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医生直击关于过敏症的八大谣言

Doctors Debunk 8 Allergy Myths | Debunked

“Flowers trigger seasonal allergies.”
“花儿会引发季节性过敏”
That’s actually not true.
这其实不是真的
“If you have a hypoallergenic pet,
“如果你养了低致敏性宠物
you won’t have an allergic reaction.”
就不会有过敏反应”
Unfortunately, there is no such thing
很遗憾 根本就不存在
as a hypoallergenic pet.
所谓低致敏性宠物
“You can outgrow your seasonal allergies.”
“季节性过敏是可以摆脱掉的”
So, there’s no definite way
并没有确实的方法
that you can outgrow your seasonal allergies.
来摆脱季节性过敏
My name is Dr. Wei Wei Li.
我是李薇薇医生
I am a board-certified adult and pediatric
是一名成人与儿童过敏与免疫学方面的
allergy immunology specialist.
认证专科医师
My name is Dr. Payel Gupta,
我是Payel Gupta医生
and I am also an adult and pediatric
也是一名成人与儿科
triple-board-certified allergy,
过敏 哮喘和免疫
asthma, and immunology doctor.
三方面的认证医师
And today we’ll be debunking myths about allergies.
今天我们要直击一些关于过敏症的谣言
“If you didn’t have allergies as a kid,
“如果小时候没有过敏症
you won’t get them as an adult.”
长大以后也不会有”
So, that’s a myth.
这就是一个谣言
You can actually develop allergies
过敏症其实可以在我们生命中的
at any point in your life.
任何时候发生
Especially now, with people moving to different locations.
尤其是现代社会 人们四处搬家
The change in climate, location,
气候和地区的变化
or sometimes adopting a new pet
或者收养新的宠物
can increase your risk for developing allergies.
都会增加过敏症的发生风险
Right. So it’s any new exposure, essentially,
是的 就是说任何新的暴露
can cause your system to start reacting
本质上都有可能引起我们的人体系统
and develop an allergy.
进行反应并发生过敏
I’ve also had it the reverse.
我还遇到过相反的情况
I’ve also had people who have lived
一些儿时跟小猫小狗
with cats and dogs while they were children,
一起生活过的人
and then they decide to get a cat or a dog as an adult,
成年后决定自己养一只猫或狗
and they’re now allergic.
结果出现了过敏
And so your immune system is constantly changing,
所以说 我们的免疫系统是不断变化的
and so you can develop an allergy at any time.
在任何时候都有可能发生过敏
“You should only take allergy medication
“人只有在感觉到有症状时
once you feel symptoms.”
才应该吃过敏药”
So, that is a myth.
这是一个谣言
So, if you wait until your symptoms
如果等症状发展到
get super intense and super severe,
很剧烈而且严重的地步
then it’ll be that much harder
要再想控制它们
to get those symptoms under control.
就会变得困难得多
So it’s a good idea to start early.
所以还是应该提早介入才对
Like, if you have pollen allergy in the spring,
比如 对于春季花粉过敏的患者
I usually say have the patient start pre-medicating
我一般会建议他们在进入春季之前
with antihistamine, nasal spray, or eyedrops
就开始使用抗组胺药 鼻腔喷雾 或眼药水
before the season starts.
来进行预防性治疗
I usually recommend as soon as they start seeing
我一般建议他们 尤其是严重的季节性过敏患者
even a little bit of the pollen that they’re allergic to,
一旦见到哪怕一丁点会引起他们过敏的花粉
especially severe seasonal-allergy sufferers,
就提早甚至两周的时间
we have them take them even two weeks in advance,
开始使用这些药物
just so they get used to taking them.
以便他们适应用药
The timing sometime can change from year to year,
随着气候的变化 这个用药的时机
depending on the weather.
每年也会发生变化
So you can use the timing from last year
人们可以参考去年的时机
to make approximate guess
大致估算一下
to when you can start pre-medication.
什么时候开始使用预防性药物
Tree allergies are mostly a springtime allergen,
树木过敏症的过敏源主要是在春季
grass allergies are for summer,
青草过敏症在夏季
and weed allergies are in the fall.
枯草过敏症则在秋季
So for people who have tree, grass, and weed,
所以对于患有树木 青草 和枯草过敏症的人
normally it would’ve been maybe from, like,
通常情况下 他们大约从4月开始
April until September that they might have had symptoms.
就可能出现了症状 一直持续到9月
-But now we’re seeing even as early as February. -Precisely.
-但现今我们能见到早在2月份就出现的 -的确是
So February, and then the weed allergen
所以早在2月 枯草过敏源
kind of ending as late as October, November.
会持续存在直至10月 11月
And patients ask us, “Is it safe
于是患者会向我们咨询
to take the medication every day?”
“每天都用药是否安全?”
I would say if you take the medication
那我的答案是 如果你遵循我们的建议
according to how we recommend it,
进行用药的话
it is safe and effective.
就是安全且有效的
And it’s important to know that
而且很重要的一点是
when you take your medication, such as a combination
比起仅在出现症状时才偶尔地用药
of oral antihistamine and nasal spray together,
每日的口服抗组胺药
every day, it achieve a better efficacy
与鼻腔喷雾联合用药
than taking it sporadically only when you have symptoms.
能够达到更好的疗效
“Flowers trigger seasonal allergies.”
“花儿会引起季节性过敏”
That’s actually not true.
这实际上不对
Pollens from flowering plants
开花植物的花粉
are not the main contributor to seasonal-allergy symptoms.
并不是诱发季节性过敏症状的主要因素
In order for pollen to cause allergic symptoms,
花粉要想引发过敏症状
they need to meet three criteria.
需要满足三个要素
They need to be small,
它们必需足够小
they need to be light,
足够轻 而且干燥
and they need to be dry to be carried by wind.
这样才能够被风带到各处
So the pollen in flowers is actually large,
而实际上花粉是很大的
and it’s distributed by insects.
是由昆虫传播的
And so that pollen is not in the air,
所以说花粉不会停留在空气中
which means that it doesn’t get into our eyes and nose.
自然也就不会跑到我们的眼睛和鼻子里
However, for tree pollen, weed pollen, and grass pollen,
然而因为树木 枯草和青草的花粉
because it’s light
质量很轻
and because it travels in the air more easily,
更容易飞散在空气中
then it can get into our eyes
所以就更容易进入我们的
and nose and airways more easily.
眼睛 鼻子和呼吸道
And because it travels at least around 50 miles,
而且由于它们至少可以飞50英里远
that means it might not be a tree in your backyard,
那就意味着 你可能是对一棵离你很远的树
it might be a tree somewhere far away
而不是种在你家后院的
that you’re reacting to.
某一棵树过敏
But I do hear that.
不过我确实听说
Every year a patient come in saying that,
每年都会有患者就诊时说到
“This is the worst allergy symptom
“比起之前的那些 这次的症状
that I have compared to the past.”
是有史以来最严重的”
So I think that has to do with a number of factors,
那我认为这与许多因素相关
such as climate change,
比如气候的变化
and also planting particular type of tree
以及在某些地区种植特定种类的树
in certain location can increase the symptoms.
都会加重这些症状
“Eating local honey can help cure seasonal allergies.”
“吃本土产的蜂蜜对治疗季节性过敏症有帮助”
That is a myth because local honey
这是个谣言 因为本土产的蜂蜜
contains pollen collected by bees.
富含蜜蜂采集到的花粉
So those come from flowering plants.
它们取自于开花植物
We mentioned before, pollen from flowering plants
之前我们提到了 开花植物的花粉
are not major contributor to seasonal allergies.
并不是诱发季节性过敏症的主要因素
And also we don’t have a lot of studies done
而且也没有足够多的研究结果
on the effectiveness of local honey.
表明本土产蜂蜜的功效
So we cannot know for sure how effective they are
因此 并不能确定它在
in treating or helping to cure
治疗或协助治疗
your seasonal-allergy symptoms.
季节性过敏症状中的效果
But I love honey because I use that
不过我很喜欢蜂蜜
to help with allergy symptoms
我会用它来帮助缓解像瘙痒
such as itchy, scratchy throat.
喉咙干痒这些过敏症状
So I have no problem recommending using honey
所以我不反对用蜂蜜来舒缓嗓子
as a way to soothe your throat, your symptoms.
缓解症状的建议
But I would not say it can cure seasonal allergies.
但也不赞同它可以治疗季节性过敏症
She nailed it.
她说的太好了
Hopefully I can do that every time.
希望我每次都能这样
“If you have a hypoallergenic pet,
“如果你养了低致敏性宠物
you won’t have an allergic reaction.”
就不会有过敏反应”
So, that’s a myth.
这是一个谣言
So, unfortunately, there is no such thing
很遗憾 并不存在所谓的
as a hypoallergenic pet.
低致敏性宠物
A lot of breeders will claim to have hypoallergenic pets,
许多猫狗贩子声称有低致敏性宠物
but unfortunately there is no
但很不幸 并不存在
100% animal without any dander.
百分之百没有皮屑的动物
The pet dander is
宠物的皮屑是
the microscopic flecks of skin that the pet shed.
它们身上脱落的细小的皮肤碎片
So the same protein can be also found in their saliva.
其中的蛋白与它们唾液中含有的蛋白一致
So it’s not the fur,
所以说 致敏的
but rather the shedding of the skin, with their saliva.
不是它们的毛 而是带有它们唾液的皮屑
It’s important to know that even hairless dog can shed,
很重要的一点是 即使是无毛犬也会脱皮
and that will contain some degree of allergens.
其中也可能含有一定程度的致敏源
And so there might be certain breeds
可能存在一些 人们对其过敏
that people are less allergic to,
程度较低的品种
and that’s all person-dependent.
这完全是因人而异的
So, for example, I have a cat allergy,
比如 我对猫过敏
but there’s certain cats that I do totally fine around,
但在有些猫身边完全没问题
and then there’s other cats that
而对于另一些猫
as soon as I walk into someone’s home
只要我走进养了它们的人家里
and they have that cat, I’ll start reacting.
就会立刻开始出现反应
And so it is not just by touching
不需要通过接触
or rubbing your face against the cat.
或者拿脸去蹭它们
The dander is airborne,
皮屑是存在于空气中的
so that can get into your eyes and nose
会进入我们的眼睛 鼻腔
and into your airways
和呼吸道
and start causing that IgE antibody to react
然后引起IgE抗体反应
and produce that histamine, which causes the symptoms.
释放引起过敏症状的组胺
Frequent vacuuming is super important.
经常使用吸尘器非常重要
Also air purifiers.
还有空气净化器
And so for somebody that really wants a pet,
对于实在想养宠物的人
or, you know, usually it happens the other way around,
或者说 一般都是另一种情况
is that they’ve already gotten a pet
就是他们已经养了宠物
and they’re not willing to get rid of it.
但不愿意弃养
For those patients, then we usually do attempt
对于这些患者 我们通常会尝试
to do allergy immunotherapy
进行过敏免疫治疗
and see how well we can control their allergy symptoms.
然后看看能把过敏症状控制到什么程度
-We don’t have a test to test
我们没有针对某个
-for particular breeds. -We wish we had.
-特定品种的检测 -我们也希望有啊
Yeah, we wish we did, because if we did
对 我们也希望有这种检测
we would have a huge, long line out the door
如果有的话 门外定会大排长龙
of people wanting to get tested for particular breeds
全是想要检测他们家能不能
that they might be able to have in their home.
养某个特定品种宠物的人
“Allergy shots don’t work.”
“过敏针没用”
So, allergy shots are immunotherapy,
过敏针是一种免疫疗法
and allergy shots actually have a lot of data behind them,
实际上 它有众多数据支持
and they’ve been used for years and years.
已经临床应用很多年了
And we know that they do reduce the,
已知它不仅可以
not only the symptoms that people experience,
有效缓解人们的症状
but also the medications that people are on.
还可以降低所服的药量
And then there’s also the
还有一种
allergy sublingual immunotherapy tablets
FDA认证的 舌下含服的
that are FDA approved.
免疫治疗片剂
So there’s two different options,
所以说 是有两种选择的
and I just always like to mention that,
我总喜欢跟人说起这个
because some people are scared of shots.
因为有些人害怕打针
I think there is this myth,
我觉得这则谣言之所以存在
because people will misunderstand
是因为人们会误以为
allergy shots as medication.
过敏针是一种药物治疗
Allergy shots are not medications.
过敏针不是药物治疗
They don’t provide immediate symptomatic relief.
它的作用不在于即刻缓解症状
But see them as a way
应该把它视为一种
to naturally desensitize your allergens
使致敏源自然脱敏
and to naturally develop tolerance.
同时自然建立耐受的方法
You will still have to take your allergy medication,
在开始打过敏针初期 依然需要
such as antihistamine or nasal spray,
使用像抗组胺药 鼻腔喷等
at the beginning of allergy shots
过敏药来协助控制
to help you manage your allergy symptoms.
过敏的症状
But over the long term, allergy shots do work
但长远来看 过敏针确实可以达到
to achieve that natural tolerance.
建立自然耐受的效果
“You can outgrow your seasonal allergies.”
“季节性过敏是可以摆脱掉的”
That is not true,
这不是真的
because with your immune system changing,
因为随着人免疫系统的变化
sometimes your symptom can get better or worse over time.
症状也会时而轻时而重
So there’s no definite way
所以并没有确实的方法
that you can outgrow your seasonal allergies.
可以彻底摆脱季节性过敏
Sometimes people might have moved
有时候人们从西海岸
from the West Coast to the East Coast,
搬到东海岸
and all of a sudden they don’t have
之前存在的季节性过敏症状
those seasonal symptoms that they used to.
突然之间就消失了
So they might say that,
于是他们可能就会说
“Oh, I outgrew my seasonal allergies,”
“哇 我摆脱季节性过敏了”
but it’s really that they moved
但事实是他们搬家后
and that they’re not exposed to the same pollens
不再暴露于曾经接触到的
that they were when they were younger.
那些花粉之中
The most frequent symptoms that we see
最常见的症状
are symptoms of the eyes.
是眼部症状
For example, itchy, watery eyes.
比如瘙痒 流泪
The nose can get congested.
鼻子可能出现
You can have a runny nose, itchy nose.
鼻塞 流鼻涕 瘙痒
You can have a sore throat from postnasal drip.
可能出现鼻涕倒流导致的咽喉肿痛
And you can also have coughing, wheezing,
如果患有过敏性哮喘
shortness of breath if you have allergic asthma.
还可能出现咳嗽 气喘 呼吸急促
Currently the closest cure we have for seasonal allergies
目前我们对于季节性过敏最完善的
is called allergy immunotherapy.
治疗方法 称为过敏免疫疗法
I think the important thing to remember with immunotherapy
我认为关于免疫疗法 人们需要谨记的
is that you have to be ready and committed for it.
重要事项是 要做好准备并下定决心
For allergy shots, you will need to go
关于过敏针 最开始的
into the allergist’s office weekly
六到九个月 需要每周
for six to nine months,
到过敏症专科医师那里一次
and then it goes to monthly.
随后改为每月一次
And we would say that you should continue your therapy
然后我们建议应持续治疗至少
for at least three to five years for it to be effective.
三至五年以保证疗效
And then for the sublingual immunotherapy tablets,
关于舌下免疫治疗片剂
it depends on which tablet you’re going to start.
要看你将开始服用哪一种
For dust mite immunotherapy tablets, for example,
比如针对尘螨的免疫治疗片剂
you have to take it daily.
需要每日服药一次
And we would also recommend that you take them daily
我们同样建议保持每日一次服药
for at least three to five years
至少三到五年
in order to get the full benefit from them.
以保证药效全部发挥出来
“You can cure your allergies.”
“过敏症可以治好”
So, we can’t cure environmental
目前我们还不能治愈
or food allergies at this time.
环境或食物过敏症
We’ve come pretty close to environmental allergies,
我们已经非常接近攻克环境过敏症了
but the reason is, is that we haven’t figured out
但难题在于 还没能想出彻底
how to definitively change the immune system’s reaction
改变免疫系统对环境
to environmental allergens or to food allergens.
或食物致敏源反应的方法
Our environment doesn’t stay the same all the time.
我们的环境不是一成不变的
So with new exposure in our environment,
对于暴露于新环境中
our immune system is constantly adapting
新出现的诱发因素
to the new triggers in the environment.
我们的免疫系统是在不断适应的
So we can develop new allergies
所以说 即使我们“治好了”
even if we “cure” the old allergies.
旧的过敏症 也可能会出现新的
That’s why I don’t like to use the word “cure,”
这就是为什么我不喜欢用“治愈”这个词
because you can always develop new allergy symptoms
因为经过免疫治疗后 人们总是会
after going through immunotherapy.
出现新的过敏症状
So, once we have the allergy test results,
我们一旦得到过敏检测结果
we always want to see, what are your exposures?
会先看你的暴露源是什么?
And knowledge is power.
知识就是力量
So once you know what your triggers are,
只要清楚了诱发因素
there’s a lot of things you can do
那么除了用药之外
besides taking medications.
还有很多手段可用
There are behavioral modifications,
我们会一直为患者
we always provide to our patient education.
提供行为矫正指导
What to do when you are allergic to a certain pollen,
对某种花粉过敏时该做什么
what to do during pollen season,
在花粉季时该做什么
or what to do with pet dander, dust mite.
或者如何处理宠物皮屑 尘螨
We can help you to manage your allergies.
我们可以帮助大家控制过敏症

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视频概述

养低致敏性宠物?蜂蜜治过敏?看两位过敏与免疫学认证专科医师,如何批驳关于过敏症的八大谣言

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翻译译者

Clapidogrel

审核员

审核员PX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VlEF5KwxJ3U

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