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性格测试有用吗?

Do personality tests work? - Merve Emre

In 1942, a mother-daughter duo
在1942年 有一对母女
Katherine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers
Katherine Cook Briggs和Isabel Briggs Myers
developed a questionnaire that classified people’s personalities into 16 types.
设计了一种可以把人格分为十六种的问卷
Called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, or MBTI,
问卷被称作Myers-Briggs人格测试 简称MBTI
it would go on to become
它将成为
one of the world’s most widely-used personality tests.
世界上最为广泛使用的人格测试之一
Today, personality testing is a multi-billion dollar industry
如今 人格测试已经成为了数十亿美元的产业
used by individuals, schools, and companies.
被广泛应用于个人 学校和公司
But none of these tests, including the MBTI, the Big Five,
但是这些测试 包括MBTI 大五类人格测试
the DiSC assessment, the Process Communication Model,
DISC测试 PCM测试
and the Enneagram,
和九型人格测试
actually reveal truths about personality.
其实都没有揭露人格的真相
In fact, it’s up for debate whether personality
事实上 人格是否是一个人稳定的 可测量的特征
is a stable, measurable feature of an individual at all.
还有待商榷
Part of the problem is the way the tests are constructed.
部分问题在于构建测试的方式
Each is based on a different set of metrics to define personality:
每个测试都是基于一套不同的标准来定义人格
the Myers-Briggs, for instance,
以MBTI为例
focuses on features like introversion and extroversion
它关注于内向和外向的测试
to classify people into personality “types,”
来把人格分为不同的“类型”
while the Big Five scores participants on five different traits.
而大五则是在五种不同的特质上给参与者打分
Most are self-reported,
大部分是自我评估
meaning the results are based on questions participants answer about themselves.
这意味着结果来自于参与者对关于自己问题的回答
So it’s easy to lie.
所以很容易撒谎
But even with the best intentions,
即便完全是为了他们好
objective self-evaluation is tricky.
客观的自我评估也是很难做到的
Take this question from the Big Five:
以大五的问题为例:
How would you rate the accuracy of the statement “I am always prepared”?
你如何评价这个问题的准确性“我总是做好了准备”?
There’s a clear favorable answer here, which makes it difficult to be objective.
这个问题显然有个讨喜的答案 使得我们很难做到客观
People subconsciously aim to please:
人们下意识地以取悦他人为目标
when asked to agree or disagree, we show a bias
当被问到是否认同时 我们倾向于
toward answering however we believe the person or institution
回答我们所认为别人或者机构
asking the question wants us to answer.
想要的答案
Here’s another question—
还有一个问题
what do you value more, justice or fairness?
你更重视哪一点 正义还是公平
What about harmony or forgiveness?
那和谐和宽容呢
You may well value both sides of each pair,
你也许同样重视每一点
but the MBTI would force you to choose one.
但是MBTI会强迫你从中选择一个
And while it’s tempting to assume the results of that forced choice
尽管人们认为 这种被迫选择得出的结果
must somehow reveal a true preference, they don’t:
一定会在某种程度上揭示他们真正的偏好 但事实并非如此
When faced with the same forced choice question multiple times,
当一个人多次遇到被迫选择的相同问题
the same person will sometimes change their answer.
他有时也会改变答案
Given these design flaws, it’s no surprise that test results can be inconsistent.
基于这些设计缺陷 这些测试结果不一致也就不足为奇了
One study found that nearly half of people who take the Myers-Briggs a second time
有一项研究显示接近一半的人会做两次MBTI
only five weeks after the first get assigned a different type.
仅仅五周之后就会测试出与第一次不同的人格类型
And other studies on the Myers-Briggs have found that people with very similar scores
另一项研究显示即使是有着非常相近MBTI分数的人
end up being placed in different categories,
实际其实是不同的人格类型
suggesting that the strict divisions between personality types
这表明人格类型虽被严格划分
don’t reflect real-life nuances.
但却没有反映出真实生活中的细微差别
Complicating matters further,
更深一步地说
the definitions of personality traits are constantly shifting.
个性特征的定义一直在变化
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung,
瑞士精神病学家卡尔•荣格
who popularized the terms introvert and extrovert,
他普及了内向和外向这两个术语
defined an introvert as someone who sticks to their principles
他把内向定义为不管所处环境
regardless of situation,
都坚持自己的原则
and an extrovert as someone who molds their self according to circumstance.
外向则是根据环境来塑造自己
Introversion later came to mean shyness, while an extrovert was someone outgoing.
后来内向意味着害羞 而外向代表着开朗外放
Today, an introvert is someone who finds alone time restorative,
如今 内向者指需要通过独处来获得能量的人
an extrovert draws energy from social interaction,
外向者指通过社交来获得能量的人
and an ambivert falls somewhere between these two extremes.
而中向性格者则处在这两种极端之间
The notion of an innate, unchanging personality
先天人格固有不变的观念
forms the basis of all these tests.
构成了所有这些测试的基础
But research increasingly suggests that personality shifts during key periods—
但是更进一步的研究显示人格会在关键时期转变
like our school years, or when we start working.
比如我们的学生时期 或者我们刚开始工作的时期
Though certain features of a person’s behavior
虽然一个人的某些行为特征
may remain relatively stable over time,
随着时间的推移 可能会保持相对稳定
others are malleable, moulded by our upbringing, life experiences, and age.
但另一些则是可塑的 受所受教育 生活经历和年龄的影响
All of this matters more or less depending on how a personality test is used.
这些或多或少取决于人格测试的使用方式
Though anyone using them should take the results with a grain of salt,
虽然所有使用这些测试的人都应对其结果有所保留
there isn’t much harm in individual use—
但个人测试一下倒是无妨
and users may even learn some new terms and concepts in the process.
使用者在测试的过程中甚至能学到一些新术语或概念
But the use of personality tests extends far beyond self discovery.
同时人格测试远不止认识自我这一项用处
Schools use them to advise students what to study and what jobs to pursue.
学校通过它来建议学生的求学和求职
Companies use them decide who to hire and for what positions.
公司通过它来决定员工雇佣及其职位
Yet the results don’t predict how a person will perform in a specific role.
但测试结果不能预测一个人在特定角色中的表现
So by using personality tests this way,
因此通过这种方式进行人格测试
institutions can deprive people of opportunities they’d excel at,
机构可能会剥夺人们擅长领域的工作机会
or discourage them from considering certain paths.
或不鼓励他们考虑某些可行的道路

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视频概述

介绍了主流性格测试如MBTI是如何被设计的以及他们的缺陷,如果你对性格测试感兴趣,看完本视频,对它一定会有新的认识!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Vox

审核员

审核员YUWI

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lN7Fmt1i5TI

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