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医用口罩真的能抵御流感吗?

Do Surgical Masks Really Protect You from the Flu?

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[ ♪ Intro ]
好消息
Good news:
看样子我们已经熬过了这次流感季
It looks like we’ve finally made it through this nasty flu season.
但愿你通过注射流感疫苗和反复洗手
Hopefully, thanks to a flu shot and lots of hand-washing,
避免了感染生病
you managed to avoid getting sick.
或许你今年走了很多弯路
Maybe you even went the extra mile this year and put
戴上医用口罩来阻挡
on a surgical mask to ward off germs
公共场所人群中的细菌
in crowded, public places.
毕竟大家都觉得这样是有用的 对吧?
After all, according to public wisdom, thattotally works, right? Well,
事情可没有这么简单
it’s not that simple.
那个迷人的纸口罩可能根本就不能
That fetching paper mask might not have actually prevented you
防流感 但是
from catching the flu — but
至少 如果你生病了
if nothing else, if you were sick,
它可以防止你传染别人
it probably stopped you from infecting everyone else.
这些口罩第一眼看上去似乎真的有效
At first glance, those masks might seem really effective —
甚至有研究也表明如此
even according to some research.
2009年的一项研究中 加拿大安大略
In one 2009 study, almost 450 nurses in Ontario, Canada,
450余名护士被指定要么戴简单的医用口罩
were assigned to wear either a simple
要么戴N95专业防护口罩
surgical mask or an N95 respirator.
这些特制口罩紧密贴合面部
These are specially designed masks that mold closely
能够阻挡至少95%的
to the face and block at least 95 %
微小颗粒物
of tiny particles.
那个研究 发表于《美国医学会杂志》
That study, published in JAMA,
发现无论采取的是何种保护方式
found that about 23 % of nurses ended up catching the
最终还是有大约23%的护士染上流感
flu regardless of the form of protection theyused.
所以结案了 对吗
So case closed, right?
口罩和昂贵的专业防护口罩一样有效
Masks must work at least as well as those fancy respirators
至少能预防流感
at keeping people flu-free.
除非……可能并非如此
Except… that’s probably not the case. See,
在患病和暴露于流感病毒中
there ’ s a difference
还是有所区别
between getting sick and being exposed to flu virus.
其他研究也显示了在防治病毒方面
And other studies have shown that surgical masks are definitely worse
医用口罩的确更不管用
at keeping out viruses.
这些研究之一
One of those studies,
2006年在《美国感染控制杂志》上发表
published in American Journal of Infection Control in 2006, used
即利用无害病毒来测试
samples of a harmless virus to test how
防护口罩和医用口罩是如何帮助穿戴者
good respirators and surgical masks are at protecting
免受空气传播的病毒感染
their wearers from airborne pathogens.
他们发现20%-85%的仿造细菌
They found that 20 to 85 %
渗透了医用口罩 而相比较之下
of the simulated pathogens penetrated the surgical masks, compared
专业防护口罩的量只有约5%
to only around 5% for the respirators.
这一点差别巨大
Which is quite the difference.
因此尽管那个实验中的
So even if both groups
两组护士都患病了
of nurses in that first study got sick just as often, the ones wearing
戴医用口罩的或许被暴露于更多细菌之中
surgical masks were probably exposed to alot more particles.
但如果仔细想想 那也并不奇怪
If you think about it, though, that reallyisn’t that surprising.
因为实际上
Because here ’ s the thing:
医用口罩并不是设计来保护你
Surgical masks aren ’ t actually designed to protect you
免遭环境中的病毒入侵
from dangerous particles in the environment.
只有专业防护口罩才是 正相反
Only respirators are. Instead,
医用口罩被设计正是为了相反的用处
the masks intended for the opposite job —
防治别人被你感染 了解吗
protecting other people from your germs. See,
专业防护口罩紧紧贴合面部
while respirators fit tightly to your face,
而医用口罩通常在边沿处有缝隙
surgical masks often have gaps on the sides.
它们仍可以很好的罩住你的嘴和鼻子
They still do a good job covering your mouth and nose,
但是外面的颗粒或许
but outside particles can probably
能够从口罩周围溜进去
sneak in around the mask.
即使它们碰巧保护了你的健康
So even if they do happen to keep you healthy,
但保护你的健康不是它们的主要目标 不过
that ’ s not their main purpose. Still,
在防止你的细菌泄露方面则非常有效
when it comes to containing your germs,they’re definitely effective.
2013年《美国公共科学图书馆:病原体》杂志上发表了一项研究
For a 2013 study published in the journal PLOS Pathogens,
科学家收集了一些案例
scientists collected examples
是戴医用口罩和不戴的 共约40位流感病人呼出的颗粒物
of exhaled particles from about 40 flu patients with and without surgical masks.
他们发现这些口罩很重要
They found that the masks significantly
在减少那些呈烟雾状分散的病毒方面
reduced the amount of aerosolized virus that their
因为病毒会分散到空气中
subjects put into the air.
2009年有一项研究
And a 2009 study
发表于《(美国)临床传染病杂志》 研究发现 医用口罩
from the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases found that surgical masks
同昂贵的专业防护口罩一样有效 能防止疾病传播
were just as effective as fancy respirators at keeping the illness from spreading.
这就是为什么诊疗室要求
This is why doctor ’ s offices will
待在候诊室中咳嗽或者打喷嚏的病人
ask patients who are coughing or sneezing to put on a mask
戴上口罩——这是为了保护其他人
while they’re in the waiting room — toprotect everyone else.
梅约诊所一名专家称
According to a Mayo Clinic expert,
如果你没有生病 只是担心得流感
if you ’ re not sick yourself, just worried about catching
戴条纸口罩可能会有用
the flu, wearing a paper mask might help,
起码绝对不会有危害
and it certainly won ’ t hurt.
但是最好的方式仍然是忍住
But your best bet is still to suck
然后注射流感疫苗
it up and go get that flu shot.
感谢收看本期《科学秀》!
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
特别感谢Patreon赞助人Lorraine的提问
And special thanks to Lorraine on Patreon for asking,
也感谢所有为此问题
and to all our patrons who voted
投过票的赞助人
to have this question answered!
如果你想提问或者
If you ’ d like to submit a question or vote
为下一期节目投票 请登录
on the next ones we answer, you can go to
patreon.com/scishow
patreon.com/scishow.
[音乐]
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视频概述

通过对比分析几项实验,证明了医用口罩虽然在防止流感传播方面有一定的作用,但不如专业防护口罩有效,而且并不能完全抵御流感。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Homohabil

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zg4Xg7_u3sE

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