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葡萄酒真是拿脚踩出来的吗?

Do Wine Makers Really Walk Over Grapes With Their Feet?

今日发现 拓展视线

今天
In the video today
我们将回答一位名叫Melissa K的观众提出的问题
we are answering a viewer question because Melissa K. asks us
“高级酿酒师
do high end wine makers
真的让人光着脚踩葡萄?”
really have people walk all over grapes wth their bare feet?
或许没有图片更能代表以下酿酒行为
Perhaps no image is more synonymous with the act of wine making than
人们光脚踩葡萄是为了
a person smashing grapes with their bare feet in order to
从葡萄里 而不是为从人们的汗脚里
extract the precious juices contained therein
榨取珍贵的汁液
in the grapes, not in their sweaty feet
但是 酿酒者真的这样做吗?
But did winemakers ever really do this?
要回答这个问题 要看你问的是谁
To answer this question that largely depends the one you ask
现在某些酿酒师
Today certain winemakers,
通常是对此有某些经济利益的人
usually ones that have some sort of financial interest in it,
他们无论如何也要公开宣称脚踩葡萄是
at least publicly maintain that grape stomping
酿酒历史不可或缺的一部分
was an integral part of winemaking history
然而 历史学家倾向于认为这是相对罕见的做法
However, historians tend to think it was a relatively rare practice.
要清楚的是 没有人说古时候的人
To be clear, nobody is saying that ancient people didn’t crush grapes
不会用脚踩葡萄来提取果汁
with their feet to extract the juices
当然啦 众所周知 人类在6000年前就已经找到一个
Rather, it is known that man has had a much more efficient alternative
可以替代脚踩的 更高效的办法了
to this method for at least 6000 years.
我们知道这一点 是因为考古学家在2011年初
We know this because in early 2011 archaeologists uncovered the remnants
发现了一处古老酿酒厂的遗迹
of an archaic winery,
里面的压榨工具 可以追溯到公元前4000年
complete with a wine press dating back to 4000 BC,
这个造酒厂坐落在亚美尼亚
this was located in Amenia
酒本身可以追溯到至少公元前5400年
Wine itself can be traced back to at least 5400 BC,
这说明早期的人们
which would suggest that early man
在发明压榨葡萄的工具之前
must have had a more rudimentary method
一定有更基础的方法来压碎葡萄
of crushing grapes before someone invented
有可能
a wine press, and indeed probably,
确实也用到脚了
it did involve the use of feet.
这是有证据支撑的
This is supported by the existence
大量的画作和其它历史资料
of numerous pieces of artwork and other references
显示人们
from history illustrating people curb stomping piles of grapes
站在巨大的桶里踩踏葡萄
while they stood in giant vats
也许最突出的作品来自埃及
Perhaps the most prominent pieces come from ancient Egypt
在那里人们普遍认为
where it’s largely believed
踩踏葡萄是酿酒的一个常见部分
that stomping grapes was a common part of winemaking,
正如许多艺术品描绘的那样
as evidenced by numerous pieces of artwork depicting exactly that.
然而 需要特别注意的是
However it’s important to note that this was
这绝不是果汁提取过程中的唯一步骤
by no means the only step in the juice extraction process.
要知道 靠脚踩来提取葡萄汁
You see, treading grapes is a remarkably inefficient method
是一种非常低效的方法
of extracting juice from them
这种方法直到最近才真正成为历史
and up until really recently in history
人们真的很讨厌浪费食物
humans were really against wasting food
在完成踩踏以后
After stomping grapes, the ancient Egyptians
古埃及人会把残留的葡萄皮全装进一个大袋子里
would then put the leftovers into a large sack,
这时候
at which point:
“在袋子的四个角绑上杆子 转动它们 这样还能将残留的葡萄汁挤出来”

要记住的一点是
A thing to keep in mind is that
压榨葡萄是一项比看上去更难的任务
pressing grapes is a deceptively difficult task
必须密切监控
and the amount of pressure you use to squeeze
压榨葡萄过程中使用的力度
grapes must be closely monitored
以避免从种子中意外释放出苦涩的丹宁
to avoid accidentally releasing bitter tannins from the seeds which can,
这显然会使最终成品的风味变差
obviously, negatively affect the taste of the final product.
考虑到这一点 靠人体重量来压榨葡萄
With this in mind, pressing grapes by using simple body weight
似乎是避免使用太大压力的一个好方法
seems like a good way to avoid applying too much pressure
但是 除非你像埃及法老那么有钱
However, it’s just too inefficient to be used
并且有一堆奴隶或工人为你出力
on a mass scale unless you are earning
否则 大规模使用这种方法
Egyptian Pharaoh levels of money
效率太低了
and had a fleet of slaves or workers to do it for you.
不足为奇的是
Not surprisingly, in almost every civilisation
几乎在每个用到压榨机器的国家里
in which wine presses were used
似乎很少有证据表明他们也用脚踩的方式酿酒
there appears to be little evidence that they also stomped wine
他们根本不需要用这种方式
They simply didn’t need to
因为他们有更高效的方法
As they had a much more efficient way of doing it
事实上 可以找到一个特例
An exception to this can actually be found
在古罗马 脚踩葡萄是很常见的环节
in ancient Rome where grape stomping was a common practice
他们这么做是为了从葡萄中提取第一道果汁
in order to extract the initial juices from the grapes
这种果汁被认为含有
which they believed to have special properties
后来提取的果汁中没有的特性
that the rest of the juices did not.
即使在这样的情况下
Even in this case, the Romans are still noted to
罗马人还是会在第一道脚踩工序后
have used presses to extract the bulk of the juices
使用机械压榨果肉
after this initial stomping
这就是为什么脚踩葡萄几乎
That’s why shreading grapes seems to be so synonymous
成为酿酒的代名词的原因
with winemaking in general despite
尽管它效率低 不卫生 历史上很少使用而且耗费时间
being inefficient, unsanitary, rarely used in history, and time-consuming
这可能跟酿酒业本身
that may have to do a lot with the winemaking industry itself
想将酿酒的固有形象浪漫化有很大关系
playing it up into romanticise the old image of winemaking
酿酒业很擅长的一点就是
If there’s one thing the wine industry is great at
让酿酒看起来很壮阔
its making wine seem grandiose
虽然最终出来的只是果汁
when, in the end, is just fruitjuice, you know
你知道的 就是两岁孩子喝的那种3美元一加仑的无酒精饮料
the stuff that without alcolhol, your two-year-old drinks at $3 a gallon
在我们观看另外一个视频 《帕里斯的审判》之前
before we go to another video about judgement of Paris
我会把链接放下面 那个视频是关于品酒争议的
which was whole wine tasting debacle I’ll link to that below
唯一的错误是整个行业都在贩卖假期
the only mistake there is the entire industry selling vacations
人们可以去那里用传统方式酿酒
where people can go and make wine the traditional way
尽管美国目前已经禁止出售用这种方式酿出的酒
even though it’s currently illegal in America to sell wine
因为它明显不卫生
made in this way for obvious hygienic reasons
事实上出售传统方式酿的酒已经被禁一百多年了
indeed it’s been illegal for over a century.
整件事情就是那些想要
the whole thing is just good marketing people
宣传这些活动的市场营销人员营造出来的
who want to advertise these events to play up the fact
即便在几千年以前
that grape shreading is a supposedly a common way
人们就已经找到了更高效的压榨葡萄的方法
of making wine, even though we’ve
脚踩葡萄仍然是酿酒过程中
been pressing grapes in vastly more efficient way
很常见的环节
for many many millennia
另一个促使踩葡萄热度上升的因素
and other factor that has played into the popularity
是1956年的经典电视剧《我爱露西》
of wine shreading is the now iconic 1956 episode
露西是一个意大利探险家
of I Love Lucy. Lucy’s Italian Adventure,
她塑造了在意大利酿酒厂脚踩葡萄的经典形象
which features the titular character stomping grapes in an Italian winery.
这部电视剧促使脚踩葡萄的行为急剧增加
The episode led to a surgeon interest in the practice,
尽管为该电视剧供应葡萄的
despite the fact that the Californian
加利福尼亚葡萄园园主
grape farmers who supplied the grapes
也是这么做的
for the episode did so under the condition that
前提是角色要明确说明
a character would explicitly mentioned
葡萄并不是酿酒者用脚踩的
that grapes aren’t really pressed by foot by winemakers.
还有一点要指出 正如上面提到的那样
It should also be noted that, as alluded to,
大多数关于这种行为的意象
in rural Europe where most of the imagery
都来源于欧洲农村
surrounding this practise is sourced from,
自中世纪以来
the use of feet has been wholly absent from
专业酿酒过程中完全没有用脚
the professional winemaking process since the Middle Ages
现在我要说的是
and now for a bonus fact
在禁酒令期间
during Prohibition, grape growers of the day
葡萄园园主开始售卖“酒砖”
began selling “ bricks of wine ”,
这些酒砖主要是“莱茵酒”浓缩成的块
which were primarily blocks of “Rhine Wine”.
通常还包含下列警告语
These often included the following instructions:
“将酒砖溶解在一加仑水中后 不要将装有这种液体的罐子放在橱柜里超过20天 否则它会变成酒”

我很好奇他们真正想传达的是什么信息
and I wonder what message they were really trying to get across
希望你们能对这个视频感兴趣
so I really hope you found that video intresting.
如果感兴趣的话 请点击下方给我个赞吧
If you did, please do hit that thumbs up button below
别忘了订阅新视频哦
do not forget to subscribe brand new vidoes
不错过每一天
just like the everyday in the week
想看点别的?
looking for something else to watch
为什么不查看一下屏幕上链接的视频
why not check out some videos from the archives link to on the screen
或者查看我的新频道《Highlight History》
or check out my new channel called highlight history
链接在下面
find that linked to below
一如既往地感谢您的观看
as always thank you for watching

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译制信息
视频概述

酿酒的葡萄都会用脚踩?为什么?这样卫生吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cathy

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3MG4nheIJ0

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