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树会说话吗?

Do Trees Talk?

Hey, smart people, Joe here.
嘿 聪明人 我是Joe
Beneath your feet there is a secret network.
在你的脚下 有一个秘密网络
This network trades resources, transmits information,
这个网络不仅能够交换资源 传递信息
and can even go to war.
甚至还可以在这里交战
I know what you’re thinking,
我知道你在想什么
and no, this isn’t the world wide web.
不 这不是互联网
It’s something much older.
它比互联网要古老得多
450 million years older.
要早4.5亿年
And it makes life on Earth as we know it possible.
众所周知 它使地球上的生命成为可能
This is the wood wide web.
这就是树联网
The most important social network on Earth.
世界上最重要的社交网络
Okay. Walk into a forest and just listen.
好了 走进一片森林 然后静静聆听
You can’t hear it, but the forest is communicating.
虽然你听不到 但林间的确在窃窃私语
If you’ve never noticed this before,
你可能以前从未注意到这些
it’s because all of this is happening below your feet.
这是因为 这一切都发生在你的脚下
The wood wide web is a network created by fungi.
树联网由一种
They’re called mycorrhizal fungi
名为菌根真菌的真菌构成
and these fungi live in and around
这种真菌存在于树木和其他植物的
the roots of trees and other plants.
根部及附近
Fungi are a huge domain on the tree of life,
真菌界是生物界中种类繁多的一支
and as you’ve probably noticed by now,
或许你现在已经注意到了
nobody knows how you’re supposed to actually say it.
这个词的读法甚至也十分多样
But I’m going with “fun guy” because that’s what I am.
我喜欢用“有趣的家伙”的谐音 因为我的性格也是如此
Fungi include molds, mushrooms and yeasts,
真菌包括霉菌 蘑菇及酵母菌
and as a whole they are essential to making
总的来说 对于降解
all of Earth’s organic garbage
地球所有有机垃圾和死亡生物来说
and dead stuff decompose and disappear.
它们是必不可少的
While some fungi do resemble plants,
虽然有些真菌长得很像植物
they are definitely not plants.
但它们的确不是
They’re technically more closely
严格意义上来说 它们更像是种动物
related to animals… but really fungi are a form
但实际上 真菌是一种
of life like no other.
与其他生物截然不同的生命体
Fungi don’t fossilize well
由于真菌无法彻底变成化石
so it’s hard to know exactly when they first appeared in
所以很难确定它们最早
the evolutionary scene,
是出现在进化阶段的哪一个时期
but some fossil records show
但一些化石的记录显示
mycorrhizal fungi have been living in
自从大约4亿年前
this partnership since the first land plants appeared
古生代出现第一批陆地植物以来
in the Paleozoic, around 400 million years ago.
菌根真菌便一直存在于这种共生关系当中
These underground fungi are essential to plant survival.
这些地下的真菌对于植物的生存至关重要
They also extend hair-like filaments called hyphae
它们将名为菌丝的毛状细丝伸入土壤中
into the soil which pump water even
这种细丝相比树木自身的根
more efficiently than the tree’s own roots.
更能有效地泵入水分
Just like we need our vitamins and minerals to grow,
就像我们需要维生素和矿物质来维持生长一样
so do trees.
树木生长发育也需要它们
Plants from rose bushes to towering redwoods
从玫瑰丛再到参天红杉
need these micronutrients to survive!
所有植物都需要这些微量营养素才能维持生存
And mycorrhizal fungi are efficient little miners.
菌根真菌便如同高效的小矿工
They use acid to bore holes into rocks
它们用酸在岩石上钻孔
and fish out nitrogen and phosphorous.
把氮和磷提取出来
In exchange for all this subterranean service,
作为交换
a tree provides the mycorrhizal fungi with sugar,
树木为菌根真菌提供
created through photosynthesis.
光合作用产生的糖
Trees release between 20-80 % of the glucose
树木将20%至80%的葡萄糖
they create to their fungal partners.
供给它们的真菌伙伴们
And older trees, the grandpop-lars and grandma-ples,
老树 如老杨树及老枫树与真菌
have more complex fungal interconnections
有着比年轻树木与之
than younger trees.
更为复杂的联系
But these mycorrhizal fungi do more than trade minerals,
这类菌根真菌与树之间
water and sugar with their host tree.
不仅有着矿物质 水和糖的交换
They also form massive branching networks of the fungal threads,
它们还形成了巨大的菌丝分支网络
called mycelium,
也就是菌丝体
that can extend thousands of acres, connecting entire forests.
菌丝体能够延伸至数千英亩外 连接整片森林
If you dig into the forest dirt,
当你挖开森林里的土壤
you may see these thousands of tiny white tubes
仔细观察时 可能会看到里面有着成千上万的
if you look closely.
白色微观
In a single pinch of dirt these hyphae,
一撮泥土里的这些菌丝
when lined up, can extend 11 km!
排成一行 连起来能有11公里之多
And these networks act as fungal freeways
菌丝体就像是运输化学物质的
for shipping chemical currencies.
真菌高速公路
The fungi can act like a seasonal bank account for trees,
这些真菌就像是树木的季节性银行账户
giving loans of sugar
当树木需要额外的能量
if the trees need an extra boost.
它们可以用糖同真菌进行交易
Scientists have found that if a tree is dying,
科学家们发现 如果一棵树濒临死亡
it will release its extra glucose into the wood wide web
它会将自身多余的葡萄糖 通过树联网
where it can delivered to younger nearby trees,
输送给附近的年轻树木
even trees of a different species.
甚至是不同种类的树木
Trees can also use the network
树木还可以通过树联网
to send out warning signals.
来发出预警信号
If insects bite into one tree,
如果昆虫咬了一棵树
it can send a chemical signal
这棵树会通过树联网
through the wood wide web,
释放出一种化学信号
and when trees deeper in the forest
当森林深处的其它树
receive this insect alert message,
接收到这种信号时
they produce bitter compounds
它们会分泌一种苦味化合物
that make their leaves
使其叶子变得
less tasty to those same insects.
对同样的昆虫来说 不那么美味
“The Ents are going to war!”
“树人们要开战啦”
Some trees, like black walnuts,
有些树 如黑胡桃树
even use the network to spread chemical attacks,
甚至会利用网络来进行化学攻击
sabotaging other trees that try to grow too close.
以破坏其它试图靠它太近的树木
Across the globe, there are two main types
纵观全球 构成树联网的
of these mycorrhizal fungi
菌根真菌
that make up the wood wide web.
大致分为两种
Trees in cooler climates tend to host one type,
一类分布于气候较冷的地区
which create huge interconnected networks
这类真菌创造出了
that cover massive areas.
能够大面积覆盖的连接网络
But warmer, tropical forests
另一类真菌
tend to be dominated by a different type,
则分布于温暖的热带雨林
which create smaller, more localized networks.
它们所形成的树联网要更小 更局部化一些
It’s like the difference between
这两种真菌的区别大概就像
big, national chain stores and your local farmers’market.
全国大型连锁店与当地农贸市场的区别
The balance between these two types of wood wide webs
这两种树联网间的平衡
is important to Earth’s climate.
对地球的气温有着至关重要的影响
In general, the massive interconnected forest fungal webs
一般来说 主导覆盖面积较广树联网的真菌
tend to lock up carbon in the soil
在分解物质时
as they decompose stuff.
往往会把土壤中的碳固定起来
And the more local network fungi tend to
而局部化树联网中的真菌
release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
往往会向大气释放更多的二氧化碳
As global temperatures warm up, forests are changing,
随着全球气温变暖 森林也在随之变化
and the balance of these two types
这两种树联网间的平衡
of fungal networks is changing too.
也在随着变化
More of the planet covered with tropical forests
热带雨林覆盖面积的增多
means those large, carbon-storing fungal networks
意味着那些面积大 且能储存碳的树联网
will be replaced by the more localized fungal networks
将会被排放碳到空气中的
which release carbon into the air,
局部化树联网所替代
which will just accelerate climate change, which,
这将会加速气候变化 以至于即使 植物能吸收二氧化碳
even though plants eat CO2,
仍无法减缓
is still not good.
气候的变化
So next time you’re walking through a forest,
所以下次 当你漫步于林间时
take a moment to think about the very small
花点时间去想想这个在你脚下
but also very large network that exists under your feet.
虽然微小但却又庞大的树联网
Just because you can’t log on to the wood wide web,
你无法登录到树联网
doesn ’t mean you aren’t connected.
并不意味着你与之没有关联
It’s time we think of forests as more than trees.
是时候把森林看作是比树木更重要的东西了
Stay curious.
保持好奇心

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视频概述

树与树之间是如何交流的?它们的交流全部都是和平的吗?它们的交流会对气候有影响吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Steva

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=raZvqDd6VKI

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