ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

我们的感官是否完整的呈现了世界? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

我们的感官是否完整的呈现了世界?

Do Our Senses Reveal the World—Or Do They Obscure It? | Beau Lotto

客观世界是否存在呢?
Is there an external reality?
当然
Of course there’s an external reality.
世界是存在的
The world exists.
只是我们看不到它
It’s just that we don’t see it.
至少我们没有看到它真实的一面
At least, we don’t see it as it is.
事实上 我们不可能看到它的本来面目
In fact, we can never it as it is!
其实看不见也是有好处的
In fact it’s even useful to not see it as it is.
因为哲学家贝克莱认为
And the reason is because it goes back to really Berkeley, who tells us we have no direct
我们只能通过感官直接进入到物质世界中去
access to that physical world other than through our senses.
我们的感官合并了世界的多重部分
And because our senses conflate multiple aspects of that world we can never know whether our
因此无法判断感觉是否在任何情况下都是正确的
perceptions are in any way accurate.
它成为了一个很深层次的问题
And so this has always been a very deep question.
问题不是 我们真的正确观察到这个世界了吗
It’s not so much “Do we see the world in the way it really is?” but “Do we actually
而是 我们认识世界的方式是正确的吗
even see it accurately?”.
答案是 不是
And the answer is no, we don’t.
因此如果我们认识到我们的眼睛看到 皮肤感受到 耳朵听到的信息
So if we remember that the information that’s coming on to your eye or onto your skin or
是毫无意义的(因为它可以意味着任何事)
into your ears is inherently meaningless (because it could mean anything) then it means that
那就意味着我们需要更多种类的数据去形成有益行为
we need another kind of data in order to be able to generate behaviors that are useful.
这些数据是有历史存在必要的 这意味着你的大脑的功能结构
And that data is necessarily historical, which means that the functional structure of your
的确是你过去与世界相互作用的物质表现
brain is really a physical manifestation of your past interactions with the world, and
并且它是物质的 活跃的交流
it’s a physical, active interaction.
它不是像脸书广播那样被动接收数据
It’s not passive, receiving data like a Facebook broadcast, it’s an active engagement
而是活跃地参与着这个世界
with that world.
举个例子 七十年代有个著名的实验
So, for instance, if you take—there’s a well-known experiment back in the 70s where
你有两只刚出生 才睁眼的小猫
you had two kittens: recently born, eyes just open.
一直能在地上活蹦乱跳
And you had one kitten that was effectively running on the ground, right, perfectly fine.
另一只一直装在篮子里
And you had another one that was in a basket.
篮子里的这只猫与外面的这只相互联系
And the one in the basket was connected to the one on the ground, which meant that wherever
外面这只猫去哪篮子里的猫就在哪
the one in the basket went it was because it was where the one on the ground also went.
它们对世界有着相同的视觉历史
The point is that they had the same visual history of the world.
一段时间后 测试外面小猫的视力
Then after a period of time you test the vision of the one on the ground, and it seems fine,
结果很好
as you would expect.
但问题是 篮子里的猫能看见什么呢?
But the question is: what does the one in the basket see?
答案是它什么也看不到
And the answer is that it doesn’t see anything.
它变盲了 因为它从来没有物质性地得到
It’s blind, because it’s never been able to physically engage with the sources of this
这些信息源 也就无法将它们转化为有意义的信息
meaningless information and make meaning from it.
当把它放到地面上时 它开始能看见了
So then when you let it run around, it learns to see again.
有时人们很难理解 为什么大脑接收的信息是无意义的
Now sometimes it’s really difficult for people to understand that the data that your
因为他们睁开眼睛四处扫视时
brain is receiving is meaningless, because when they open their eyes they look around
他们会说 我能看见一切
and they say, “Well I see everything!
为什么你说这毫无意义呢?
What do you mean it’s meaningless?”
举个最简单也最基础的例子
So a really simple example, in fact it’s possibly one of the most fundamental examples,
颜色
is color.
想想裙装门 我发现它的力量十分强大
So actually if you think about what they call “Dressgate”, right—the power of that
因为我们对幻觉很熟悉
I found really remarkable, because we’re all familiar with illusions and we’re all
我们认为法国人和英国人之间
quite happy with the idea that someone who was a French speaker has a different word,
同样的话会反映不同的意思
different meaning than someone who’s an English speaker.
我们认为事物是有文化差异的
Because we’re quite happy that things that are very cultural or in our own experience
我们经历有所不同 就有不同的想法
we can experience differently or we can have different concepts.
但是只要人们意识到他们对颜色有不同的认知
But as soon as people realize that you can have different color perceptions, that really
他们就会感受到挑战了 因为这意味着
challenged them because it means if that’s true, what does it mean for the perception
如果这是真的 那么他们对客观现实的认知也可能各有不同
of reality, right?
颜色是一个既直观又抽象的概念
So color is a wonderful concept because it’s both very literal and abstract.
对于颜色来说正确的观点对于我们看见的一切都适用
And what’s true for color is true for everything about what we see.
那么我们对于颜色认知的来源是什么呢
So take, for instance—what is the source of our perception of color?
是光
It’s light.
是400-700纳米的光
And it’s light from 400 to 700 nanometers, which is actually a very tiny window of electromagnetic
电磁辐射中的一个小窗
radiation.
因此即便这样 凭着理论探测的潜能
So even at that point we’re seeing a tiny window within the potential energy that we
我们能够观察这扇小窗
could in theory detect.
而且 这是一个400-700纳米之间 从小到大的线性标尺
What’s more, that’s a linear scale from 400 to 700, from small to large.
但是颜色起源于光这一认知并不简单
But our perception of color, which starts with light, is anything but simple.
实际上 它是我们大脑中三处空间感知共同作用的结果
In fact, it’s a three-dimensional perceptual space inside our head.
比如 你有一个亮度标准轴
So, for instance, you have a brightness axis, which is intensity.
一个能展现颜色灰度的饱和轴
You have a saturation axis, which is how much gray is in the color: So a fire engine is
因此消防车是不饱和的 或者是饱和的红色
very unsaturated or rather a very saturated red.
由于灰度的存在 粉色是相对不饱和的红色
And a pink is a relatively unsaturated red, it has gray in it.
现在你有了红色 绿色 蓝色和黄色
And then you have hue, which is red, green, blue and yellow.
重要的是 物理光谱的两端
What’s remarkable is that the two ends of the spectrum, the physical spectrum, say short
一端是短波长(我们感知为紫色和蓝色)
wavelengths (which we perceive to be violet and blue) and the other end of the spectrum
另一端我们感知为红色 相比于光谱中间部分
(which we perceive to be red) are actually perceptually more similar to each other than
我们对两端的感知更相似一些
they are to the middle part of the spectrum, which means that our perception of color is
这意味着我们对颜色的感知是一个循环
a circle.
这意味着 最长的和最短的刺激在感知上是类似的
Which means the largest and the smallest stimuli are actually perceptually similar to each
就像一千米感觉和一千千米一样长
other, which is like one kilo feeling a lot like a thousand kilos and very different from
却不像五百千米那样
five hundred kilos, right?
最基础的观点就是
So even at that most basic level what we’re seeing is not what’s actually even in the
我们看到的并不是刺激源中实际存在的
stimulus.
我们对于颜色的感知是绝对的
What’s more is our perception of color is categorical.
你可以定义任何一个颜色为红色 绿色 蓝色和黄色
You can define every color in terms of red, green, blue and yellow.
每个分类又被我们定义出独特的色调
And each category is defined by what we call unique hue.
红色只有一个色调
A perception of redness, that has no other hue in it.
橘色却是红色和黄色的混合
Whereas orange, you can perceive sort of a combination of red and yellow.
但是红色当中你只能看到红色
But with red you only see red.
黄色你只能看见黄色
Yellow you only see yellow.
对于光谱来说
But there’s nothing unique about spectra.
没有什么是独一无二的和绝对的
There’s nothing categorical about spectra.
它们的分布是持续不断的
They’re continuous distributions, right.
在这个最基础的水平上
So at this most basic level we don’t represent even the information we’re getting in any
我们不能认定我们得到的信息是正确的
accurate way.
因为这样看待它是有好处的
And the reason is because it was useful to see it this way.
我们观察的是数据的实用性 而非数据本身
So we’re seeing the utility of the data, not the data.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

视频介绍了感官中的世界与世界本身存在差异的论点,并通过颜色 光谱等例子进行论述。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

半旧

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J07XGg6Rnzo

相关推荐