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我主宰命运 还是命运主宰我

Do We Have Free Will or Are We Predetermined?

围绕自由意志与决定论展开的争论贯穿整个哲学史
The history of philosophy has been dominated by competing arguments around the ideas of
简言之 从根本上来说 问题在于
Free Will and Determinism. Simply stated, the issue hangs on whether human beings should
人类是可以自由地选择行为活动 塑造人生
be thought of as fundamentally free to choose their actions and mould their lives – or
还是被命运 生物规律 政治 还是阶级
whether they should be deemed as being at heart determined by forces beyond their control,
这些不可控的力量操控
be they called fate, biology, politics or class.
争论已经持续了很长时间 十分激烈
The debate has been long-running and hugely vicious.
它源于古希腊 由古罗马继承在基督教哲学中占有重要地位
It began in Ancient Greece, was picked up by the Romans, dominated Christian philosophy
最后轰轰烈烈地持续到今天在哲学家 心理学家和神经科学家之中蔓延
and rumbles on to this day among philosophers, psychologists and neuroscientists.
这个问题之所以难以下定论 部分是因为
Part of the reason why the question seems so hard to find a conclusive answer to is that it
它几乎总是被限定为客观地位然而事实上我们并不能从客观事实中得知
is almost always framed in objective terms, as if we might discover whether either Free
自由意志和决定论是否能大体上对人生给出合理的解释
Will or Determinism could be an advisable interpretation for human beings in general.
但实际上 如果我们改变问题的参量它会变得更加有趣 也更有意义
But, in truth, the debate becomes more interesting and more relevant if we change the parameters
只需问:自由意志与决定论
of the question – and ask simply: is an idea of Free Will or of Determinism
究竟哪个与我密切相关
more or less relevant to me?
在这个问题上人们有着不同的需要
All of us will have different needs in this area depending on our contrasting
这取决于两个心理素质的相对比重
levels of two psychological qualities:
一个是失败主义 另一个是抱负
Defeatism on the one hand, Aspiration on the other.
有些人的失败主义比重过大
There are people whose levels of Defeatism have grown so high, they too readily declare
他们太容易把事物归咎于外部影响他们告诉自己
that responsibility for things always lies outside of themselves: the course of their
他们的人生全部由父母 学校政府 领导 媒体等等决定
life is, they tell us, entirely determined by parents, school, the government, the bosses, the media…
可以是任何人 除了自己
anyone but themselves.
结果就是他们无法充分发挥自己的潜力 自欺欺人
The result is radical under-achievement and self-deceit.
但过分强调自由意志
But there is another kind of difficulty created in people whose levels of Aspiration have
野心过大的人也有一个问题 他们认为
grown so high on the basis of overly exaggerated notions of Free Will. They will deem that
生活中的一切都能改变 他们断言
everything about their lives is capable of change. They will declare that they can achieve
只要意志坚定就可以取得任何成就他们的事业 收入 人际关系和前途
all things simply through an exercise of the will. Their career and income, their relationships
明显都能发生翻天覆地的变化
and prospects are all, apparently, subject to dramatic change.
这是励志哲学
It’s an inspiring philosophy,
不过如果他们碰到一件事始终解决不了而在其他任何领域都从未遇到过这种情况
but one that reliably also leads – when things don’t work out, as they never do
这种态度会导致怨愤
in all areas – to bitterness and rage.
我们每个人都应该
Each of us needs to decide for ourselves whether
根据自己的类型选择相信决定论还是自由意志
we should have a greater faith in Determinism or in Free Will. We should ask how much of
我们应该想想人生中有多少痛苦可以归结于消极态度
the suffering in our lives can be traced back to a defeatist attitude and how much might
又有多少可以归结于不审慎的抱负有些人需要相信自由意志说
be traced back to reckless aspiration. Some of us need to dial up a faith in Free Will,
有些人需要成熟些 接受决定论这个哲学史上最为古老的论题并非没有答案
others need more of a mellow acceptance of Determinism. The oldest debate in philosophy
不过我们要根据自身情况给出回答
isn’t beyond answering. We just have to answer it more personally, with more of a
我们要更清楚地知道 需要相信什么才能活得更加平静 更加满足
sense of what we need to believe in to be calmer and more fulfilled.
也许古罗马斯多葛学派的哲学家们
Perhaps the wisest way to navigate the debate between Free Will and Determinism
已经给出了对该论题最明智的指导思想
was worked out by the Ancient Roman philosophers of the Stoic school.
他们提出我们应该始终
These Stoics proposed that we should see ourselves
徘徊在自由意志说与决定论之间
as always hovering between a Free and a Determined state –
他们设计了一个内涵丰富的形象
and they invented a powerful image
提出了我们的条件和限制我们是能在特定时期做出巨大改变的生物
to evoke our condition as creatures able at times to effect great change – and yet never
但也从来无法逃脱外部强大的必然事件的束缚
far from being subject to immensely powerful external necessities.
他们说 我们就像被系在一辆方向不定的马车上的狗
We are, they said, like dogs who have been tied to an unpredictable cart.
皮带的长度给了我们一定余地自由活动
Our leash is long enough to give us a degree of leeway,
但绝不足以让我们想去哪里去哪里
but is not long enough ever just to allow us to wander wherever we please.
狗自然是希望能想去哪里去哪里 斯多葛学派说
A dog will naturally hope to go wherever it pleases, said the Stoics.
不过如果不能那最好是让它能跟在马车后面小跑
But if it cannot, then it is better for the animal to be trotting behind the cart
而别拖它 勒它
rather than dragged and strangled by it.
思考清楚我们其实也从未真正挣脱过枷锁
To reflect that we too are never without a leash around our neck may help to reduce
我们就不会再那么拼命地抗议有些事情不受控制了
the violence of our protest against events which veer away from our intentions. It may
这听起来可能像是一种消极顺从
sound like a recipe for passivity,
不过斯多葛学派坚持认为
but as the Stoics insisted,
把不是必然的事当成必然接受
it is no less unreasonable to accept something as necessary when it isn’t
和反抗一件必然的事 都非常不明智
as to rebel against something when it is.
我们必须用理智进行辨别
It’s our reason that must judge the difference
这也是我们远胜于狗的地方
and this is where we have a big advantage over a dog.
首先狗基本上不会发现它被系在一辆马车上
A dog will probably not at first grasp that he is even tied to a cart,
更不会明白为什么马车一转弯它脖子就会疼
nor understand the connection between the swerves of the cart and the pain in his neck.
所以它不能预判马车的方向也不能据此调整它的位置
So he won’t be able to predict where the cart is going and adjust his position accordingly.
但是理智让我们能十分准确地
But reason enables us to theorise with considerable accuracy
总结出一套关于马车路径或者命运的理论
about the path of the cart or destiny,
给了我们一个所有其他生物都没有的机会
which offers us a chance, unique among living beings, to increase our sense of freedom by
通过在志向和不可控因素间保持张弛有度来获得更多的自由
ensuring a good slack between our desires and what we cannot change.
理智让我们知道什么时候愿望与现实的冲突是无法改变的
Reason allows us to calculate when our wishes are in irrevocable conflict with reality,
然后让我们心甘情愿地向必然低头不带愤怒和痛苦
and then bids us to submit ourselves willingly, rather than angrily or bitterly, to necessities.
有些事情我们可能无法改变
We may be powerless to alter certain events,
不过我们永远能自由改变对待他们的心态
but we may always remain free to choose our attitude towards them,
正是在沉静地接受生命的必然中
and it is in an unprotesting acceptance of what is truly necessary
我们找到了一种独特的沉稳与自由
that we can find a distinctive serenity and freedom
在《生命学院》 我们的信念是提高情商
At The School of Life we believe in developing emotional intelligence.
为此我们还制作了门类齐全的产品来助力情商成长
To that end we’ve also created a whole range of products to support that growth. Find out
点击下方链接了解更多
more at the link on the screen now.

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视频概述

自由意志与决定论的辩驳,哲学的老话题了,事实是要辩证对待,二者兼施

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