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过强的免疫系统会加重感冒吗?

Does a Strong Immune System Make Colds Worse?

《科学秀》
免疫系统太强会使感冒更严重吗?
We all have that friend or coworker
我们都有这样的朋友或同事
who insists that they never get colds
他们坚称自己从不感冒
because their immune system is just so strong.
因为他们的免疫系统十分强大
But research shows they might want to hold off on that boast.
但研究结果可能会让他们不再吹嘘自己的免疫力
People with more robust immune responses
事实上 免疫系统更强的人
may actually be more likely to show symptoms of a cold.
可能更容易出现感冒症状
And that’s because cold symptoms aren’t caused by cold viruses,
因为感冒症状不是由感冒病毒引起的
but by your body trying to show those viruses the door.
而是你的身体试图抵御病毒造成的
The common cold is usually caused by a class of viruses called rhinoviruses.
普通感冒通常是由一种叫鼻病毒的病毒引起的
Unlike many other viruses, like the flu,
与流感等其他许多病毒不同的是
rhinoviruses don’t damage or destroy the cells of your airway,
鼻病毒不会损害或摧毁呼吸道细胞
though some do fall away.
尽管有一部分呼吸道细胞会脱落
Instead, the symptoms you experience,
相反 你身体出现的症状
like a sore throat and stuffy nose,
比如喉咙痛 鼻塞
are actually caused by your own immune system responding to the virus.
其实是你的免疫系统在对抗病毒的表现
Not everyone who is infected by a cold virus actually shows symptoms.
不是所有感染感冒病毒的人都会出现症状
In fact, about 25% of rhinovirus infections
事实上 大约有25%的鼻病毒感染者
have no symptoms at all.
不会出现任何症状
And it’s not because these people have built up
但这并不是因为他们已经建立起了
immunity to those particular viruses.
针对这些病毒的免疫力
A 2003 study looked at healthy infants who visited the doctor
2003年的一项研究跟踪调查了去医院的健康婴儿
either for a routine checkup or for a respiratory infection.
他们是为了做常规检查或治疗呼吸道感染
They found that of the infants who seemed healthy
研究者发现 在那些看起来很健康
and were just there for a check-up,
且只是去医院做常规检查的婴儿中
20% of them showed evidence for a rhinovirus infection,
有20%有感染了鼻病毒的迹象
but no symptoms.
但却没有症状
And those babies hadn’t had much time to build up immunity,
而这些宝宝并没有足够的时间建立起应对感冒病毒
to colds, or anything at all, really.
或其他任何病毒的免疫系统
In people who do have cold symptoms,
那些有感冒症状的人
the severity of those symptoms often correlates with markers of inflammation.
其症状的严重程度通常与炎症标志物有关
These markers include cytokines:
炎症标志物包括细胞因子
molecules secreted by immune cells
即免疫细胞分泌的分子
that are involved in cell communication and interaction.
它们参与细胞间的信息交流和相互作用
A cytokine called IL-8 has been shown to
感染鼻病毒的患者体内
increase in people with viral inflammation of the nose.
一种叫IL-8的细胞因子数量增加
IL-8 is involved in recruiting white blood cells to infections.
IL-8召集白细胞对抗感染
This in turn heightens your inflammatory response,
这反而加重了你的炎症反应
resulting in pain and a stuffy, runny nose.
因此你会有疼痛感 还会鼻塞 流鼻涕
And a number of studies have shown that there are greater levels of IL-8
很多研究表明 感冒症状更严重的人
in people with more severe cold symptoms.
他们体内的IL-8水平更高
In one 1998 study,
1998年的一项研究中
volunteers were inoculated with a cold via virus-filled nose drops.
研究人员用含病毒的滴鼻液为志愿者注入感冒病毒
Whether or not they developed an infection was measured by flushing their noses
几天后 判断他们是否受到感染
with saline in the days after the inoculation,
要用盐水冲洗他们的鼻腔
then checking to see if that fluid
然后检测冲洗出的液体中
contained viruses that could infect other cells in a lab.
是否含有能感染实验室其他细胞的病毒
People who did get an infection either
受感染的人要么没有症状
showed no symptoms and no IL-8 increase,
IL-8水平也没有升高
or they felt sick and their levels of IL-8 went up.
要么有症状 并且IL-8水平升高
In other studies, severity of symptoms similarly didn’t seem to correspond with
在其他研究中 症状的严重程度
how many copies of the virus are present in your body.
似乎与体内现有的病毒数量并无关联
In fact, in a 1994 study,
实际上 在1994年的研究中
washing healthy subjects’ noses with IL-8 was enough
人们仅用含有IL-8的液体冲洗健康志愿者的鼻腔
to induce cold-like symptoms;
就使他们产生了感冒症状
no virus needed!
根本不需要病毒
This makes it seem like the bigger your immune response,
似乎你的免疫反应越强
the worse your symptoms will be.
症状就会越严重
Taken together,
综上所述
the evidence suggests that people with stronger or more reactive immune systems
各种证据表明 免疫系统越强或者越活跃的人
may actually experience worse cold symptoms.
感冒的症状可能更严重
So the next time you find yourself sniffling and sneezing,
所以 当你下次流鼻涕 打喷嚏
surrounded by tissues,
被纸巾包围的时候
blame your immune system.
就怪你的免疫系统吧
But don’t be too hard on it.
但别对免疫系统太苛刻
You probably want your body
你可能会希望你的身体
to respond to colds with a bit of zeal.
积极对感冒病毒作出反应
It’s a sign that your immune system will take invaders seriously,
因为这说明你的免疫系统会全力应对入侵病毒
and therefore, might just help protect you better against things
只有这样 你的免疫系统才能帮助你更好地抵御
way more dangerous than the common cold.
比普通感冒更危险的疾病
Thanks for asking,
感谢观众的提问
and thanks to our patrons for helping us bring you the answer.
也感谢赞助者们的支持使《科学秀》得以继续
If you want to help support SciShow
如果你想支持《科学秀》
and join our awesome community of patrons,
并且加入赞助我们的超赞团队
check out patreon.com/scishow.
请登录patreon.com/scishow

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视频概述

大家可能以为免疫力强的人不容易生病,但事实并不是这样的。本视频讲述了免疫力与疾病症状的关系。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZxjELttzgs

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