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维生素的原理 – 译学馆
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维生素的原理

Do Vitamin Supplements Really Work?

想快速减肥吗? 容易犯困吗?
Do you want to lose weight quickly? Are you sleepy?
头发缺少光泽吗? 试试膳食补充剂吧
Is your hair kind of gross? Try a supplement!
它们种类繁多
There are hundreds of them.
总有一款适合你
Surely one of them can help you.
真的吗?可能并非如此
Right? Well, maybe not.
[跳入介绍]
[SPLASH INTRO]
膳食补充剂的总产值高达数十亿美元
Supplements are a multi-billion dollar business.
不同于处方药
Unlike prescription drugs,
美国政府没有规定厂商
the US government doesn’t regulate manufacturer claims
标注膳食补充剂的功能疗效和原理
about what supplements “could” do for you or how well they do it.
除非它们被证明有害 政府才会介入
It only steps in when they may be harmful.
包括维生素和矿物质在内的膳食补充剂旨在
Many supplements include vitamins or minerals that are meant to enhance
用不同的方法增强你的身体机能或补充不足
you in some way or make up for a deficiency in your body.
当然 别的补充剂产品还包括草药
And yes, there’s other supplement products including herbals,
蛋白补充剂和酶
protein supplements and enzymes
今天我们重点关注复合维生素补充剂中的维生素和矿物质
but let’s focus on vitamins and minerals in multivitamins,
这是当今最受欢迎的膳食补充剂
the most popular supplements out there, for now.
这些分子和元素维系着身体的正常运行
Your body needs these molecules and elements to survive,
但身体自身不能生成它们
but can’t make them on its own,
所以你需要从食物中去摄取
so you’ve got to get them from food.
膳食补充剂的意思是 补充你膳食中可能缺少的营养物质
Supplements are meant to, well, supplement what you might be missing from your diet.
医生和科学家表示这13种维生素不可或缺
Doctors and scientists agree you can’t miss out on these 13 vitamins.
你还需要矿物质
You also need minerals,
比如一些矿元素 像是铁 钾 镁
which are elements like iron,potassium, or magnesium.
大部分人能从饮食中获取足够的维生素和矿物质
Many people get enough vitamins and minerals from their diets,
但有些人群 需要依赖膳食补充剂
but certain groups of people can benefit from supplements.
例如 如果你的饮食缺乏营养
For example, if you’ve got a nutrient poor diet
很多人就可能轻微缺乏
and many of us are probably missing out on
至少一种维生素或矿物质
at least a small amount of one vitamin or mineral,
维生素补充剂能帮你解决营养不足的问题
vitamin supplements can help you plug small gaps in your nutrition.
医生能查出你缺哪种营养元素
A doctor can diagnose that kind of deficiency and
并告诉你 应该补充什么以及补充多少
recommend what to take and how much.
某些种类的补充剂
And certain kinds of supplements,
例如维生素D和叶酸
like vitamin D and folic Acid,
能帮助孕妇降低出生缺陷
can help expecting mothers reduce the risk of birth defects
和婴儿体重过低的风险
and low-birth weight babies.
接下来 有请我们最喜爱的生物学家
For more, here’s our favorite biologist
来自It’s OK to be Smart节目的乔•汉森
Joe Hanson from It’s OK to be Smart:
对一些人而言 膳食补充剂作用很大
So for some people, dietary supplements can be a big help.
但对大部分人来说
But for most of us
你最好把钱用在食材店
you’re probably better off spending your money on groceries
确保饮食均衡
and eating a well-rounded diet.
从食物中获取营养效果会更好
You get way more nutritional bang-for-your-buck from food,
因为你不仅可以补充维生素和矿物质
since you’re getting more than just vitamins and minerals.
你还补充了有益的植物化合物
You’re also gobbling up beneficial plant compounds
像是植物素 纤维素 和其他一些
called phytochemicals, fiber and other good stuff
膳食补充剂里没有的营养
that you don’t get from supplements.
一些研究员仍然推荐服用复合维生素补充剂
Some researchers still recommend taking a multivitamin as
来弥补饮食上的不足
insurance against lapses in our diet.
但是并没有足够证据证明
But there’s not a whole lot of evidence that show benefits
服用维生素和矿物质有益处
of taking vitamins and minerals.
种种研究表明 维生素和矿物质补充剂
Study after study has shown that vitamin and mineral supplements,
特别是“一天一粒”的复合维生素剂
especially “one a day” multivitamins,
作用甚微
just aren’t worth it.
对随机对照试验进行分析
One analysis of randomized controlled trials
科学研究的黄金标准
the gold standard of scientific studies
观察9万人后发现
looked at 90,000 people and found that a
复合维生素 矿物质剂并不能降低患癌
multivitamin or multimineral didn’t change their risk of cancer,
心血管疾病及早死风险
cardiovascular disease or early death.”
有趣的事实 维生素C并非所有感冒的终结者
Quick fun fact, vitamin C is not the end all be all for colds
你可能一直认为它是
that you might think it is.
是的 维生素C在免疫系统中发挥作用
Yes, vitamin C plays a role in your immune system.
但即使摄取量超过每日推荐剂量1000%
But taking more than 1000% of the daily recommended dose
也并不能抵御感冒
is not going to ward off a cold.
只会让你的尿液更黄
It’s just going to make your pee more orange.
好的 再多告诉我们一些 乔
OK. Tell us more Joe.
“几乎没有证据能证明 服用维生素补充剂
“So there’s very little evidence that taking vitamin supplements
能使你更健康 更聪明或是更美丽
will make you healthier, or smarter, or more beautiful.
有些情况下 摄入过多甚至有害
In some cases, taking too much can be harmful.
研究表明 每年有超过20000人
One study found that more than 20,000
因为补充剂服用过量而导致
people go to the ER each year from an
过敏或其他副作用 被送进急诊室
overdose, allergic reaction or other adverse effects related to supplements.
调查还显示
Investigations have also found
一些膳食补充剂甚至 不含其声称的
that some supplements don’t even contain any of the vitamins
任何维生素或矿物质
or minerals they claim to!
含量为零 没有 不存在”
Like, zero. Zilch. Nada.”
噢 那其他种类的膳食补充剂呢?
Oh, and all those other kinds of supplements?
鱼油? 蛋白粉?
Fish oil? Protein powder?
类似的一些补充剂?
Things like that?
一些是有效的 但更多的
A few have shown to be effective, but many more
都无任何证据证明对健康有益
show no evidence of improving health.
再说一遍 大部分补充剂商家的健康声称
Again, most of the health claims from supplement makers
都没有科学依据支撑
simply aren’t supported by scientific evidence.
鱼油的omega -3脂肪酸本该确保心脏健康
Fish oil, whose omega-3 fatty acids are supposed to ensure heart health,
还有胆碱 人们希望它能防止老年痴呆症
and choline, which people take in the hope it will ward off dementia,
这两种膳食补充剂的作用都缺乏科学依据
are both short on evidence of benefits when taken as a supplement.
所以 你应该服用膳食补充剂吗?
So should YOU take supplements?
大家意见不一
There is some disagreement here.
一些专家说 你应该服用复合维生素剂 作为营养保障
Some experts say you should take multivitamins as nutritional insurance,
而另一些则说 这是在浪费钱
while some say they’re a waste of money for people
因为有的人能通过均衡膳食获得全部或大部分营养
who get all or most of their nutrients from a balanced diet.
至于那些严重营养缺乏及限制饮食的人
For others with serious nutrient deficiencies or restricted diets,
在医嘱下服用膳食补充剂是有帮助的
they can help when taken under medical supervision.
但大家都认同一点 即使你服用了复合维生素剂
But everybody agrees that even if you take a multivitamin,
如果饮食以披萨为主 也没用
it won’t help if you’re eating a pizza-based diet.
获取维生素和矿物质 最理想的方式是通过好的食物
The ideal route to getting your vitamins and minerals is through good food,
并非膳食补充剂
NOT through supplements.
根据加州大学伯克利分校的健康课程
According to the University of California’s Berkeley Wellness program,
“如果复合维生素剂有效 无论好坏 都收效甚微”
“If multivitamins have an effect—good or bad—it is likely to be small.”
问问你的医生 自己做调查并保持怀疑
Ask your doctor, do your own research and stay skeptical.
然而 仅仅因为膳食补充剂不能达到其声称的效果
However …, just because a supplement doesn’t give the benefits
并不意味着其毫无帮助
it claims doesn’t mean that little pill can’t help.
这就是安慰剂神奇的地方
That’s the bizarre result of the placebo
当然 只有你没看过这个视频才有效
effect…which would only work if you hadn’t just watched this video.
或者……还会仍然有效
Or…. It could still work.
总之 请点击It’s Okay to be Smart 看看乔对于
Anyway, click over to It’s Okay to be Smart, to see what Joe has
安慰剂效应说了些什么吧
to say about the placebo effect.
感谢您的收看
Thanks for watching.

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维生素和矿物质补充剂你真的了解吗?它们真的有效吗?

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视频来源

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