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耳朵和鼻子是一直在变大的吗? – 译学馆
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耳朵和鼻子是一直在变大的吗?

Do Your Ears And Nose Really Continue To Grow As You Age

人们在度过人生的黄金年代后
Anyone retiring from the coal-mines of life,
可能会注意到自己逐渐变丑
might have noticed an ever growing defacement.
他们的鼻子和耳朵似乎变大了
Their noses and ears appear to be bigger.
但这种变化是真的吗简单地说 是的
But, are they really? Well, short answer, yes
但也许不是因为你所以为的原因
But probably not for the reason you’ll think
要理解为什么我们面部凸起的鼻子耳朵让我们
To understand why our facial protrusions begin to make us
看起来像被发现说谎的匹诺曹一样
look like Pinocchio caught red-handed,
我们要深入了解一下软骨究竟是什么它是如何生长的
let’s break apart what cartilage actually is, how it grows,
以及为何它会持续松弛
and why it sags over time.
软骨是一种结缔组织 它有三种形式:透明软骨 弹性软骨和纤维软骨
Cartilage is connective tissue coming in threeforms: Hyaline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage.
软骨组织的三种主要成分是:软骨细胞 弹性纤维
The three main components of all cartilagetypes are: cells called chondrocytes, elastin fibers,
和细胞间基质
and an intercellular matrix material.
这三种软骨之间的差异在于它们的
The difference between the three types lies in the kinds
基质中的蛋白纤维类型
of protein fiber and their amounts
和数量不同
embedded within the matrix.
透明软骨(又名关节软骨)含有大分子蛋白质 例如胶原蛋白
Hyaline cartilage (also called articular)contains large protein molecules, like collagen,
组成它的基质成分
making up its matrix.
基质是透明软骨内的主要成分
This matrix is the predominant material withinhyaline cartilage.
这是全身最常见的一种
It’s the most common throughout the body,
见于关节 和肋骨的边缘
found in your joints and on the edge of your ribs.
这也是决定你嗅觉器官形状的物质
This is also the type responsible for the shape of your sizable sniffer.
弹性软骨和透明基质含有大量相同的基质成分
Elastic cartilage has large amounts of the same matrix material
但其主要成分
as hyaline, but its main
是弹性纤维 使得这两个器官具有更大的灵活性
component is elastic fibers that give it moreflexibility.
这种软骨则是导致耳朵变形的罪魁祸首
This type of cartilage is responsible foryour ears.
它也存在于
It’s also found
会厌(阻止食物和饮料 进入肺部的器官)
in your epiglottis ( the flap that keeps your food and drink from going down your lungs ),
在你耳朵和口腔之间有一管状物被称为咽鼓管
and in the tubes between your ears and mouth, called Eustachian tubes.
纤维软骨 顾名思义 它的主要成分是纤维
spine1Fibrocartilage is exactly what the nameimplies, mostly fibers.
与透明软骨的规则结构不同
Unlike hyaline cartilage’s uniform structure,
这种软骨之中的纤维
the fibers in this type of cartilage are more
具有更开放的海绵状结构
open and have a spongy-like architecture.
这使它们具有很好的减震效果
This makes them perfect for shock absorption.
因此 你可以在椎间盘
As such, you can find them between your vertebrae,
以及膝盖 肩膀 和下颌骨等处发现它们
and in the joints of your knee, shoulders, and mandible.
所有类型的软骨都以两种方式之一生长
All types of cartilage grow in one of two ways; interstitial,
间质生长或外加生长
and appositional.
间质生长源于
Interstitial growth happens when cartilage is formed
软骨基质内的软骨细胞形成新软骨
by chondrocytes within the cartilage,
分泌额外的基质
forming additional matrix.
而在软骨表面沉积新软骨即为外加生长
Appositional growth happens by adding newcartilage on the surface.
这是由 软骨周围的一层致密结缔组织内的软骨细胞形成的
This is formed from chondrocytes in a dense layer of connective tissue surrounding the cartilage,
称为软骨膜
called the perichondrium.
问题就变成了:
The question then becomes:
是否是间质生长和外加生长导致了
does this interstitial and appositional growth, cause the mass of
软骨形态和大小的增龄性变化
our cartilage, and its size, to increase aswe age?
结果是鼻子和耳朵变大了
The result being bigger noses and bigger ears
至于问题的答案 则是不
And the answer to that question is, well, no
鼻子变大的真正原因是重力
the actual cause of our seemingly-swelling snout is gravity.
在我们变老的过程中
When we ages
构成软骨的胶原蛋白和弹性蛋白纤维被破坏
the collagen and elastin fibers that make up cartilage begin to break down.
这使得它们伸展和下垂 看起来更长了
This causes them to stretch and sag, makingthem appear longer.
而对软骨起结构支持作用的皮肤
Our skin giving structural support to
也包含着胶原蛋白和弹性蛋白纤维
cartilage also contains collagen and elastin fibers
它们也会随着时间推移而下垂
that droop over time.
这就导致了器官变长的问题
This compounds the lengthening problem.
然而胶原和纤维蛋白下垂并不是
Drooping isn’t the only cause to the appearance
使鼻子耳朵显得更大的唯一原因
of larger ears and noses.
面部的周围区域
The surrounding areas of the face,
比如你的脸颊和嘴唇 体积一直在变小
like your cheeks and lips, lose volume over time.
结果就是它们周围的器官显得更大了
The result is the appearance of larger organs next to them.
这些延伸和下垂让我们的耳朵和鼻子变长
All of this drooping and stretching does cause our ears and noses to lengthen.
例如有研究表明 耳朵每年可伸长0.22毫米
For example: Studies have shown that ears elongate by 0.22 millimeters every year.
这种随着年龄变长的比例是非常确切的
This drooping is so exact that it can actually
它甚至可以被法医学家用来确定
be used by forensic scientists to determine
一个人的近似年龄
the approximate age of a person.

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视频概述

揭示鼻子和耳朵随年纪增长而变大的原因

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