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加奶会减少咖啡的益处吗? – 译学馆
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加奶会减少咖啡的益处吗?

Does Adding Milk Block the Benefits of Coffee?

图示为死亡率和咖啡摄入的相对关系
This is a graph of mortality versus coffee consumption,
如图所示 咖啡饮用者比不喝咖啡者更长寿
suggesting coffee drinkers live longer than non-coffee drinkers.
这可能是由于咖啡对于改善炎症
This may be because coffee mayhave beneficial effects on inflammation,
肺功能 胰岛素敏感度和抑郁症都有益处
lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression.
至少某种程度上是这样
This may be in part because
原因是在咖啡豆中发现了
of a class of polyphenol phytonutrients
一种名为绿原酸的多酚植生素
found in coffee beans called chlorogenic acids,
绿原酸经以口服给药形式进行的研究
proven to have favorable effects with studies
被证明可以表现出有利的作用
like these where they just give it alone in pill form
能产生一些有益效果
and can show beneficial effects,
例如快速降血压
such as acute blood pressure-lowering activity,
绿原酸可在摄入后数小时内降低收缩压和舒张压
dropping the top and bottom blood pressure numbers within hours of consumption.
那么 哪种咖啡最有效呢
OK, so which coffee has the most?
大家都知道要如何挑出最红的西红柿
We know how to choose the reddest tomato,
和橙色最深的甘薯
the deepest orange sweet potato,
因为多种植物色素可作抗氧化剂发挥效用
since many of the plant pigments are the antioxidants themselves.
如何挑选最健康的咖啡呢
How do you choose the healthiest coffee?
实验者测试了一百余种咖啡
More than a hundred coffees were tested,
发现不同咖啡所含咖啡因水平会不同
and different coffees had different caffeine levels,
但其所含绿原酸差值却可超出三十倍
but the chlorogenic acid levels varied by more than 30-fold.
因此 不同种类的咖啡可能
As a consequence, coffee selectionmay have a large influence
在增进健康方面潜力差异很大
on the potential health potential of coffee intake.
这些研究显示 一杯咖啡可能富含营养素 也可能没什么营养素
So all those studies that show that one cup of coffee does this or that,
咖啡间差异如此巨大又意味着什么呢
what does that even mean when coffee can vary so greatly?
有趣的是 绿原酸含量的拖后腿巨头
Interestingly, the major contributor to the wide range
是星巴克咖啡
was the coffee purchased from Starbucks,
星巴克咖啡绿原酸含量极低
which had an extremely low chlorogenic acid content,
平均是其他咖啡的十分之一
averaging 10 times lower than the others.
大概是因为星巴克的咖啡豆烤得太焦了
Maybe it’s because they roast their beans too dark.
烘烤得越久 剩余绿原酸就越少
The more you roast, the less there is.
有一部分绿原酸好像受烘焙破坏了
They appear to be partiallydestroyed by roasting.
咖啡因则相当稳定
Caffeine is pretty stable,
但是焦炒咖啡可能会破坏近90%的
but a dark roast may wipe out nearly 90 %
原咖啡豆所含的绿原酸
of the chlorogenic acidcontent of the beans.
然而中轻度烘焙与中度烘焙的差异
The difference between a mediumlight roast and a medium roast
微小到不足以造成
was not enough though to make a difference
分别摄入两种咖啡后
in total antioxidant status
血液中抗氧化物水平的显著不同
in people’s bloodstreamsafter drinking them;
它们的促进作用不相上下
they both gave aboutthe same boost.
其他因素 如预处理方式或者是否脱咖啡因
Other factors, such as howyou prepare it or decaffeination,
好像没有重大影响
don’t appear to have a major effect.
那么加奶呢
What about adding milk?
老粉丝或许记得这个年代久远的视频
Long-time fans may rememberthis ancient video,
其中说到 已证实加奶会阻碍
where the addition of milk was shown to
茶对动脉血管机能的保护
prevent the protective effects of tea on artery function.
若喝纯红茶 数小时内血管机能
Drink black tea and you geta significant improvement
便会得到显著改善
in vascular function within hours,
反之 加奶会完全抵消茶的功效
whereas addition of milk completelyblunted the effects of tea.
虽然饮茶能大大促进动脉血管机能
Here’s the big boost in arteryfunction you get drinking tea,
但饮用同量的奶茶
but drink the same amount of tea with milk
就和根本没喝过茶一样
and it’s like you never drank the tea at all.
研究者将此归责于酪蛋白
They think it’s the casein to blame,
酪蛋白是牛奶所含蛋白质之一 它与茶中营养素结合
one of the milk proteins binding up the tea phytonutrients. Bottom-line,
结果导致 加奶彻底削减了
this finding that the tea-induced improvement in vascular function
茶对血管机能的改善效应
is completely attenuated after additionof milk may have broad implications
该发现或许将会深刻影响茶的备制与饮用方式
on the mode of tea preparationand consumption.
换句话说
In other words,
也许不该往茶里加奶 也不该给浆果抹奶油
maybe we should not add milk to tea or put cream on our berries.
这似乎对浆果营养素乃至巧克力有同样影响
It appears to have the same effect on berry phytonutrients, or chocolate.
仔细看看这个
Check this out.
摄入牛奶巧克力
Eat milk chocolate,and nothing much happens
对血流抗氧化能力无显著影响
to the antioxidant powerof your bloodstream.
但若为黑巧克力 血液抗氧化水平会在摄入后一小时内飙升
But eat dark chocolate and get a nice spike within an hour of consumption. Yeah,
是因为牛奶巧克力所含的牛奶
but is that just becausethe milk in milk chocolate
排挤掉部分富含抗氧化物的可可吗?
crowds out some of theantioxidant-rich cocoa?
牛奶巧克力仅含约20%可可
Milk chocolate mayonly be like 20% cocoa,
而黑巧克力约含70%乃至更多固体可可
whereas a good dark chocolate may be like 70 % or more cocoa solids. No,
还不止这样
it’s not just that.
这是摄入黑巧克力或牛奶巧克力后
Here’s how much of thiscocoa phytonutrient
进入血液的可可营养素含量对比
you get into your bloodstream eating dark chocolate compared to milk chocolate.
但摄入等量黑巧克力时喝牛奶
But eat that same amountof dark chocolate
会阻碍近半数营养素进入血液
with a glass of milk andit blocks about half. OK,
这是可可豆的情况 那咖啡豆呢
that’s cocoa beans;what about coffee beans?
当往盛在试管中的咖啡
When milk was added to the coffee
加入牛奶
in like a test tube,
哪怕只加一点牛奶
antioxidant activity decreased by more than half
抗氧化效果就减弱不止一半
with just a splash of milk,
在拿铁或其他加奶咖啡中 则会减弱95%
and down like 95 % in latte or something with lots of milk. OK,
但发生在试管里的情形
but what happens
未必在人体内发生
in a test tube doesn’t necessarily happen in a person.
我是说 只有亲身实验才能知道结果
I mean, you don’t know until you put it to the test.
确实 为期一天的试验显示
And indeed, over the course
当喝加奶的咖啡
of a day significantly fewer chlorogenic acids
进入血液的绿原酸明显减少
made it into people’s bloodstreamsdrinking coffee with milk
相比喝黑咖啡 绿原酸的吸收减少了一半
compared to black, cuttingabsorption by more than half.
那么加豆浆呢
What about soymilk?
在试管中
In a test tube,
咖啡营养素似乎不止与乳蛋白结合而凝固
coffee phytonutrients do appear to bind not only to dairy proteins
也会与鸡蛋 大豆蛋白质结合而凝固
but also egg and soy proteins.
你能看到 这是电脑模拟显示的
You can see how they didthis computer modeling
这些咖啡化合物如何
showing how these coffee compounds can dock
被凝固于奶制品
inside the nooks and crannies
蛋白 大豆蛋白质的凹处和裂隙里
of dairy, egg white, and soy proteins,
但是 试管里发生的或计算机模拟的情形
but what happens in a testtube or a computer simulation
未必会在人体里发生
doesn’t necessarilyhappen in a person.
蛋类还未经人体试验
Eggs haven’t been put to the test,
所以尚不明吃蛋卷时
so you don’t know if having omelets
喝黑咖啡会不会影响吸收
with your black coffeecould impair absorption,
且目前为止 也未用豆浆进行实验
and neither has soymilk until now. Yeah,
无论如何 相比牛奶 豆浆有一些固有的好处
either way soymilk has someinherent benefits over cow’s milk,
但它会像牛奶一样阻碍营养物吸收吗
but does it have the samenutrient blocking effects?
答案是不会
And the answer is no.
无论喝黑咖啡 还是加豆浆的咖啡
No significant difference in theabsorption of coffee phytonutrients
对咖啡营养素的吸收并无显著差异
drinking coffee black or with soymilk.
最初 豆类蛋白质似乎
What seemed to be happeningis that the soy proteins
会在小肠处先与咖啡化合物结合
do initially bind the coffee compoundsup in the small intestine,
不过不久就会被体内益生菌
but then your good bacteria can release them
分解并释放
so they can be
然后在下一级肠道里都被吸收
absorbed down in the lower intestine.
所以 和乳蛋白不同
So considering the reversible nature of binding
豆奶与咖啡营养素的结合可逆
as opposed to the dairy proteins,
看来 似乎往不往咖啡里加豆浆
it seems not to be as relevant as to
没什么太大关系
whether or not you add soy milk.

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以后喝咖啡不要加奶啦,豆浆倒是可以加。快来看看这是为什么吧~

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDi9ffMwTVg

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