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生理周期真的很准时吗 – 译学馆
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生理周期真的很准时吗

Do Menstrual Cycles Really Sync Up?

我们都听过这些故事:
We’ve all heard these stories:
同居的人们连生理期到的时间也是一样的
People that live together have their periods together.
平均28天左右为一月经周期:当成堆的细胞组织开始脱落时
An average menstrual cycle lasts around 28 days: it starts with shedding built-up tissue
子宫内再次为受孕做准备
in the womb, then prepping for pregnancy again.
相对而言 某些人生理周期较长 而有些人的则较短
But one person might have a relatively long cycle, where someone else has a shorter cycle
不同人的经期会在月与月之间波动
— and they fluctuate month to month.
所以让经期同步的科学依据是什么…难道这只是个谜?
So what’s the scientific basis for menstrual cycles syncing up … or is it just a myth?
第一次关于这人体现象的文章在1971年被发表在科技杂志
The first publication about this phenomenon in humans was in 1971, in the scientific journal
《自然》上
Nature.
据说 心理学家Martha McClintock还是大学生时
Psychologist Martha McClintock was supposedly inspired by what she noticed as an undergraduate
她在女子学校中
at a women’s school:
她的所有好友似乎都在同一时间来月经
All of her close friends seemed to get their periods at the same time.
她为此以Wellesley大学的同一宿舍楼的135名学生为研究对象展开一项研究
So, she did a study, and surveyed 135 students in a dorm at her alma mater, Wellesley College.
她一学年3次询问他们上两次月经来的时间
Three times during the academic year, she asked them for information: when their last
他们都是和谁一起出去玩的
two periods were, and who they were hanging out with.
然后 McClintock分析了这些数据 观察在密友之间生理期是如何改变的
Then, McClintock analyzed these data to see how menstrual cycles changed in close friend groups.
十月 刚刚开学 她发现许多朋友
In October, near the start of the school year, she found that groups of friends had cycles
的生理期平均都相隔了6.4天
that were off by an average of 6.4 days.
到了4月份 许多朋友生理期时间更相近 平均都相隔了4.6天
By April, groups of friends had periods closer together — only about 4.6 days apart.
这看上去他们的生理期同步了
So it seemed like their menstrual cycles were syncing up, and this phenomenon was dubbed
McClintock效应 尽管它更以“经期同步”而出名
the McClintock effect, though it’s more formally known as menstrual synchrony.
但是使经期同步的根源还是个迷
But the driving force was still a mystery.
一些研究员 包括McClintock 猜测是一种信息素造成的
Some researchers, including McClintock, hypothesized that pheromones were involved.
信息素是一种由动物产生且能被其他同类动物探测到的一种化学物质
Pheromones are chemical substances that are released by an animal and detected by others
它能引起动物们一些行为上或心理上的反应
in the same species, causing a behavioral or physiological reaction.
一些动物用信息素交流 这种交流在群居的昆虫中非常普遍
Some animals use them to communicate, and they’re common in lots of social insects,
比如说蚂蚁或蜜蜂
like ants or bees.
在1970年末到80年代的一些研究以及McClintock做的相关实验
A couple studies in the late 1970s and 80s, including experiments by McClintock, looked
是关于像老鼠 仓鼠 和两类非人灵长类动物这类哺乳动物的月经和信息素
into menstruation and pheromones in some mammals, like, rats, hamsters, and two non-human primates.
这些研究主要包含2到5种动物
Most of these studies involved groups of around 2 to 5 animals.
并得出结论:如果它们都呼吸相同的空气 它们的经期循环几乎会一致 这可能是因为
Their menstrual cycles seemed to align if they were breathing the same air, so maybe
空气中的信息素在作祟
airborne pheromones were involved.
但是一些研究者在上世纪九十年代末和2000年初也曾尝试重复做这个老鼠和
But researchers in the late 1990s and early 2000s tried to repeat some of the rat and
仓鼠的研究 但他们并没有能力再次证明这个结论
hamster studies, and weren’t able to reproduce the results.
没有相同的调查结果 我们不知道经期同步这一现象是否真的存在于哺乳动物之中
Without consistent findings, we can’t really know if menstrual synchrony exists in mammals,
或者它是否因信息素而起
or if it’s caused by pheromones.
不要忘了 这些被研究的动物和人类是不一样的东西
Not to mention, those animals and humans aren’t the same.
另外 我们现在仍然未知人类是否有信息素
For one thing, we still don’t really even know if humans make pheromones.
但是一些研究者坚持探索相关的人类研究 意图再次得出McClintock的
But some researchers have conducted human studies to try and replicate McClintock’s
初次结论
initial findings.
在1990年代 一支心理学家的队伍研究了一群关系亲近的女性 包括
Throughout the 1990s, a team of psychologists surveyed close-knit groups of women, including
住在同宿舍的大学生 同事 母女或是同居的百合
college students in dorms, coworkers, mothers and daughters, and lesbian couples living together.
他们中的一些月经同步了 但有些并没有
Sometimes menstrual synchrony occurred, and sometimes it didn’t.
即使到了近代2006年 科学家仍然没有办法去证明McClintock的实验结果
Even as recent as 2006, scientists haven’t been able to show that the McClintock effect
是确切的 还是存在不确定因素
is a definite thing, or pinpoint potential causes.
再加上 一些研究人员曾再次分析McClintock的初次研究 他们发现了一些原实验中
Plus, several researchers have re-analyzed McClintock’s initial study, and found some
方法上的问题
problems with her methods.
例如 某个研究人员猜测 在研究的最初 实验数据的收集和分析方式导致
One researcher, for example, suggested that how the data were collected and analyzed could’ve
经期同步性此现象扩大
exaggerated the lack of synchrony at the beginning of the study.
比如说 如果有人的月经在实验开始记录之前就开始了 那么他们的下次经期
Like, if someone had their period just before data collection started, their next cycle
就会在28天前后
would be in 28-ish days.
所以如果有人的月经在实验开始记录之后才刚好开始 这样貌似
So if someone had had their period right after data collection started, it would have seemed like
她们距离下一次月经有着约一个月的时长 而不会相差几天
there was a whole month between those cycles, rather than just a couple of days.
另外一个团队重新分析结果 发现女性月经从6.4天到4.6天的转变
Another team redid the statistical analysis, and suggested that the shift from 6.4 to 4.6
是不可能偶然发生的
days could’ve happened by chance.
当人们查找并统计一些重大的数据时 任何错误的计算和一些额外多余的数据
Any miscalculations or extra data points in a small study can make a huge difference when
在一个小小的研究中可以造成巨大的差异
it comes to finding statistically significant data.
距离上次关于月经同步性的公开发表的文章已有许多年了 而未确定的
It’s been years since the last published study on menstrual synchrony, and the inconclusive
调查结果貌似只是个巧合
results seem to suggest that it’s just a coincidence.
但为什么还是有那么多人仍然认为这现象是存在的呢?
So why do lots of people still swear that this thing exists?
这可能是因为我们的心理错觉造成的
It probably comes down to our psychological perception.
因为不同人有着不同的月经周期 可能不会完全同步
Since different people have different menstrual cycles, they might not exactly synchronize.
但是它可以分阶段地与她人同步 再变得时间上有差距
But they can phase in and out of sync.
就好比你在马路上看到红灯便止步 同时你发现自己的转向灯
It’s like when you’re stopped at a red light, and you notice your turn signal starts
与前方车辆同步闪烁
blinking in sync with the car in front of you:
但如果你再等会儿 你就会发现不是同步的
If you wait for a little bit, you’ll phase out of sync.
如果你再等久一点 你会又发现其同步闪烁了
And if you wait even longer, then you’ll be blinking in unison again.
所以如果对McClintock的实验而言 相对短期时间内研究月经周期同步性 比方说研究7或8个月
So maybe with a relatively short study on menstrual cycles — like seven or eight months
好像会有经期同步
in McClintock’s study — it might seem like there’s synchrony.
总而言之 这些”McClintock效应”没有足够确切的研究结果
Overall, it seems like the McClintock effect just doesn’t have enough conclusive research
来支撑
to back it up…
但是这研究却告诉了大家科学实验并不只是证明或反驳结论
But it does show us that a good science experiment isn’t just about proving or disproving something.
它是检查你的研究方向是否有偏差 从而设计更可控的研究
It’s about checking your biases, designing well-controlled studies that are reproducible
当然可以重复其他科学家的研究 但是要小心实验数据 总是要探寻新问题
by other scientists, being careful with your statistics, and always asking new questions.
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视频概述

涨姿势的好视频 麻麻再也不用担心我来大姨妈了

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Julia

审核员

【MR】Metro

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7uLEfTcsQg

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