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你真的知道你行为背后的原因吗 – 译学馆
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你真的知道你行为背后的原因吗

Do you really know why you do what you do? | Petter Johansson

所以为什么你认为富人应该交更多税
So why do you think the rich should pay more in taxes?
为什么你买了最新的iPhone
Why did you buy the latest iPhone?
为什么你选择了现在的伴侣
Why did you pick your current partner?
还有为什么很多人给唐纳德特朗普投票
And why did so many peoplevote for Donald Trump?
原因是什么 为什么这样做
What were the reasons, why did they do it?
我们总是在问这些问题
So we ask this kindof question all the time,
并且我们想要一个答案
and we expect to get an answer.
有人问我们这些问题的时候 我们希望自己知道答案
And when being asked,we expect ourselves to know the answer,
告诉他们自己为何这样做
to simply tell why we did as we did.
但是我们真的知道为什么吗
But do we really know why?
所以当你说
So when you say
比起汤姆汉克斯 你更喜欢乔治克鲁尼
that you prefer George Clooney to Tom Hanks,
因为他更关心环境
due to his concern for the environment,
这是真的吗
is that really true?
所以你可以非常确信
So you can be perfectly sincereand genuinely believe
这就是你做出选择的原因
that this is the reasonthat drives your choice,
但是对我而言 还是感觉缺少一点什么
but to me, it may still feellike something is missing.
由于主观的性质
As it stands, due tothe nature of subjectivity,
其实很难证明人们对于自己的了解是错的
it is actually very hard to ever prove that people are wrong about themselves.
我是一名实验心理学家
So I’m an experimental psychologist,
这就是我们在实验中需要解决的问题
and this is the problem we’ve been trying to solve in our lab.
所以我们想设计一个实验
So we wanted to create an experiment
来挑战人们对于自己的认知
that would allow us to challengewhat people say about themselves,
不管他们看上去有多确定
regardless of how certain they may seem.
但是骗过人的大脑很困难
But tricking peopleabout their own mind is hard.
所以我们请教了专业人士
So we turned to the professionals.
魔术师们
The magicians.
他们是创造可以自由选择的错觉的专家
So they’re experts at creatingthe illusion of a free choice.
当他们说 选一张牌 任何一张 的时候
So when they say,”Pick a card, any card,”
你只需要知道你的选择已经不再自由了
the only thing you know is that your choice is no longer free.
我们组织了几次很棒的头脑风暴会议
So we had a few fantasticbrainstorming sessions
和一些瑞典魔术师 他们帮助我们创造了一个方法
with a group of Swedish magicians, and they helped us create a method
这样我们就可以控制人们选择的结果
in which we would be able to manipulate the outcome of people’s choices.
这样我们就可以知道人们对自己的认知出了错
This way we would knowwhen people are wrong about themselves,
即使他们自己不知情
even if they don’t know this themselves.
我会给大家看一个关于这种控制的短视频
So I will now show you a short movie showing this manipulation.
这很简单
So it’s quite simple.
参与者做出一个选择
The participants make a choice,
最终给他们的是另一个
but I end up giving them the opposite.
我们想知道的是
And then we want to see:
他们会怎么表现 还有他们会说什么
How did they react, and what did they say?
非常简单
So it’s quite simple,
看看你能不能发现这个魔术
but see if you can spot the magic going on.
这是真实的参与者
And this was shot with real participants,
他们不知道会发生什么
they don’t know what’s going on.
(视频)皮特 乔纳森:你好我叫皮特
(Video) Petter Johansson:Hi, my name’s Petter. Woman:
女人:你好 我是蓓卡
Hi, I’m Becka. PJ:
皮特:我会给你看像这种照片
I’m going to show youpictures like this.
你来决定哪张看上去更吸引你
And you’ll have to decidewhich one you find more attractive. Becka:
蓓卡:好的
OK. PJ:
皮特:有些时候
And then sometimes,
我会问你为什么你更喜欢这张脸
I will ask you why you prefer that face. Becka:
蓓卡:好的
OK. PJ:
皮特:准备好了吗蓓卡:好了
Ready?Becka: Yeah. PJ:
皮特:为什么你更喜欢这张
Why did you prefer that one? Becka:
蓓卡:笑容 大概
The smile, I think. PJ:
皮特:笑容
Smile. Man:
男人:还是左边那张
One on the left. Again,
这张只是很有冲击力
this one just struck me.
拍的很有趣
Interesting shot.
由于我是个摄影师
Since I’m a photographer,
我喜欢这张的光亮和样子
I like the way it’s lit and looks.
皮特:但是现在是魔术的部分
Petter Johansson: But now comes the trick.
(视频)女人1:这张
(Video) Woman 1: This one. PJ:
皮特:所以他们拿到的是另一张
So they get the oppositeof their choice.
来看看会发生什么
And let’s see what happens.
女人2:额
Woman 2: Um…
我觉得他看上去比另一个人更无辜
I think he seems a little more innocent than the other guy. Man:
男人:左边那张
The one on the left.
我喜欢她的笑容还有鼻子和脸部的轮廓
I like her smileand contour of the nose and face.
对我来说更有趣 还有她的发型
So it’s a little more interestingto me, and her haircut.
女人3:这张
Woman 3: This one.
我更喜欢傻笑的样子
I like the smirky look better. PJ:
皮特:你喜欢傻笑的样子吗
You like the smirky look better?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
女人3:这张
Woman 3: This one. PJ:
皮特:你为什么选他
What made you choose him?
女人3:我不知道
Woman 3: I don’t know,
他看上去有点像霍比特人
he looks a little bit like the Hobbit.
(笑声)
(Laughter) PJ:
皮特:最后发生了什么
And what happens in the end
当我告诉他们这个实验真正的本质
when I tell them the true natureof the experiment? Yeah,
是的 就是这样 我只需要再问几个问题
that’s it. I just have toask a few questions. Man:
男人:当然
Sure. PJ:
皮特:你觉得这个实验怎么样
What did you think of this experiment,
简单还是困难
was it easy or hard? Man:
男人:这很简单
It was easy. PJ:
皮特:在实验过程中
During the experiments,
我事实上换了三次图片
I actually switchedthe pictures three times.
你察觉到了吗
Was this anything you noticed? Man:
男人:没有 我一点没发现
No. I didn’t notice any of that. PJ:
皮特:一点没有吗男人:没有
Not at all?Man: No.
换图片的意思是
Switching the pictures as far as… PJ:
皮特:是的 你指了一张图片
Yeah, you were pointing at one
但是我给了你另一张
of them but I actually gave you the opposite. Man:
男人:另一张 好吧
The opposite one. OK,
当你 没有
when you — No.
这就告诉你了我的注意力范围有多少了
Shows you how muchmy attention span was.
(笑声)
(Laughter) PJ:
皮特:你在实验过程中察觉
Did you notice that sometimesduring the experiment
我换过图片吗
I switched the pictures?
女人2:没有 我没发现
Woman 2: No, I did not notice that. PJ:
皮特:你指了一个
You were pointing at one,
但是我给了你另一个
but then I gave you the other one.
完全没注意吗
No inclination of that happening?
女人2:没有
Woman 2: No.
女人2:我没发现
Woman 2: I did not notice.
(笑声)
(Laughs) PJ:
皮特:谢谢
Thank you.
女人2:谢谢你
Woman 2: Thank you. PJ:
皮特:好的 所以你们现在大概发现了
OK, so as you probablyfigured out now,
这个魔术就是我每只手中有两张卡
the trick is that I havetwo cards in each hand,
当我把其中一张递过去的时候
and when I hand one of them over,
黑色的背面和桌上的垫子融为一体了
the black one kind of disappears into the black surface on the table.
这样用照片的话
So using pictures like this,
通常不超过百分之二十的参与者能发现这些
normally not more than 20 percent of the participants detect these tries.
就像你们在视频中看到的
And as you saw in the movie,
我们在最后解释的时候
when in the end we explain what’s going on,
他们非常惊讶也不愿意相信这是魔术
they’re very surprised and often refuse to believe the trick has been made.
这表明这个结论是很真实很直接的
So this shows that this effect is quite robust and a genuine effect.
但是如果你像我一样对自我认知很感兴趣
But if you’re interestedin self-knowledge, as I am,
更有趣的一点是
the more interesting bit is, OK,
他们对自己的选择作出的解释是什么
so what did they say when they explained these choices?
我们做了很多分析
So we’ve done a lot of analysis
关于这个实验中的语音报告
of the verbal reports in these experiments.
这个图标简单的表示了
And this graph simply shows
如果你对比受控制实验中人们的话
that if you comparewhat they say in a manipulated trial
和不受控制的实验中他们的话
with a nonmanipulated trial,
这时他们要解释自己做出的一个普通选择
that is when they explain a normal choice they’ve made
当我们控制了结果
and one where we manipulated the outcome,
我们发现他们的解释非常相似
we find that they are remarkably similar.
所以他们一样有感情 一样具体
So they are just as emotional,just as specific,
并且展现了一样程度的确定感
and they are expressedwith the same level of certainty.
所以关于这点的强有力的结果
So the strong conclusion to draw from this
表明如果真正的实验
is that if there are no differences
和被控制的实验没区别
between a real choiceand a manipulated choice,
或许我们总在编造事情
perhaps we make things up all the time.
但我们也做了些研究
But we’ve also done studies
关于我们尝试将他们的话和图片联系起来
where we try to match what they say with the actual faces.
我们发现了如下的事情
And then we find things like this.
这里 这位男士参与者
So here, this male participant,
他更喜欢左边的女生
he preferred the girl to the left,
然后他拿到了右边的图片
he ended up with the one to the right.
然后 他对他的选择作出了解释
And then, he explainedhis choice like this.
她荣光四射
“She is radiant.
我更愿意在酒吧中接近她而不是另一个
I would rather have approached her at the bar than the other one.
并且我喜欢耳环
And I like earrings.”
不管他为什么一开始选择了
And whatever made him choose the girl
左边的女孩
on the left to begin with,
不可能是因为耳环
it can’t have been the earrings,
因为耳环实际上戴在右边女孩的耳朵上
because they were actually sitting on the girl on the right.
这就是个事后建设的清晰例子
So this is a clear exampleof a post hoc construction.
他们在事后才想出原因
So they just explainedthe choice afterwards.
这个研究表明
So what this experiment shows is, OK,
如果我们没意识到
so if we fail to detect
我们的选择被改变了
that our choices have been changed,
我们会立刻向另一个方向作出解释
we will immediately startto explain them in another way.
我们还发现
And what we also found is
参与者通常变换喜好
that the participants often come to prefer the alternative,
当我让他们相信自己喜欢
that they were led to believe they liked.
所以如果我们让他们再做一次选择
So if we let them do the choice again,
他们会选择之前没选的那一个
they will now choose the facethey had previously rejected.
这个效应我们称作选择失明
So this is the effectwe call”choice blindness.”
我们还做过许多研究
And we’ve donea number of different studies —
我们做过消费者选择
we’ve tried consumer choices,
基于味觉和嗅觉的选择 甚至推理问题
choices based on taste and smelland even reasoning problems.
但是当然你们也会想知道
But what you all want to know is of course
这种效应也会延伸到更复杂更有意义的选择上吗
does this extend alsoto more complex, more meaningful choices?
像是道德和政治问题
Like those concerningmoral and political issues.
下一个实验需要一点背景
So the next experiment, it needs a little bit of a background.
在瑞典 政治地图
So in Sweden, the political landscape
被左翼和右翼分割
is dominated by a left-wingand a right-wing coalition.
投票者可能会
And the voters may move a little bit
在联合内的党派中移动
between the parties within each coalition,
但是很少会在两个联合之间移动
but there is very little movementbetween the coalitions.
在每次选举前 报纸和民意调查机构
And before each elections, the newspapers and the polling institutes
会放出选举指南针
put together what they call”an election compass”
由一些起区分作用的问题构成
which consists of a numberof dividing issues
这样可以分开两个联合
that sort of separates the two coalitions.
像是汽油税应不应该提升
Things like if tax on gasolineshould be increased
或者13个月的带薪育婴假
or if the 13 months of paid parental leave
是否应该平分给两个家长
should be split equallybetween the two parents
来增加两性关系平等
in order to increase gender equality. So,
所以 在瑞典上次选举前
before the last Swedish election,
我们创造了自己的选举指南针
we created an election compass of our own.
我们在街上找人
So we walked up to people in the street
问他们愿不愿意做一个政治调查
and asked if they wantedto do a quick political survey.
一开始我们让他们作出自己的选举倾向
So first we had them statetheir voting intention
在两个联合中选择
between the two coalitions.
然后我们让他们回答这12个问题
Then we asked themto answer 12 of these questions.
他们会填好答案 然后我们会和他们讨论
They would fill in their answers, and we would ask them to discuss,
为什么你觉得汽油税应该增长
so OK, why do you think tax on gas should be increased?
然后每道题都这样
And we’d go through the questions.
然后我们有一个颜色编码样板
Then we had a color coded template
这样可以让我们知道他们的全部得分
that would allow usto tally their overall score.
这个人有一 二 三 四 五
So this person would haveone, two, three, four five,
六 七 八 九 分偏向左翼
six, seven, eight, ninescores to the left,
所以基本上他倾向于左翼
so he would lean to the left, basically.
在最后
And in the end,
我们会让他们再一次写下自己的选举倾向
we also had them fill in their voting intention once more.
但是当然 这里也有一些小把戏
But of course, there wasalso a trick involved.
首先 我们找到一个人
So first, we walked up to people,
问他们的选举意向
we asked themabout their voting intention
当他们开始填写的时候
and then when they started filling in,
我们会填写一张和他们完全相反的答案
we would fill in a set of answers going in the opposite direction.
把它放在笔记本下面
We would put it under the notepad.
当我们拿到答题纸的时候
And when we get the questionnaire,
我们把它粘在参与者的答案之上
we would simply glue it on top of the participant’s own answer.
这样 就消失了
So there, it’s gone.
然后我们会问问题
And then we would askabout each of the questions:
这里是为什么
How did you reason here?
然后他们会解释原因
And they’ll state the reasons,
我们一起加起分数
together we will sum up their overall score.
最后他们会再选一次选举倾向
And in the end, they will statetheir voting intention again.
我们最先发现的是
So what we find first of all here,
很少有参与者能发现
is that very few of these manipulations are detected.
但也不是他们能意识到
And they’re not detectedin the sense that they realize, “OK,
好吧 你肯定换了我的答案
you must have changed my answer,”
更多情况下是
it was more the case that, “OK,
好吧 我一开始读的时候肯定理解错题意了
I must’ve misunderstoodthe question the first time I read it.
我可以改一下答案吗
Can I please change it?”
并且即使有些被改回去了
And even if a few of thesemanipulations were changed,
大部分还是错的
the overall majority was missed.
所以我们修改了百分之九十的参与者的答案
So we managed to switch 90 percentof the participants’ answers
从左变右 从右变左 他们的概况
from left to right, right to left,their overall profile.
当他们被要求解释自己的选择的时候会发生什么呢
And what happens then when they are asked to motivate their choices?
这里我们可以发现更有趣的语音报告
And here we find much moreinteresting verbal reports
和图片比起来
than compared to the faces.
人们会这样说 我来读给你们
People say things like this,and I’ll read it to you.
政府大规模的监督邮箱和互联网络
So,”Large-scale governmental surveillanceof email and internet traffic
应该被允许作为打击国际犯罪和恐怖主义的一种手段
ought to be permissible as means to combat international crime and terrorism.”
—所以你一定程度上同意这个观点—是的
“So you agree to some extentwith this statement.””Yes.”
这里你是怎么想的
“So how did you reason here?”
就是 像是
“ Well, like,
国际犯罪和恐怖主义既然这样难抓
as it is so hard to get at international crime and terrorism,
我认为应该有这种工具
I think there should bethose kinds of tools.”
然后这个人想起来早上读的报纸上的一条内容
And then the person remembers an argument from the newspaper in the morning.
就像今天的报纸
“ Like in the newspaper today,
说他们可以监听监狱中的手机
it said they can like, listen to mobile phones from prison,
如果一个黑帮首领试图在监狱中继续犯罪
if a gang leader tries to continuehis crimes from inside.
我认为很疯狂的是我们只有很少的权利
And I think it’s madnessthat we have so little power
来阻止这些事
that we can’t stop those things when
当我们有能力去阻止的时候
we actually have the possibility to do so.”
然后在结尾的地方有一些重复
And then there’s a little bit back and forth in the end:
我不喜欢他们能知道我的一举一动
“I don’t like that they have accessto everything I do,
但是我认为长期来讲是值得的
but I still thinkit’s worth it in the long run.” So,
所以如果你不知道这个人
if you didn’t know that this person
刚参与了一个选择失明实验
just took part ina choice blindness experiment,
我不认为你会质疑
I don’t think you would question
这是他真实的态度
that this is the true attitude of that person.
那么在最后的选举意向上会发生什么呢
And what happens in the end,with the voting intention?
我们发现 一个人会很明显的被答案影响
What we find — that one is also clearly affected by the questionnaire.
所以我们有十个参与者从左变到右
So we have 10 participants shifting from left to right or
或是从右变到左
from right to left.
还有十九个参与者从明确的投票意向
We have another 19that go from clear voting intention
变到了不确定
to being uncertain.
还有一些从不确定变到明确意向
Some go from being uncertainto clear voting intention.
还有一些数量从头至尾都不确定
And then there is a number of participantsstaying uncertain throughout.
这个数字很有趣
And that number is interesting because
因为如果你看民意调查机构说
if you look at what the polling institutes say
离选举越近
the closer you get to an election,
唯一会参与其中的人
the only people that are sort of in play
就是那些不确定的人
are the ones that areconsidered uncertain.
但是我们得知还有更多人
But we show there is a much larger number
真的在考虑改变他们的态度
that would actually considershifting their attitudes.
这里我必须说 当然
And here I must point out, of course,
你不能用这种方法
that you are not allowed to use this
在选举前来当作真正的办法让人们改变投票
as an actual methodto change people’s votes
并且我们在最后也会解释
before an election, and we clearly debriefed them afterwards
并且让他们有机会
and gave them everyopportunity to change back
来改回之前的想法
to whatever they thought first.
不过这个就说明如果你能让人们
But what this shows isthat if you can get people
看到不同的观点并且
to see the opposite view and engage
让他们自己作出解释
in a conversation with themselves,
这事实上很可能会让他们改变观点
that could actually make themchange their views.
好吧
OK.
这些都说明什么呢
So what does it all mean?
我认为这里发生了什么
What do I think is going on here?
首先
So first of all,
很多我们的自我认知其实是自我解释
a lot of what we call self-knowledge is actually self-interpretation.
如果我看到自己作出了一个选择
So I see myself make a choice,
然后问我自己为什么这么做
and then when I’m asked why,
我会试图
I just try to make as much sense
尽量合理地
of it as possible
来解释
when I make an explanation.
但是我们做的太迅速太轻松
But we do this so quicklyand with such ease
以至于当我们问起的时候真的认为自己知道答案
that we think we actually know the answer when we answer why.
既然是解释
And as it is an interpretation,
我们有时当然会犯错
of course we sometimes make mistakes.
就像尝试理解他人的时候会犯错一样
The same way we make mistakes when we try to understand other people.
所以要当心你问别人的问题是为什么
So beware when you ask peoplethe question”why”
因为可能会发生 如果你问了
because what may happenis that, if you asked them,
所以为什么你支持这个观点
“So why do you support this issue?”
为什么你会继续这个工作或者这段感情
“Why do you stay in this jobor this relationship?” —
当你问的时候
what may happen when you ask why is
可能你刚刚才创造出一种观点
that you actually create an attitude
然而在你问之前并不存在
that wasn’t therebefore you asked the question.
这当然
And this is of course important
在你的职业生涯中很重要
in your professional life, as well,
或者也可以是
or it could be. If,
如果 你设计了什么东西 然后问别人
say, you design somethingand then you ask people,
为什么你觉得这个好或者不好
“Why do you think this is good or bad?”
或者你是个记者来采访政治家
Or if you’re a journalistasking a politician, “So,
所以你为什么做这个决定
why did you make this decision?”
或者你确实是个政治家
Or if indeed you are a politician and
试图解释为什么做这个决定
try to explain why a certain decision was made.
这个看上去很让人不安
So this may all seem a bit disturbing.
但是如果你想要
But if you want to look
正面看待这个问题
at it from a positive direction,
这也可以是显示
it could be seen as showing, OK,
我们事实上比想象中的灵活
so we’re actually a little bit more flexible than we think.
我们可以改变自己的想法
We can change our minds.
我们的态度并不肯定
Our attitudes are not set in stone.
我们还可以改变他人的想法
And we can also changethe minds of others,
只要我们可以让他们体验这个问题
if we can only get themto engage with the issue
然后从另一个角度看问题
and see it from the opposite view.
在我个人的生活中
And in my own personal life,
自从开始这个调查
since starting with this research —
我的伙伴和我 我们总有一个规则
So my partner and I,we’ve always had the rule
就是大家都可以收回自己的话
that you’re allowed to take things back.
只因为我几年前说我喜欢一个东西
Just because I saidI liked something a year ago,
不代表我现在必须喜欢
doesn’t mean I have to like it still.
并且当不需要坚持一件事的时候
And getting rid of the needto stay consistent
其实是一种放松 并且让人生变得更容易
is actually a huge relief and makes relational life so mush easier to live. Anyway,
不管怎么说 结论是
so the conclusion must be:
知道你并不知道自己
know that you don’t know yourself.
或者并没有你想的那么了解
Or at least not as wellas you think you do.
谢谢
Thanks.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

用两个实验告诉你 你并没有那么了解自己

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqekWf-JC-A

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