the common response of today has become ‘Don’t be silly, being cold
感冒’或者 ‘寒冷真的会引起感冒吗’ 哪种说法才对呢
can’t give you a cold’. Or can it? Who wins in this battle of the beliefs?
此时寒冷天气与生病的有关联支持者就要站出来了 每年都有大概5%-20%的美国人
The correlation between cold weather and sickness does stand out. Between 5-20% of Americans
会在秋冬季节感冒或流感 更不用说 天气
catch a cold or flu every year around late fall and winter. Not to mention, it’s called
是寒冷的 但也有些重要的东西是要考虑的 第一
a cold. But there are some important things to consider. First and foremost: colds and
感冒和流感是由病毒引起的 如果你身边没有这些病毒 你是不会感冒的
the flu are caused by viruses. if there aren’t any around, you won’t catch a cold – no matter
无论那时的天气是多么寒冷 就是这么简单
how cold you get. It’s as simple as that.
那为什么感冒会与温度下降相关呢 一个原因是 人们在寒冷的天气里
So why the correlation with decreasing temperatures? Well for one, people tend to stay indoors
更喜欢待在室内 这样会接触更多的人
much more often during the winter, which in turn, puts them in contact with more people.
人越多 也就意味着病毒传播的机会更多
More people, means more exposure opportunities for the pathogens to spread. On top of this,
而人对某些病毒的传播起到了十分重要的作用 随着冬天空气湿度的下降
humidity plays a role in the spread of some viruses. As the humidity decreases in the
不仅病毒传播得更加方便了 鼻子里的粘液也会变干
winter, not only does the virus spread more readily, but the mucus in your nose dries
而这些粘液恰恰是人体阻挡病毒的屏障 最后
out. Mucus would otherwise act as a protective barrier to pathogens. Finnaly,
缺乏来自太阳的维生素D会影响到我们自身的免疫系统
the lack of Vitamin D which we get from the sun, can affect our immune system adversely.
待在室内时间过长加上冬季里日照时间的缩短
Both being inside more often, and the fact that winter has shorter days makes this a
也是影响我们健康的重要因素
big factor for your health.
那么你是不是证明了父母说错了 别着急
So you’ve proven your parents wrong… right? Not so fast!
虽然过去的一些研究表明感冒与温度是没有关系的 但最近的研究有另一种看法
While some past studies have shown no correlation to temperature, recent evidence suggest otherwise.
一个研究将研究者的脚放在冷水中 实际上相较与没有放在冷水里的人
One study which put test subjects feet into ice water found that they were, indeed, more
他们在随后几天发展成普通感冒的症状的可能性更大
likely to develop common cold symptoms in the following days, than those who didn’t.
对此有一种假设是 低温会导致血管收缩
The developing hypothesis behind these results is that the cold temperatures cause blood vessel
也因此减慢了血红细胞接触病毒的速度
constriction, which slows the white blood cells from reaching the virus, ultimately
最终将会抑制免疫系统的反应 皮质醇水平会压迫免疫系统
inhibiting the immune response. Cortisol levels, which pressures the immune system, are also
这也可以由温度引起 更进一步来说 在白老鼠和人体上的研究发现
increased with temperature induced stress. Furthermore, studies on both mice and human
细胞的对感冒病毒的免疫反映是受到温度影响的。
airway cells found that immune reaction to the common cold virus, in fact, temperature
温暖的环境会使细胞更容易死亡
dependent. Warm infected cells are more likely to undergo programmed cell death, to limit
从而减少了感染的传播
the spread of infection.
最后 对病毒自身的研究发现了病毒一种秘密武器 在冬天的温度里
Finally, studies of the virus itself have revealed a secret weapon of sorts. In winter temperature,
病毒外部的保护膜变得更硬就像一个盾牌一样
the virus’s outer layer or envelope becomes much harder and acts like a shield.
这就使得病毒在人与人之间的传播变得更容易 但温暖的气温下
This allows it to spread from person to person much more easily. But at warm temperatures,
这层外膜更像一层果冻 这并不足够坚硬为病毒抵挡外界的冲击。
this layer is more of a gel, which is not quite tough enough to protect the virus against
因此 病毒的传播能力将会受到限制
the elements. As a result, its spreading ability is compromised.
所以说 你父母的话并不全部是错的 一个更好的办法是 多带在室外
So, maybe your parents weren’t so wrong after all. A happy compromise of going outside
穿多衣服 会让你顺利度过冬天
more often, bundled up, is likely to get you through the winter unscathed.
关于AsapSCIENCE的最新消息 我们将他们放进几个播放列表中来让观看视频更加容易
New to AsapSCIENCE? We’ve put together a couple playlists to make watching our videos a little
第一个列表包括一些最受欢迎的视频
easier. The first is a mix of our favorite and most popular videos, and the other contains
其他的列表包括AsapSCIENCE里的每一集 另外 要记住关注我们的
every single AsapSCIENCE video in a row, because why not. Also make sure you’re following us
Facebook Twitter G+ Tumblr Instagram Vine还有其他你能想到的社交网络
on Facebook, Twitter, G+, Tumblr, Instagram, Vine and any other social media you can think of.
关于具体描述
Links in the description.
一如以往 有任何疑问 欢迎订阅科学周刊视频
As always, ask away any burning questions, and subscribe, for more more weekly science videos.

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