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爱因斯坦和他的广义相对论

Do you really understand Einstein’s theory of relativity? - BBC News

Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity completely changed the notion of the Universe.
爱因斯坦的广义相对论完全改变了宇宙的概念
It shed light on the birth of the universe,
它阐明了宇宙的诞生
planetary orbits and black holes.
行星轨道和黑洞
It also has very practical uses, like in GPS navigation.
也有些理论应用到了实际中 如在GPS导航中
But what exactly is this theory and why was it so revolutionary?
但是广义相对论到底是什么 为什么产生了如此大的变革
Until the early 20th Century,
截止到20世纪早期
physics was mostly explained in terms of Isaac Newton’s laws.
物理学大部分内容都是通过牛顿定律来解释的
For Newton, gravity was a force generated
牛顿认为 重力是因为物体的质量
by the mass of an object causing them to attract each other,
导致两个物体相互吸引产生的
heavier objects pulling others more intensely.
越重的物体对别的物体的吸引力越大
This is why we stand on the ground on Earth,
这就是我们为什么能站在地球上
said Newton… it attracts us to its centre.
牛顿认为 地球把我们吸引在它的重心
And it’s why planets move around the Sun.
这也解释了为什么行星围绕太阳旋转
But imagine if the Sun disappeared completely.
但是 如果太阳完全消失了呢
According to Newton’s theory,
根据牛顿定律
the planets of the Solar System would instantly
太阳系的行星马上就会
abandon their orbits,
脱离轨道
as there would be no gravity attracting them to the Sun.
因为吸引他们在太阳轨道上运转的重力消失了
For Newton, gravity is a force with immediate action
牛顿认为 重力是一种直接作用的力
regardless of the distance between the bodies.
与物体之间的距离无关
But according to Einstein’s calculations,
但是根据爱因斯坦的推算
light was the fastest thing in the Universe.
光速在整个宇宙中是最快的
Nothing could travel faster than light, not
没有东西的速度可以超过光速
even gravity. Light takes about eight minutes to cover the
重力也不行 从太阳到地球有1.5亿公里
nearly 150 million kilometres that separate the Sun from the Earth. So,
光穿过需要八分钟 所以
if the Sun disappeared,
如果太阳消失
how could the Earth go off its orbit before us Earthlings
在我们看不到太阳光之前
stopped seeing sunlight?
地球怎么会脱离轨道呢
Problems like that suggested to Einstein
从这些问题中 爱因斯坦认为
that gravity could have a different explanation
重力不是牛顿认为的那样
than Newton thought.
重力应该重新被定义
Between 1905 and 1915, Einstein developed
在1905到1915年间 爱因斯坦提出来
the theory of general relativity.
广义相对论
He imagined the three dimensions of space
他提出来三维空间
and the dimension of time together
以及时间维度
as a kind of fabric surrounding us, shaped
这是一种围绕着我们的结构
by the presence of celestial bodies. He called it space-time.
由天体构成 爱因斯坦称之为 时空
Imagine the Sun as a heavy bowling ball placed
把太阳想象成蹦床中间的
in the middle of a trampoline.
一个沉重的保龄球
The ball makes the surface of the trampoline dip, right?
是不是球会使蹦床的表面下凹
This curvature is what we feel as gravity.
这个 下凹面 就是我们感受到的重力
So for Einstein, the Earth and the other planets
所以 爱因斯坦认为 地球或者其他星球
remain in orbit not because the Sun attracts them
在轨道内运行不是由于太阳的引力
but because the Sun is such
而是由于太阳是一颗类似于保龄球的
a massive star that other celestial bodies
巨大的恒星
follow the curve it generates in the space-time fabric.
行星跟随的是它在时空中生成的曲下凹面
Now gravity is no longer considered a force of attraction
而重力也不再是牛顿认为的那样
between two bodies, as Newton thought.
是两个物体之间的一种引力
It is an effect of the space-time curvature
而是一种时空曲率对物体作用的效果
on bodies. So according to Einstein, what would happen
所以 如果太阳消失将会发生什么呢
if the Sun disappeared? His theory says this disturbance in space-time
爱因斯坦的理论认为 时空中的这种扰动
would form a gravitational wave that
会形成一种引力波
would travel to the planets at exactly
这种引力波以光速精确地
the speed of light.
传播到行星上
That means we would see the Sun go dark at
这意味着我们可以在地球改变轨道的同时
the same time as the Earth changes its orbit.
看到太阳失去光芒
In other words, what Einstein demonstrated is that until then
也就是说 爱因斯坦所论证的是 在那之前
we had been seeing the Universe in the wrong way.
我们对宇宙的认知方式是错误的
The general relativity theory turned Einstein into a world celebrity.
广义相对论使爱因斯坦闻名世界
Because of him, science (and our imagination) could fly higher and higher.
因为他 科学(和我们的想象力)可以越来越开阔
General relativity not only surprises scientists it fascinates us all.
广义相对论不仅让科学家们感到惊奇 而且使我们所有人都着迷

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视频概述

广义相对论到底什么呢,和牛顿的重力定律区别在哪呢?爱因斯坦提出该理论的切入点是什么呢?本视频给出了简明扼要的介绍。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B6kreUskcpo

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